دوران طلایی اسلام

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نقشه مرزهای جهان اسلام و گسترش آن در سه دوره
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دوره طلایی اسلام یا عصر شکوفایی و ترقی اسلام، دوره‌ای در تاریخ اسلام است که به‌طور سنتی از قرن هشتم تا قرن ۱۳ میلادی به طول انجامیده‌است خصوصاً قرن ۴ و ۵ هجری قمری و طی آن بسیاری از جهان تاریخی اسلامی تحت سلطه خلفا قرار گرفتند و توسعه علم، اقتصادی و کارهای فرهنگی شکوفا شد.[۱][۲][۳] هنرمندان، صنعت گران، فیلسوفان، دانش پژوهان، شاعران، جغرافی دانان، مهندسان، نویسندگان، شیمی‌دانان، فیزیک‌دانان، پزشکان، بازرگانان و دیگر دانشمندان جهان اسلام، نقش به سزایی در رشد، پیشرفت و تکامل دانش‌ها و فنونی از قبیل کشاورزی، هنر، اقتصاد، صنعت، حقوق، ادبیات، دریانوردی، فلسفه، شیمی، فیزیک، جامعه‌شناسی، پزشکی و غیره ایفا کردند.[۴]

دانشمندان مسلمان در دوران طلایی اسلام پایه‌گذار علم نجوم و ستاره‌شناسی در جهان بودند.[۵]

یکی از دلایل رشد و شکوفایی اروپا در قرون وسطی، بهره‌گیری آنان از کتاب‌های دوران طلایی اسلام بود.[۶][۷][۸]

دیدگاه پژوهشگران[ویرایش]

هووارد آر ترنر[ویرایش]

هووارد آر ترنر در اینباره می‌گوید: «هنرمندان، دانشمندان، پادشاهان و رعایای مسلمان دست به دست هم، فرهنگ و تمدن بی‌همتایی را به وجود آورده‌اند، که تمام جوامع و انسان‌های دیگر کشورها، به شکلی مستقیم و غیر مستقیم، تحت تأثیر آن قرار گرفته‌اند.»[۹]

ذبیح‌الله صفا[ویرایش]

ورق کتابی از دوران طلایی اسلام که آماده‌سازی نوعی دارو را نمایش می‌دهد.
متعلق به قرن ۱۳ میلادی

ذبیح‌الله صفا می‌نویسد: «تمدن اسلامی به درجه‌ای از عظمت و در مرتبتی از کمال و پهناوری است که آگهی از همه ابواب و احاطه بر همه انحاء آن به واقع دشوار است و اگر کسی یافته شود که درصدد این ادعا برآید باید به قلت اطلاع و گستاخی وی حکم کرد. مهمترین عنصر از عناصر این تمدن، علوم شرعی و عقلی و ادبی آن است که به زبان‌های عربی و فارسی تألیف و تدوین شده‌است»[۱۰]

سیدحسن تقی‌زاده[ویرایش]

حسن تقی‌زاده دربارهٔ تمدن اسلامی می‌نویسد: «بعد از تمدن یونانی تا ظهور تمدن جدید اروپایی در چند قرن اخیر، بزرگترین و عالیترین و پرمایه‌ترین تمدن‌های عالم، تمدن اسلامی بین قرن دوم تا هفتم (هجری) بود که رونق علوم و فنون عقلی در آن… به بالاترین درجهٔ کمال رسید و… اساس تمدن اروپایی هم تا آنجا که به علوم و فنون است به وسیلهٔ ترجمهٔ کتب علمی عربی از قرن یازدهم و دوازدهم مسیحی… پیدا شده»[۱۱]

دیدگاه مرتضی مطهری[ویرایش]

مرتضی مطهری می‌نویسد: «پس از ظهور اسلام و تشکیل حکومت اسلامی و گرد آمدن ملل گوناگون در زیر یک پرچم به نام پرچم اسلام تمدنی عظیم و شکوهمند و بسیار کم‌نظیر به وجود آمد که باعث جامعه‌شناسی و تاریخ آن را به نام تمدن اسلامی می‌شناسد.»[۱۲][منبع نامعتبر؟]

شالوده و دگرگونی‌های آغازین[ویرایش]

در خلال پیروزی‌های مسلمانان در آغاز قرن هفتم و نهم میلادی، سپاه اسلام، امپراطوری یا خلافت اسلام را که یکی از بزرگترین امپراطوری‌های تاریخ به‌شمار می‌رود، تأسیس کرد و آن را به تدریج گسترش داد. در قرن هشتم میلادی یعنی اوج حکومت خلفای عباسی، مرکز امپراطوری اسلامی از دمشق به شهر تازه تأسیس بغداد منتقل شد. دانشگاه‌های بغداد آغازگر دوره طلایی اسلام می‌باشند. خلفای عباسی تحت تأثیر احکام قرآن و احادیث و گفتاوردهای اسلامی بودند. در طول این دوره طلایی، جهان اسلام تبدیل به قطب دانش، پژوهش و روشنفکری گردید و علوم و فنونی نظیر زراعت، هنر، اقتصاد، موسیقی، معماری، صنعت، حقوق، تاریخ، جامعه‌شناسی، زیست‌شناسی، ریاضیات، ادبیات، دریانوردی، فلسفه، شیمی، فیزیک، پزشکی، نجوم، علوم دینی، اخلاق، منطق و غیره گسترش داده شد. شهر بغداد در دوره هارون الرشید خلیفه عباسی، به اوج پیشرفت و شکوفایی خود رسد.

کتاب راهنمای گیاهان دارویی به زبان عربی مربوط به دوران طلایی اسلام

هارون الرشید علاوه بر دعوت از دانشمندان و محققین، به گردآوری و برگردان کتاب‌های خطی از زبان سریانی، یونانی و پهلوی به عربی فرمان داد. پس از هارون، پسرش مأمون، بیت‌الحکمه (خانهٔ دانش) بغداد را بنیان نهاد و دستور ساخت رصدخانه‌ای را صادر کرد. این اقدامات باعث مهاجرت دانشمندان از جای‌جای جهان به سوی بغداد و رونق آموزش و پژوهش شد. این اقدام به جنبش و نهضت ترجمه نیز مشهور است. بسیاری از آثار عهد عتیق و روزگار باستان که به دست فراموشی سپرده شده بودند، به زبان عربی و بعدها به زبان‌های فارسی، سندی، عبری، ترکی و لاتین ترجمه شدند. علوم گوناگون و عهد باستان میانرودان (بین‌النهرین)، روم، یونان، چین، هند، ایران زمین، مصر، شمال آفریقا و تمدن بیزانس درآمیخته شدند. در دوران خلافت امویان در آندولوس و حکمرانی فاطمیان در مصر، شهرهای کوردبا و قاهره به عنوان مراکز علمی و دانشگاهی در حوزه‌های متعدد فعالیت پژوهشی داشتند.[۱۳] برنارد لوئیس دربارهٔ این مراکز علمی و دانشجویان آن‌ها می‌گوید:[۱۴]

در دوران طلایی اسلام، خلیفه به عنوان شخص اول روشن بین و متمدن، برای نخستین بار، دانشجویان و محققین مختلف را از سرتاسر دنیا مثل چین، هند، خاورمیانه، شمال آفریقا، اروپا و آسیای میانه گرد هم جمع نمود.

یکی از بزرگ‌ترین ابداعات در این دوره مهم کاغذ بود. کالایی که رمز و راز تولید آن سال‌ها در نزد چینی‌ها پنهان مانده بود. فوت و فن صنعت کاغذسازی را اسیران جنگ تالاس (۷۵۱ میلادی) به مسلمانان آموختند که بعداً این صنعت به سمرقند و بغداد روانه شد. اعراب با گسترش شیوه‌های چینی و استفاده از پوست درخت توت این صنعت را کامل کردند. مسلمانان با استفاده از نشاسته و آهار کتاب‌ها را صحافی می‌کردند. حدود سال ۹۰۰ میلادی، صدها مغازه کتاب فروشی که کتاب‌هایی با نسخ خطی می‌فروختند در بغداد وجود داشت. همچنین کتابخانه‌های عمومی، شامل کتب متنوعی در زمینه‌های گوناگون بودند. در قرن سیزدهم میلادی، حرفه کاغذسازی از ممالک مسلمان به فز و از آنجا به آندولوس و اروپا گسترش پیدا کرد.[۱۵]

کتابی دربارهٔ علم طب از محمد زکریای رازی که در میانه دوم قرن سیزدهم میلادی به زبان ایتالیایی ترجمه شده‌است

دانش نقشه‌برداری و مکان نگاری، کمک بسیاری در توسعه و پیشرفت مسلمانان ایفا کرد. حتی پیش از ظهور اسلام، شهر مکه به عنوان مرکز بازرگانی دنیای عرب محسوب می‌شد. رسم و سنت زیارت کعبه، این شهر را به مرکز تبادل افکار و کالا تبدیل کرده بود. بازرگانان مسلمان تأثیر شگرفی بر تجارت و شاه راه‌های بازرگانی عربی آفریقایی و عربی آسیایی گذاشتند. بر عکس مسیحیان، هندیان و چینیان که جوامع شان بر مزرعه داری خانوادگی و کشاورزی اجدادی پایه‌ریزی شده بود، در جهان اسلام، تاجران مسلمان با تجارت و بازاریابی در دوران طلایی اسلام، نقش اساسی را در تشکیل، رشد و گسترش مدنیت و تمدن اسلامی، بازی کردند. بازرگانان با آوردن کالا و انجام تجارت صادقانه، اعتماد چینی‌ها، هندی‌ها، مردم غرب آفریقا و جنوب شرق آسیا را به خود جلب کردند و در عوض ابداعات و اختراعات آن‌ها را به سرزمین‌های اسلامی به ارمغان آوردند. تجار مسلمان با سرمایه‌گذاری در صنعت نساجی و کشاورزی گام‌های نخستین را در ایجاد دوران طلایی اسلام برداشتند. جدا از بازرگانان مسلمان، مبلغان مذهبی اسلام نیز نقش عمده‌ای را در ارسال پیام اسلام به نقاط متفاوت جهان بازی کردند. عمده‌ترین این سرزمین‌ها، میان رودان باستان (بین‌النهرین)، ایران زمین، آسیای مرکزی و شمال آفریقا بودند. همچنین عارفین و سالکان مذهبی نفوذ قابل توجه‌ای در قسمت‌های متعددی از شرق آفریقا، آناتولی باستانی (ترکیه)، جنوب آسیا، جنوب شرق آسیا و شرق آسیا داشتند.[۱۶][۱۷]

اصول و مبنا[ویرایش]

دست نوشته‌ای از ابویوسف کندی که در رابطه با دانش رمزنگاری است.

تعداد زیادی از اندیشمندان مسلمان علاوه بر اصول ارزشی دین خود، عقاید و دانش اخلاق متفکرین گذشته را که بر پایه اصول بشر دوستانه عقلانی و مباحثات علمی مستدل بنا شده بود، پیگیری کرده و آن‌ها را مبنای پژوهش‌های خودشان قرار دادند. آثار زیادی از نوشته جات و کتاب‌های اسلامی از قرون میانه اسلامی (دوره طلایی اسلام) بر جای مانده‌است که به موضوعاتی نظیر شعر، عشق، تاریخ، فلسفه، ادبیات، خداشناسی و غیره پرداخته‌اند. مروری بر این آثار، آزادی اندیشه‌های متفاوت را در آن عصر بازگو می‌کند.[۱۸][۱۹] وجود آزادی دینی، اگرچه که هنوز جوامع جهان اسلام در کنترل ارزش‌های اسلامی بودند، کمک بزرگی در توسعه ارتباطات ادیان و اختلاط فرهنگ و خرد مسیحی، یهودی و اسلام کرد و این آغازگر یک دوره جدید فلسفی و فکری در سده‌های میانی یعنی قرن هشتم تا سیزدهم میلادی بود.[۱۳] دلیل دیگری که باعث رشد جهان اسلام در این برهه زمانی شد، آزادی بیان و سخنوری بود.[۲۰]

نخستین رساله‌ها و دانش نویسه‌ها، دربارهٔ علم محیط زیست و دانشمندان علوم محیط زیست، که مخصوصاً در رابطه با آلودگی زیست‌محیطی مطرح شد، توسط ابویوسف کندی، محمد زکریای رازی، ابن الجزار القیروانی، بنی تمیم، ابوسهل مسیحی جرجانی، ابن سینا، علی بن رضوان، عبداللطیف البغدادی و ابن النفیس به رشته تحریر درآمد. مقالات آن‌ها همچنین موضوعات مختلفی را از قبیل آلودگی هوا، آلودگی آب، آلودگی خاک و سوء مدیریت شهری تشریح کرده بود.[۲۱] شهرهای کوردوبا و آندولوس که جزء ممالک اسلامی محسوب می‌شدند، دارای سطل‌های زباله بودند.[۲۲]

مؤسسات آموزشی و نهادها[ویرایش]

مدرسه رکنیه در دمشق ساخته سال ۱۲۲۴ میلادی

تعدادی از مراکز علمی و آموزشی که سابقاً در دنیای قدیم گمنام بودند، خاستگاه‌شان از سال‌های نخستین عصر طلایی اسلام نشأت می‌گیرد. بارزترین مثالی که در این زمینه می‌توان گفت، بیمارستان‌های عمومی است که به جای معابد شفاء و معابد خواب و استراحت، تأسیس گردید.[۲۳] هچنین بیمارستان‌های مربوط به بیماری‌های روانی نیز در آن دوره ساخته شد.[۲۴] از دیگر مراکز علمی پژوهشی که در دوران طلایی اسلام بنیان نهاده شد، کتابخانه‌های عمومی (با قابلیت امانت دهی کتاب)، دانشگاه‌ها (با اعطاء درجه‌های علمی به دانشجویان) و رصدخانه‌های نجوم به عنوان مراکز پژوهشی را می‌توان نام برد.[۲۳] تفاوت آشکاری که رصدخانه‌های عصر شکوفایی اسلام با رصد خانه‌های کهن داشتند، غیر خصوصی بودن این‌گونه مراکز بود.[۲۵] در دوران طلایی اسلام حدود قرن نهم میلادی، نخستین دانشگاه‌هایی که به دانشجویان خود مدرک تحصیلی پزشکی اعطاء می‌کردند تحت عنوان بیمارستان بر پا شدند. این مراکز دو منظوره بوده و حالت دانشگاه-بیمارستان داشتند.[۲۶] کتاب گینس که رکوردهای دنیا در آن ثبت می‌شود، دانشگاه قرویین (تأسیس ۸۵۹ میلادی) واقع در شهر فز مراکش را به عنوان کهن‌ترین دانشگاهی که مدرک تحصیلی به دانشجویان خود اعطاء می‌کرد، معرفی نمود.[۲۷] دانشگاه الازهر که در سال ۹۷۵ میلادی در قاهره بنا شد، در رشته‌های گوناگون دانشگاهی، مدارک تحصیلی به دانشجویان خود اعطاء می‌کرد. این مدارک شامل مدارک تخصص تری و ارشد (کارشناسی ارشد امروزی) نیز می‌شد. دانشگاه الازهر به عنوان یک دانشگاه کامل در دنیا شناخته شده‌است. خاستگاه و اصل درجه و مدرک دکترا به مجوز و مدرکی با نام اجازه (به عربی: الإِجازَة) بر می‌گردد. دانش آموختگانی که این مدرک را اخذ می‌کردند اجازه داشتند در مدارس اسلامی به نشر آراء و افکار خود و همچنین تدریس علوم مربوطه به پردازند.[۲۸]

گفته شده‌است کتابخانه طرابلس در لبنان تا قبل از جنگ‌های صلیبی حدود ۳ میلیون کتاب داشته‌است. این کتابخانه در جریان جنگ‌های صلیبی ویران شد. در این میان آثار بسیار مهمی به زبان عربی دربارهٔ علوم ریاضیات وجود داشت که تعدادشان به‌طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای از مجموع کتاب‌های لاتین و یونانی قرون وسطی بیشتر بود. البته تعداد کمی از این کتاب‌ها در دانشگاه‌های عصر حاضر تدریس می‌شود.[۲۹] به عنوان مثال جمیل رجب کارشناس تاریخ علوم دانشگاه مک گیل در این زمینه می‌گوید: «کمتر از پنج درصد از کتاب‌های موجود قرون وسطی اسلامی در حال تدریس می‌باشند.»[۳۰] سهیم الحسنی پروفسور و مهندس مکانیک اماراتی دانشگاه منچستر در اینباره می‌گوید: «تعداد پنجاه هزار نسخه خطی به جا مانده مورد بازبینی قرار گرفته‌اند و هنوز پنج میلیون نسخه در نوبت بازبینی قرار دارد.»[۳۱] در جریان جنگ‌های صلیبی یک صد هزار جلد از کتاب‌های دارالعلم غارت شده یا به آتش کشیده می‌شود.[۳۲] نخستین بیمارستان مسلمانان در سال ۸۸ هجری قمری در زمان خلافت امویان تأسیس شد، طی این دوران بیش از ۶۰ بیمارستان در بغداد و ۳۳ بیمارستان در قاهره ساخته شد.[۳۳] در دوران طلایی اسلام مراکز حقوقی ویژه‌ای تأسیس شدند که به امور خیریه، وقف و امور حقوقی می‌پرداختند. همچنین مراکز حواله پول، حل اختلاف و دادخواهی نیز بنا شدند.[۳۴][۳۵][۳۶][۳۷]

دریاهای دانش و حکیمان چند علمی[ویرایش]

ساعت شمعی بدیع‌الزمان جزری ۱۲۰۶ میلادی

از دیگر ویژگی‌های دوران طلایی اسلام، وجود دانشمندان، حکیمان و دانش پژوهانی است که در چندین دانش متفاوت سر رشته داشته و در آن سرآمد روزگار خویش بودند. این حکیمان هم در علوم مادی و فیزیکی و هم در علوم دینی و متافیزیکی، در شاخه‌های متعدد، دخیل بوده و پژوهش‌های ارزنده‌ای می‌کردند. مثالی که در این زمینه در دنیای غرب، در دوره رنسانس می‌توان نام برد، لئوناردو دا وینچی می‌باشد.[۳۸][۳۹] در خلال دوران طلایی اسلام، تعداد حکیمان و پژوهشگرانی که در چند زمینه علمی فعالیت داشتند بسیار بیشتر از دانشمندانی بودند که تنها در یک رشته تخصصی تحقیق و مطالعه می‌کردند.[۳۸] از این میان می‌توان ابوریحان بیرونی، جاحظ، ابویوسف کندی، ابن سینا، شریف ادریسی، ابن باجه، ابن زهر، ابن طفیل، ابن رشد، جلال‌الدین سیوطی،[۴۰] جابر بن حیان،[۴۱] عباس بن فرناس،[۴۲] ابن هیثم،[۴۳] ابن نفیس،[۴۴] ابن خلدون،[۴۵] محمد بن موسی خوارزمی، علی بن حسین مسعودی، مقدسی، بدیع‌الزمان جزری فخر رازی، محمد بن جریر طبری، خواجه نصیر طوسی و شیخ بهائی [۳۸] را نام برد.

اقتصاد[ویرایش]

دوران اکتشاف[ویرایش]

امپراطوری اسلامی در طول دوران طلایی اسلام نقش بسیار کلیدی را در جهانی سازی بازی کرده‌است. بازرگانان و جهانگردان مسلمان، به وسیله اقتصاد، دانش و تجارت، کشورها و تمدنهای گوناگون و جدا افتاده را از سر تا سر دنیا به هم پیوند زدند.[۴۶] گستره شبکه جهانی تجارت مسلمانان از سواحل شرقی اقیانوس اطلس آغاز و پس از گذشتن از دریای مدیترانه و میان رودان (خاورمیانه) تا هند و چین ادامه داشت.[۴۷] این شبکه بازرگانی جهانی نقش مهم و کلیدی را در برقراری و حفظ امپراطوری‌های اسلامی ایفا کرد. تجارت مسلمین به عنوان یک قدرت اقتصادی پیشرو در طول قرون هفتم تا سیزدهم میلادی، ابزار بسیار مهم و عامل کلیدی شد تا به کمک آن امپراطوری‌های اسلامی عباسی، اموی و فاطمی بنا شده و به سهولت بیشتری به اهداف سیاسی و حکومتی خود برسند.[۴۶]

آسیاب آبی حماة بر روی رود العاصی Orontes River در کشور سوریه، دستگاه‌های آسیاب آبی (چرخ آب‌کشی) Noria، ساقیه Sakia، پمپ زنجیری Chain pump در انقلاب کشاورزی مسلمانان توسط مهندسان مسلمان ابداع و به‌طور گسترده در آبیاری و کشاورزی مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند.

انقلاب و دگرگونی‌های کشاورزی[ویرایش]

در دوران طلایی اسلام، دگرگونی‌های بزرگ کشاورزی تحت عنوان «انقلاب کشاورزی اعراب» رخ داد.[۴۸] بازرگانان مسلمان با گسترش و انتشار روش‌ها و تکنیک‌های صنعت کشاورزی و همچنین انتشار بذرهای گوناگون کشاورزی انقلابی را در نشر محصولات کشاورزی ایفا کردند. تجار مسلمان با خرید بذرهای سورقوم از سرزمین‌های آفریقایی، مرکبات از چین، نیشکر، پنبه و برنج از هند و با فروش و پخش آن در سرزمین‌های اسلامی که قبلاً" این محصولات کشت نمی‌شد، محصولات زراعتی را در دیگر بلاد اسلام منتشر کردند.[۴۹] این تغییرات بزرگ کشاورزی، علاوه بر گسترش زراعت و محصولات کشاورزی، موجب گسترش و توسعه اقتصاد، پراکندگی و افزایش جمعیت، تغییر در پوشش‌های گیاهی،[۵۰] افزایش تولید و درآمد کشاورزی، رشد زندگی شهری، گسترش و قوت نیروی کارگری، توسعه آشپزی و تنوع غذایی، گسترش صنعت نساجی و پوشاک و بهبود و بالاتر رفتن سطح زندگی در جهان اسلام گردید.[۴۹] در قرن هشتم میلادی، در خلال انقلاب کشاورزی، صنعت تصفیه نی شکر و چغندرقند توسعه پیدا کرد و این دو محصول به صورت شکر تجاری درآمدند. اعراب صنعت تولید شکر را توسعه دادند و با گسترش مزارع نی شکر و چغندر قند، صنعت تولید شکر و محصولات تابعه آن را در جهان اسلام انتشار دادند.[۵۱] برای نخستین بار مسلمانان «کشاورزی تجاری» را مرسوم کردند و محصولات زراعی را علاوه بر احتیاجات خانوادگی، به منظور کالایی برای فروش، تولید کردند.[۵۲] کشاورزان چندین بار در سال و به صورت چهار فصل از مزارع محصولاتی نظیر اسفناج، بادمجان و غیره به دست می‌آوردند. در یمن گندم و در عراق برنج، دو بار در سال از یک مزرعه درو می‌شد.[۴۹] مسلمانان یک روش علمی را در کشاورزی توسعه دادند که این روش بر سه عامل اصلی و بنیادی بنا شده بود. نخستین عامل، سامانه پیچیده و تخصصی گردش سالانه کشت محصولات است، دومین عامل، روش کاملاً توسعه یافته آبیاری است و سومین عامل، ارائه تنوع زیادی از محصولات کشاورزی است. مسلمانان زراعت را با علم به اینکه چه محصولی را در چه فصلی، در چه زمینی و با چه میزان آبی آبیاری کنند، انجام می‌دادند. در دانشنامه‌ها، موارد بی‌شماری به تفصیل در رابطه با کشاورزی و گیاه‌شناسی ارائه شده‌است.

سکه طلا دینار دوره اغلبیان ضرب شده در سال ۸۹۹

اقتصاد و بازار[ویرایش]

نخستین شکل نظام سرمایه داری و بازار آزاد در زمان سلسله‌های اسلامی و دوران طلایی اسلام شکل گرفت.[۵۳] در خلال قرن هشتم تا دوازدهم میلادی، ممالک اسلامی جایی برای نخستین بازارهای تجاری، دادوستد و سرمایه داری درآمدند، که از آن به عنوان «سرمایه داری اسلامی» یاد می‌شود.[۵۴] در دوران طلایی اسلام یک اقتصاد پولی قدرتمند بر پایه چرخش پولی (دینار) حکم‌فرما بود. ممالک و قلمروهای مختلف اسلامی که قبلاً خودمختار و مستقل بودند دارای یک سیستم یک‌پارچه اقتصادی و پولی با واحد پولی مشترک شدند.

رشد صنعتی[ویرایش]

کالبدشناسی اسب حدود یک قرن پس از دوران طلایی اسلام. سده ۱۵ (میلادی). این تصویر یک سند مصری است که در کتابخانه دانشگاه استانبول نگهداری می‌گردد.

در دوران طلایی اسلام انرژی آبی، انرژی بادی و انرژی جزر و مدی، انواع انرژی‌های گوناگون جهت استفاده برای انواع آسیاب و کارخانه‌های متعدد بودند.[۵۵] در خلال سده یازدهم میلادی استفاده از آسیاب‌های آبی و بادی در جای جای سرزمین‌های اسلامی مثل شمال آفریقا، اندلس، آسیای مرکزی و میان‌رودان کاربرد فراوانی پیدا کرده بود.[۵۶] مهندسان مسلمان در این برهه زمانی موفق به اختراع توربین آبی و میل‌لنگ شدند. آنان از چرخ‌دنده‌ها در اقسام آسیاب و دستگاه‌های بالابرنده آب استفاده کردند. مهندسین دوران طلایی اسلام در استفاده از سدهای آبی به عنوان تأمین‌کننده انرژی آبی پیشرو بودند و برای انواع آسیاب و دستگاه‌های بالابرنده آب، انرژی افزوده تولید کردند.[۵۷]

تمدن اسلامی[ویرایش]

بعضی وقت ها کلمه یا عباراتی هستند که در نظر همه شفاف و ساده اند. واژه هایی که نیاز به تعبیر و تفسیر ندارند و خیلی نمی شود از دیدگاه های متفاوتی آن ها را شرح داد.

اما قطعا عبارت یا واژه تمدن اسلامی یکی از این واژه های ساده و شفاف نیست. مشکل بشود کسی را پیدا کرد که بتواند خیلی ساده و واضح برای ما توضیح دهد که تمدن اسلامی چیست؟

تمدن اسلامی چیست[ویرایش]

براستی تمدن اسلامی یعنی چه؟ واژه ی اسلامی برای همه ی ما واژه ی آشنایی است به خصوص برای ما ایرانی ها که اکثریت جامعه مان را افراد مسلمان تشکیل می دهند و درباره دین اسلام از اصول دین گرفته تا فروع دین اطلاعات قابل توجهی دارند. شاید این سوال به این خاطر به وجود می آید که معنای تمدن را دقیق نمی دانیم.

تمدن چیست[ویرایش]

تمدن در معنای انگلیسی در برابر کلمه civilization قرار گرفته است که ریشه اصلی آن در زبان لاتینی civis و civitas است، به معنای شهر. و کلمه civilization به معنای زندگی استقرار یافته و سازمان یافته در واحد اجتماعی بزرگتر (شهر) در برابر واحدهای اجتماعی کوچک تر (جامعه های کوچ گرد، چادر نشین، بادیه نشین، روستا نشین و مانند آن) است. به عبارت ساده تر، واژه تمدن و مدنیت در زبان فارسی و برابر آن در عربی که «حَضارَت» باشد، به معنایِ زیستن در شهر، یا زندگی شهرنشینانه است و به زندگیِ «آدمی» از زمانی اشاره دارد که در واحد اجتماعی بزرگتری یکجانشین شده است. (آذرنگ،1396،ص 15)

تمدن یعنی یک جامعه ی متحول گرد هم آمده[ویرایش]

اوایل بحث گفتیم بعضی واژه ها تعبیر و تفسیر ندارند اما تمدن اسلامی را باید تفسیر کرد. تا اینجا تمدن را شناختیم در واقع می توان گفت یک گروه از انسان ها که خود را در جامعه ای گرد هم آورده باشند تا در برابر یک جامعه ی دیگر خود را متمایز کنند و اندیشه و تحولی را شکل بدهند که در جامعه ی مقابلشان این اندیشه وجود نداشته است یک تمدن را پایه گذاری کرده اند. در واقع برای تفسیر تمدن اسلامی باید گفت گروهی از انسان ها که با تفکر و اندیشه اسلامی گرد هم آمدند و با تفکرشان جامعه ی جدیدی را ساختند یک تمدن متمایز را با نام تمدن اسلامی پایه گذاری کرده اند.

تمدن اسلامی از کدام اندیشه و تحول حرف می زند؟[ویرایش]

تمدن اسلامی در برابر جامعه ای که خدایان گوناگونی داشت خودش را از آن ها جدا کرد و یکتا پرستی را برگزید. در برابر جامعه ای که برای انسان ها جایگاه ارباب و برده در نظر گرفته بود جامعه ای را تشکیل داد که هیچ انسانی را برتر از انسان دیگری نمی دانست. در برابر جامعه ای که فرد گرا بود و منافع یک فرد به تنهایی در اولویت قرار می گرفت و همه چیز را برای آن فرد می خواست جامعه ای را تشکیل داد که پیامبرش ساده زیست بود و به مردم می آموخت که ساده و درکنار هم زندگی کنند و به جای فقط به خود اندیشیدن به همه ی انسان ها فکر کنند.

تمدن اسلامی یک تمدن پایدار[ویرایش]

همه ی تمدن ها یک دوران اوج دارند و بلاخره به دوران افول خود نزدیک می شوند. بی شک همه ما تمدن های مختلفی را در تاریخ خوانده ایم که روزی در اوج خود بوده اند اما اکنون در کتاب های تاریخی خوانده می شوند یا مردم به دیدن آثار باقی مانده از آن ها می روند مثل تمدن یونان، تمدن روم باستان و... .

تمدن اسلامی برخلاف تمدن هایی که می شناسیم هنوز هم پابرجاست شاید در اوج خود نباشد اما هنوز از بین نرفته است. راز این ماندگاری را در دلایل بسیاری می توان شمرد اما همانطور که از ابتدای مطلب هم گفتیم بعضی واژه ها آنقدر ساده اند که دیدگاه های مختلفی را نمی توان برای آن ها در نظر گرفت اما واژه تمدن اسلامی را همانطور که مجبور به تفسیر آن شدیم همانطور هم مجبوریم از دیدگاه های مختلفی آن را بررسی کنیم. اینکه تمدن اسلامی چرا بعد از گذشت یک هزار و پانصد سال هنوز هم پابرجاست، از نگاه منِ نویسنده شاید مهم ترین دلیلش این باشد که یک تحول بزرگ و منطقی در زندگی بشر رخ داده است.

تمدن اسلامی، تحولی بزرگ و منطقی[ویرایش]

وقتی یک تحول بزرگ که همسو با نیازهای منطقی انسان است در اندیشه ی بشر رخ دهد بشر دیگر هرگز و هرگز به عقب باز نمی گردد. انسانی که دیگر هرگز بت پرست نشد یا دیگر ارباب و بردگی را یک کار عادی و خوشایند ندانست و دیگر از انسان های خودخواه و فرد گرا حمایت نکرد با وجود اینکه هنوز هم انسان با این مسائل دست به گریبان است اما بشر بصورت ظاهری هم که شده شکل زندگی اش را بر این موضوعات استوار کرده است. مثال قابل توجهی که می توان برای روشن شدن این موضوع بیان کرد تمدن یکجانشینی و شهر نشینی است که هرگز به عقب بازنگشت و انسان تصمیم نگرفت دوباره به آغوش طبیعت بازگردد و شکارچی شود و دست از یکجانشینی بردارد. نظر شما چیست؟ اگر قرار باشد شما به این پرسش پاسخ دهید کدام دلیل را مهم تر از همه می دانستید؟ یا به بیان دیگر شما از کدام دیدگاه به قضیه نگاه می کردید؟[۵۸]

نگارخانه[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

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مطالعات بیشتر[ویرایش]

Scholars at an Abbasid library, from the Maqamat of al-Hariri by Yahya ibn Mahmud al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237 CE

The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.[1][2][3] This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language.[4][5] This period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258 AD.[6] Some scholars date the end of the golden age around 1050 AD,[7] while a few contemporary scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries.[1][2][3] (The medieval period of Islam is very similar if not the same, with one source defining it as 900-1300 CE.)[8]

Islamic patterns in some parts of this world

History of the concepts

Expansion of the Caliphates, 622–750.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

The metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism. The author of a Handbook for Travelers in Syria and Palestine in 1868 observed that the most beautiful mosques of Damascus were "like Mohammedanism itself, now rapidly decaying" and relics of "the golden age of Islam".[9]

There is no unambiguous definition of the term, and depending on whether it is used with a focus on cultural or on military achievement, it may be taken to refer to rather disparate time spans. Thus, one 19th century author would have it extend to the duration of the caliphate, or to "six and a half centuries",[10] while another would have it end after only a few decades of Rashidun conquests, with the death of Umar and the First Fitna.[11]

During the early 20th century, the term was used only occasionally and often referred to as the early military successes of the Rashidun caliphs. It was only in the second half of the 20th century that the term came to be used with any frequency, now mostly referring to the cultural flourishing of science and mathematics under the caliphates during the 9th to 11th centuries (between the establishment of organised scholarship in the House of Wisdom and the beginning of the crusades),[12] but often extended to include part of the late 8th or the 12th to early 13th centuries.[13] Definitions may still vary considerably. Equating the end of the golden age with the end of the caliphates is a convenient cut-off point based on a historical landmark, but it can be argued that Islamic culture had entered a gradual decline much earlier; thus, Khan (2003) identifies the proper golden age as being the two centuries between 750–950, arguing that the beginning loss of territories under Harun al-Rashid worsened after the death of al-Ma'mun in 833, and that the crusades in the 12th century resulted in a weakening of the Islamic empire from which it never recovered.[14]

Causes

Religious influence

The various Quranic injunctions and Hadith, which place values on education and emphasize the importance of acquiring knowledge, played a vital role in influencing the Muslims of this age in their search for knowledge and the development of the body of science.[15][16][17]

Government sponsorship

The Islamic Empire heavily patronized scholars. The money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to about twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council.[18] The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today.[18] The House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur.[19]

Diverse contributions

During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the scientific knowledge of the civilizations that had been conquered. Many classic works of antiquity that might otherwise have been lost were translated from Greek, Persian, Indian, Chinese, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations into Arabic and Persian, and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew, and Latin.[5]

Christians, especially the adherents of the Church of the East (Nestorians), contributed to Islamic civilization during the reign of the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers and ancient science to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.[20][21] They also excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq,[22][23] Thabit Ibn Qurra,[24] Yusuf Al-Khuri,[25] Al Himsi,[26] Qusta ibn Luqa,[27] Masawaiyh,[28][29] Patriarch Eutychius,[30] and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu[31]) and theology. For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians.[32][33] Among the most prominent Christian families to serve as physicians to the caliphs were the Bukhtishu dynasty.[34][35]

The Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq led the House of Wisdom.

Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek and Syriac languages was either newly translated or had been preserved since the Hellenistic period. Among the prominent centers of learning and transmission of classical wisdom were Christian colleges such as the School of Nisibis[36] and the School of Edessa,[37] the pagan University of Harran[38][39] and the renowned hospital and medical academy of Jundishapur, which was the intellectual, theological and scientific center of the Church of the East.[40][41][42] The House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur. It was led by Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq, with the support of Byzantine medicine. Many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of Galen, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy and Archimedes. Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background.[43]

Among the various countries and cultures conquered through successive Islamic conquests, a remarkable number of scientists originated from Persia, who contributed immensely to the scientific flourishing of the Islamic Golden Age. According to Bernard Lewis: "Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Persian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution."[44] Science, medicine, philosophy and technology in the newly Islamized Iranian society was influenced by and based on the scientific model of the major pre-Islamic Iranian universities in the Sassanian Empire. During this period hundreds of scholars and scientists vastly contributed to technology, science and medicine, later influencing the rise of European science during the Renaissance.[45]

Ibn Khaldun wrote in his work Muqaddimah (1377) that most Muslim contributions were generally the works of Persians specifically:[46]

Most of the ḥadîth scholars who preserved traditions for the Muslims also were Persians, or Persian in language and upbringing, because the discipline was widely cultivated in the 'Irâq and the regions beyond. Furthermore all the scholars who worked in the science of the principles of jurisprudence were Persians. The same applies to speculative theologians and to most Qur'ân commentators. Only the Persians engaged in the task of preserving knowledge and writing systematic scholarly works. Thus, the truth of the following statement by the Prophet becomes apparent: 'If scholarship hung suspended in the highest parts of heaven, the Persians would attain it.'

New technology

A manuscript written on paper during the Abbasid Era.

With a new and easier writing system, and the introduction of paper, information was democratized to the extent that, for probably the first time in history, it became possible to make a living from only writing and selling books.[47] The use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century, arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) in the 10th century. It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, and could absorb ink, making it difficult to erase and ideal for keeping records. Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries.[48] It was from these countries that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen.[49]

Education

The centrality of scripture and its study in the Islamic tradition helped to make education a central pillar of the religion in virtually all times and places in the history of Islam.[50] The importance of learning in the Islamic tradition is reflected in a number of hadiths attributed to Muhammad, including one that instructs the faithful to "seek knowledge, even in China".[50] This injunction was seen to apply particularly to scholars, but also to some extent to the wider Muslim public, as exemplified by the dictum of al-Zarnuji, "learning is prescribed for us all".[50] While it is impossible to calculate literacy rates in pre-modern Islamic societies, it is almost certain that they were relatively high, at least in comparison to their European counterparts.[50]

Organized instruction in the Cairo Al-Azhar Mosque began in 978

Education would begin at a young age with study of Arabic and the Quran, either at home or in a primary school, which was often attached to a mosque.[50] Some students would then proceed to training in tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), which was seen as particularly important.[50] Education focused on memorization, but also trained the more advanced students to participate as readers and writers in the tradition of commentary on the studied texts.[50] It also involved a process of socialization of aspiring scholars, who came from virtually all social backgrounds, into the ranks of the ulema.[50]

For the first few centuries of Islam, educational settings were entirely informal, but beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, the ruling elites began to establish institutions of higher religious learning known as madrasas in an effort to secure support and cooperation of the ulema.[50] Madrasas soon multiplied throughout the Islamic world, which helped to spread Islamic learning beyond urban centers and to unite diverse Islamic communities in a shared cultural project.[50] Nonetheless, instruction remained focused on individual relationships between students and their teacher.[50] The formal attestation of educational attainment, ijaza, was granted by a particular scholar rather than the institution, and it placed its holder within a genealogy of scholars, which was the only recognized hierarchy in the educational system.[50] While formal studies in madrasas were open only to men, women of prominent urban families were commonly educated in private settings and many of them received and later issued ijazas in hadith studies, calligraphy and poetry recitation.[51][52] Working women learned religious texts and practical skills primarily from each other, though they also received some instruction together with men in mosques and private homes.[51]

Madrasas were devoted principally to study of law, but they also offered other subjects such as theology, medicine, and mathematics.[53][54] The madrasa complex usually consisted of a mosque, boarding house, and a library.[53] It was maintained by a waqf (charitable endowment), which paid salaries of professors, stipends of students, and defrayed the costs of construction and maintenance.[53] The madrasa was unlike a modern college in that it lacked a standardized curriculum or institutionalized system of certification.[53]

Muslims distinguished disciplines inherited from pre-Islamic civilizations, such as philosophy and medicine, which they called "sciences of the ancients" or "rational sciences", from Islamic religious sciences.[50] Sciences of the former type flourished for several centuries, and their transmission formed part of the educational framework in classical and medieval Islam.[50] In some cases, they were supported by institutions such as the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, but more often they were transmitted informally from teacher to student.[50]

The University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859 AD, is listed in The Guinness Book Of Records as the world's oldest degree-granting university.[55] The Al-Azhar University was another early university (madrasa). The madrasa is one of the relics of the Fatimid caliphate. The Fatimids traced their descent to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and named the institution using a variant of her honorific title Al-Zahra (the brilliant).[56] Organized instruction in the Al-Azhar Mosque began in 978.[57]

Law

Juristic thought gradually developed in study circles, where independent scholars met to learn from a local master and discuss religious topics.[58][59] At first, these circles were fluid in their membership, but with time distinct regional legal schools crystallized around shared sets of methodological principles.[59][60] As the boundaries of the schools became clearly delineated, the authority of their doctrinal tenets came to be vested in a master jurist from earlier times, who was henceforth identified as the school's founder.[59][60] In the course of the first three centuries of Islam, all legal schools came to accept the broad outlines of classical legal theory, according to which Islamic law had to be firmly rooted in the Quran and hadith.[60][61]

The classical theory of Islamic jurisprudence elaborates how scriptures should be interpreted from the standpoint of linguistics and rhetoric.[62] It also comprises methods for establishing authenticity of hadith and for determining when the legal force of a scriptural passage is abrogated by a passage revealed at a later date.[62] In addition to the Quran and sunnah, the classical theory of Sunni fiqh recognizes two other sources of law: juristic consensus (ijmaʿ) and analogical reasoning (qiyas).[63] It therefore studies the application and limits of analogy, as well as the value and limits of consensus, along with other methodological principles, some of which are accepted by only certain legal schools.[62] This interpretive apparatus is brought together under the rubric of ijtihad, which refers to a jurist's exertion in an attempt to arrive at a ruling on a particular question.[62] The theory of Twelver Shia jurisprudence parallels that of Sunni schools with some differences, such as recognition of reason (ʿaql) as a source of law in place of qiyas and extension of the notion of sunnah to include traditions of the imams.[64]

The body of substantive Islamic law was created by independent jurists (muftis). Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law.[60][62]

Theology

Classical Islamic theology emerged from an early doctrinal controversy which pitted the ahl al-hadith movement, led by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only acceptable authority in matters of faith, against Mu'tazilites and other theological currents, who developed theological doctrines using rationalistic methods.[65] In 833 the caliph al-Ma'mun tried to impose Mu'tazilite theology on all religious scholars and instituted an inquisition (mihna), but the attempts to impose a caliphal writ in matters of religious orthodoxy ultimately failed.[65] This controversy persisted until al-Ash'ari (874–936) found a middle ground between Mu'tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite literalism, using the rationalistic methods championed by Mu'tazilites to defend most substantive tenets maintained by ahl al-hadith.[66] A rival compromise between rationalism and literalism emerged from the work of al-Maturidi (d. c. 944), and, although a minority of scholars remained faithful to the early ahl al-hadith creed, Ash'ari and Maturidi theology came to dominate Sunni Islam from the 10th century on.[66][67]

Philosophy

An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) played a major role in interpreting the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, translation of philosophical texts from Arabic to Latin in Western Europe "led to the transformation of almost all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world".[68] The influence of Islamic philosophers in Europe was particularly strong in natural philosophy, psychology and metaphysics, though it also influenced the study of logic and ethics.[68]

Metaphysics

Avicenna argued his "Floating man" thought experiment concerning self-awareness, in which a man prevented of sense experience by being blindfolded and free falling would still be aware of his existence.[69]

Epistemology

In epistemology, Ibn Tufail wrote the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and in response Ibn al-Nafis wrote the novel Theologus Autodidactus. Both were concerning autodidacticism as illuminated through the life of a feral child spontaneously generated in a cave on a desert island.

Mathematics

Algebra

Geometric patterns: an archway in the Sultan’s lodge in the Ottoman Green Mosque in Bursa, Turkey (1424), its girih strapwork forming 10-point stars and pentagons

Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī played a significant role in the development of algebra, arithmetic and Hindu-Arabic numerals. He has been described as the father[70][71] or founder[72][73] of algebra.

Another Persian mathematician, Omar Khayyam, is credited with identifying the foundations of algebraic geometry. Omar Khayyam found the general geometric solution of the cubic equation. His book Treatise on Demonstrations of Problems of Algebra (1070), which laid down the principles of algebra, is part of the body of Persian mathematics that was eventually transmitted to Europe.[74]

Yet another Persian mathematician, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, found algebraic and numerical solutions to various cases of cubic equations.[75] He also developed the concept of a function.[76]

Geometry

Islamic art makes use of geometric patterns and symmetries in many of its art forms, notably in girih tilings. These are formed using a set of five tile shapes, namely a regular decagon, an elongated hexagon, a bow tie, a rhombus, and a regular pentagon. All the sides of these tiles have the same length; and all their angles are multiples of 36° (π/5 radians), offering fivefold and tenfold symmetries. The tiles are decorated with strapwork lines (girih), generally more visible than the tile boundaries. In 2007, the physicists Peter Lu and Paul Steinhardt argued that girih from the 15th century resembled quasicrystalline Penrose tilings.[77][78][79][80] Elaborate geometric zellige tilework is a distinctive element in Moroccan architecture.[81] Muqarnas vaults are three-dimensional but were designed in two dimensions with drawings of geometrical cells.[82]

Trigonometry

A triangle labelled with the components of the law of sines. Capital A, B and C are the angles, and lower-case a, b, c are the sides opposite them. (a opposite A, etc.)

Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī is one of several Islamic mathematicians to whom the law of sines is attributed; he wrote his The Book of Unknown Arcs of a Sphere in the 11th century. This formula relates the lengths of the sides of any triangle, rather than only right triangles, to the sines of its angles.[83] According to the law,

where a, b, and c are the lengths of the sides of a triangle, and A, B, and C are the opposite angles (see figure).

Calculus

Alhazen discovered the sum formula for the fourth power, using a method that could be generally used to determine the sum for any integral power. He used this to find the volume of a paraboloid. He could find the integral formula for any polynomial without having developed a general formula.[84]

Natural sciences

Scientific method

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) was a significant figure in the history of scientific method, particularly in his approach to experimentation,[85][86][87][88] and has been described as the "world's first true scientist".[89]

Avicenna made rules for testing the effectiveness of drugs, including that the effect produced by the experimental drug should be seen constantly or after many repetitions, to be counted.[90] The physician Rhazes was an early proponent of experimental medicine and recommended using control for clinical research. He said: "If you want to study the effect of bloodletting on a condition, divide the patients into two groups, perform bloodletting only on one group, watch both, and compare the results."[91]

Astronomy

In about 964 AD, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, writing in his Book of Fixed Stars, described a "nebulous spot" in the Andromeda constellation, the first definitive reference to what we now know is the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest spiral galaxy to our galaxy.[92] Nasir al-Din al-Tusi invented a geometrical technique called a Tusi-couple, which generates linear motion from the sum of two circular motions to replace Ptolemy's problematic equant.[93] The Tusi couple was later employed in Ibn al-Shatir's geocentric model and Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric Copernican model[94] although it is not known who the intermediary is or if Copernicus rediscovered the technique independently.

Physics

Alhazen played a role in the development of optics. One of the prevailing theories of vision in his time and place was the emission theory supported by Euclid and Ptolemy, where sight worked by the eye emitting rays of light, and the other was the Aristotelean theory that sight worked when the essence of objects flows into the eyes. Alhazen correctly argued that vision occurred when light, traveling in straight lines, reflects off an object into the eyes. Al-Biruni wrote of his insights into light, stating that its velocity must be immense when compared to the speed of sound.[95]

Chemistry

Al-Kindi warned against alchemists attempting the transmutation of simple, base metals into precious ones like gold in the ninth century.[96]

Geodesy

Al-Biruni (973–1048) estimated the radius of the earth as 6339.6 km (modern value is c. 6,371 km), the best estimate at that time.[97]

Biology

The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq. From a manuscript dated circa 1200.

In the cardiovascular system, Ibn al-Nafis in his Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon was the first known scholar to contradict the contention of the Galen School that blood could pass between the ventricles in the heart through the cardiac inter-ventricular septum that separates them, saying that there is no passage between the ventricles at this point.[98] Instead, he correctly argued that all the blood that reached the left ventricle did so after passing through the lung.[98] He also stated that there must be small communications, or pores, between the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein, a prediction that preceded the discovery of the pulmonary capillaries of Marcello Malpighi by 400 years. The Commentary was rediscovered in the twentieth century in the Prussian State Library in Berlin; whether its view of the pulmonary circulation influenced scientists such as Michael Servetus is unclear.[98]

In the nervous system, Rhazes stated that nerves had motor or sensory functions, describing 7 cranial and 31 spinal cord nerves. He assigned a numerical order to the cranial nerves from the optic to the hypoglossal nerves. He classified the spinal nerves into 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 3 sacral, and 3 coccygeal nerves. He used this to link clinical signs of injury to the corresponding location of lesions in the nervous system.[99]

Modern commentators have likened medieval accounts of the "struggle for existence" in the animal kingdom to the framework of the theory of evolution. Thus, in his survey of the history of the ideas which led to the theory of natural selection, Conway Zirkle noted that al-Jahiz was one of those who discussed a "struggle for existence", in his Kitāb al-Hayawān (Book of Animals), written in the 9th century.[100] In the 13th century, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi believed that humans were derived from advanced animals, saying, "Such humans [probably anthropoid apes][101] live in the Western Sudan and other distant corners of the world. They are close to animals by their habits, deeds and behavior."[101] In 1377, Ibn Khaldun in his Muqaddimah stated, "The animal kingdom was developed, its species multiplied, and in the gradual process of Creation, it ended in man and arising from the world of the monkeys."[102]

Engineering

The Banū Mūsā brothers, in their Book of Ingenious Devices, describe an automatic flute player which may have been the first programmable machine.[103] The flute sounds were produced through hot steam and the user could adjust the device to various patterns so that they could get various sounds from it.[104]

Social sciences

Ibn Khaldun is regarded to be among the founding fathers of modern sociology,[n 1] historiography, demography,[n 1] and economics.[105][n 2]

Archiving was a respected position during this time in Islam though most of the governing documents have been lost over time. However, from correspondence and remaining documentation gives a hint of the social climate as well as shows that the archives were detailed and vast during their time. All letters that were received or sent on behalf of the governing bodies were copied, archived and noted for filing. The position of the archivist was seen as one that had to have a high level of devotion as they held the records of all pertinent transactions. [106]

Healthcare

Hospitals

Entrance to the Qawaloon complex which housed the notable Qawaloon hospital in Cairo

The earliest known Islamic hospital was built in 805 in Baghdad by order of Harun Al-Rashid, and the most important of Baghdad's hospitals was established in 982 by the Buyid ruler 'Adud al-Dawla.[107] The best documented early Islamic hospitals are the great Syro-Egyptian establishments of the 12th and 13th centuries.[107] By the tenth century, Baghdad had five more hospitals, while Damascus had six hospitals by the 15th century and Córdoba alone had 50 major hospitals, many exclusively for the military.[108]

The typical hospital was divided into departments such as systemic diseases, surgery, and orthopedics, with larger hospitals having more diverse specialties. "Systemic diseases" was the rough equivalent of today's internal medicine and was further divided into sections such as fever, infections and digestive issues. Every department had an officer-in-charge, a presiding officer and a supervising specialist. The hospitals also had lecture theaters and libraries. Hospitals staff included sanitary inspectors, who regulated cleanliness, and accountants and other administrative staff.[108] The hospitals were typically run by a three-man board comprising a non-medical administrator, the chief pharmacist, called the shaykh saydalani, who was equal in rank to the chief physician, who served as mutwalli (dean).[90] Medical facilities traditionally closed each night, but by the 10th century laws were passed to keep hospitals open 24 hours a day.[109]

For less serious cases, physicians staffed outpatient clinics. Cities also had first aid centers staffed by physicians for emergencies that were often located in busy public places, such as big gatherings for Friday prayers. The region also had mobile units staffed by doctors and pharmacists who were supposed to meet the need of remote communities. Baghdad was also known to have a separate hospital for convicts since the early 10th century after the vizier ‘Ali ibn Isa ibn Jarah ibn Thabit wrote to Baghdad’s chief medical officer that "prisons must have their own doctors who should examine them every day". The first hospital built in Egypt, in Cairo's Southwestern quarter, was the first documented facility to care for mental illnesses. In Aleppo's Arghun Hospital, care for mental illness included abundant light, fresh air, running water and music.[108]

Medical students would accompany physicians and participate in patient care. Hospitals in this era were the first to require medical diplomas to license doctors.[110] The licensing test was administered by the region's government appointed chief medical officer. The test had two steps; the first was to write a treatise, on the subject the candidate wished to obtain a certificate, of original research or commentary of existing texts, which they were encouraged to scrutinize for errors. The second step was to answer questions in an interview with the chief medical officer. Physicians worked fixed hours and medical staff salaries were fixed by law. For regulating the quality of care and arbitrating cases, it is related that if a patient dies, their family presents the doctor's prescriptions to the chief physician who would judge if the death was natural or if it was by negligence, in which case the family would be entitled to compensation from the doctor. The hospitals had male and female quarters while some hospitals only saw men and other hospitals, staffed by women physicians, only saw women.[108] While women physicians practiced medicine, many largely focused on obstetrics.[111]

Hospitals were forbidden by law to turn away patients who were unable to pay.[109] Eventually, charitable foundations called waqfs were formed to support hospitals, as well as schools.[109] Part of the state budget also went towards maintaining hospitals.[108] While the services of the hospital were free for all citizens[109] and patients were sometimes given a small stipend to support recovery upon discharge, individual physicians occasionally charged fees.[108] In a notable endowment, a 13th-century governor of Egypt Al-Mansur Qalawun ordained a foundation for the Qalawun hospital that would contain a mosque and a chapel, separate wards for different diseases, a library for doctors and a pharmacy[112] and the hospital is used today for ophthalmology.[108] The Qalawun hospital was based in a former Fatimid palace which had accommodation for 8,000 people – [113] "it served 4,000 patients daily."[114] The waqf stated,

"...The hospital shall keep all patients, men and women, until they are completely recovered. All costs are to be borne by the hospital whether the people come from afar or near, whether they are residents or foreigners, strong or weak, low or high, rich or poor, employed or unemployed, blind or sighted, physically or mentally ill, learned or illiterate. There are no conditions of consideration and payment, none is objected to or even indirectly hinted at for non-payment."[112]

Pharmacies

By the ninth century, there was a rapid expansion of private pharmacies in many Muslim cities. Initially, these were unregulated and managed by personnel of inconsistent quality. Decrees by Caliphs Al-Ma'mun and Al-Mu'tasim required examinations to license pharmacists and pharmacy students were trained in a combination of classroom exercises coupled with day-to-day practical experiences with drugs. To avoid conflicts of interest, doctors were banned from owning or sharing ownership in a pharmacy. Pharmacies were periodically inspected by government inspectors called muhtasib, who checked to see that the medicines were mixed properly, not diluted and kept in clean jars. Violators were fined or beaten.[90]

Medicine

The theory of Humorism was largely dominant during this time. Arab physician Ibn Zuhr provided proof that scabies is caused by the itch mite and that it can be cured by removing the parasite without the need for purging, bleeding or other treatments called for by humorism, making a break with the humorism of Galen and Ibn Sina.[111] Rhazes differentiated through careful observation the two diseases smallpox and measles, which were previously lumped together as a single disease that caused rashes.[115] This was based on location and the time of the appearance of the symptoms and he also scaled the degree of severity and prognosis of infections according to the color and location of rashes.[116] Al-Zahrawi was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, and the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia.[117]

On hygienic practices, Rhazes, who was once asked to choose the site for a new hospital in Baghdad, suspended pieces of meat at various points around the city, and recommended building the hospital at the location where the meat putrefied most slowly.[91]

For Islamic scholars, Indian and Greek physicians and medical researchers Sushruta, Galen, Mankah, Atreya, Hippocrates, Charaka, and Agnivesa were pre-eminent authorities.[118] In order to make the Indian and Greek tradition more accessible, understandable, and teachable, Islamic scholars ordered and made more systematic the vast Indian and Greco-Roman medical knowledge by writing encyclopedias and summaries. Sometimes, past scholars were criticized, like Rhazes who criticized and refuted Galen's revered theories, most notably, the Theory of Humors and was thus accused of ignorance.[91] It was through 12th-century Arabic translations that medieval Europe rediscovered Hellenic medicine, including the works of Galen and Hippocrates, and discovered ancient Indian medicine, including the works of Sushruta and Charaka.[119][120] Works such as Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine were translated into Latin and disseminated throughout Europe. During the 15th and 16th centuries alone, The Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times. It was used as a standard medical textbook through the 18th century in Europe.[121]

Surgery

Al-Zahrawi was a tenth century Arab physician. He is sometimes referred to as the "Father of surgery".[122] He describes what is thought to be the first attempt at reduction mammaplasty for the management of gynaecomastia[122] and the first mastectomy to treat breast cancer.[111] He is credited with the performance of the first thyroidectomy.[123]

Commerce and travel

Introductory summary overview map from al-Idrisi's 1154 world atlas (note that South is at the top of the map).

Apart from the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates, navigable rivers were uncommon in the Middle East, so transport by sea was very important. Navigational sciences were highly developed, making use of a rudimentary sextant (known as a kamal). When combined with detailed maps of the period, sailors were able to sail across oceans rather than skirt along the coast. Muslim sailors were also responsible for reintroducing large, three-masted merchant vessels to the Mediterranean.[citation needed] The name caravel may derive from an earlier Arab boat known as the qārib.[124]

Many Muslims went to China to trade, and these Muslims began to have a great economic influence on the country. Muslims virtually dominated the import/export industry by the time of the Sung dynasty (960–1279).[125]

Arts and culture

Literature and poetry

The 13th century Persian poet Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America.[126][127]

Art

Marquetry and tile-top table, 1560

Manuscript illumination was an important art, and Persian miniature painting flourished in the Persianate world. Calligraphy, an essential aspect of written Arabic, developed in manuscripts and architectural decoration.

Music

The ninth and tenth centuries saw a flowering of Arabic music. Philosopher and esthete Al-Farabi[128], at the end of the ninth century, established the foundations of modern Arabic music theory, based on the maqammat, or musical modes. His work was based on the music of Ziryab, the court musician of Andalusia. Ziryab was a renowned polymath, whose contributions to western civilization included formal dining, haircuts, chess, and more, in addition to his dominance of the world musical scene of the ninth century[129].

Architecture

The Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia), the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world excluding Turkey and the Balkans,[130] is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the 9th century.[131] The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a three-tiered square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by colonnaded porticos, and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas.[130]

The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq was completed in 847. It combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base, above which a huge spiralling minaret was constructed.

The beginning of construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in 785 marked the beginning of Islamic architecture in Spain and Northern Africa. The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra, the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada, with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red, blue, and gold. The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs, Arabic inscriptions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in geometrically patterned glazed tiles.

Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque.

Decline

Invasions

Trade routes inherited by the Muslim civilization were ruined by invading Mongols, which according to Ibn Khaldun ruined economies

In 1206, Genghis Khan established a powerful dynasty among the Mongols of central Asia. During the 13th century, this Mongol Empire conquered most of the Eurasian land mass, including China in the east and much of the old Islamic caliphate (as well as Kievan Rus') in the west. The destruction of Baghdad and the House of Wisdom by Hulagu Khan in 1258 has been seen by some as the end of the Islamic Golden Age.[132]

The Ottoman conquest of the Arabic-speaking Middle East in 1516-17 placed the traditional heart of the Islamic world under Ottoman Turkish control. The rational sciences continued to flourish in the Middle East during the Ottoman period.[133]

Economics

To account for the decline of Islamic science, it has been argued that the Sunni Revival in the 11th and 12th centuries produced a series of institutional changes that decreased the relative payoff to producing scientific works. With the spread of madrasas and the greater influence of religious leaders, it became more lucrative to produce religious knowledge. This is easily refutable, as the scholars of the golden age were experts in both religious and secular fields, with many of the Islamic schools of thoughts having been established during the golden age itself.[134]

Ahmad Y. al-Hassan has rejected the thesis that lack of creative thinking was a cause, arguing that science was always kept separate from religious argument; he instead analyzes the decline in terms of economic and political factors, drawing on the work of the 14th-century writer Ibn Khaldun. Al-Hassan extended the golden age up to the 16th century, noting that scientific activity continued to flourish up until then.[3] Several other contemporary scholars have also extended it to around the 16th to 17th centuries, and analysed the decline in terms of political and economic factors.[1][2] More recent research has challenged the notion that it underwent decline even at that time, citing a revival of works produced on rational scientific topics during the seventeenth century.[135][136]

Culture

Economic historian Joel Mokyr has argued that Islamic philosopher al-Ghazali (1058–1111) "was a key figure in the decline in Islamic science", as his works contributed to rising mysticism and occasionalism in the Islamic world.[137] Against this view, Saliba (2007) has given a number of examples especially of astronomical research flourishing after the time of al-Ghazali.[138]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b
    • "...regarded by some Westerners as the true father of historiography and sociology".[139]
    • "Ibn Khaldun has been claimed the forerunner of a great number of European thinkers, mostly sociologists, historians, and philosophers".(Boulakia 1971)
    • "The founding father of Eastern Sociology".[140]
    • "This grand scheme to find a new science of society makes him the forerunner of many of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries system-builders such as Vico, Comte and Marx." "As one of the early founders of the social sciences...".[141]
  2. ^
    • "He is considered by some as a father of modern economics, or at least a major forerunner. The Western world recognizes Khaldun as the father of sociology but hesitates in recognizing him as a great economist who laid its very foundations. He was the first to systematically analyze the functioning of an economy, the importance of technology, specialization and foreign trade in economic surplus and the role of government and its stabilization policies to increase output and employment. Moreover, he dealt with the problem of optimum taxation, minimum government services, incentives, institutional framework, law and order, expectations, production, and the theory of value".Cosma, Sorinel (2009). "Ibn Khaldun's Economic Thinking". Ovidius University Annals of Economics (Ovidius University Press) XIV:52–57

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