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الگو:Cite book

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پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
توضیحات الگو[نمایش] [ویرایش] [تاریخچه] [پاکسازی]
شیوه یادکرد ۱ templates
{{Cite arXiv}} آرکایو (بایگانی نوشتارهای علمی) preprint
{{Cite AV media}} audio and visual
{{Cite AV media notes}} audio and visual liner notes
{{Cite book}} books
{{Cite conference}} conference papers
{{Cite DVD notes}} DVD liner notes
{{Cite encyclopedia}} edited collections
{{Cite episode}} radio or television episodes
{{Cite interview}} interviews
{{Cite journal}} magazines, journals, academic papers
{{Cite mailing list}} public mailing lists
{{Cite map}} maps
{{Cite news}} news articles
{{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}} audio or video podcast
{{Cite press release}} press releases
{{Cite serial}} audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}} signs, plaques
{{Cite speech}} speeches
{{Cite techreport}} technical reports
{{Cite thesis}} theses
{{Cite web}} web sources

This شیوه یادکرد ۱ template is used to create citations for books. When citing an article in a periodical, use {{cite journal}}. For edited collections, use {{cite encyclopedia}}.

Usage

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.


Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format
To cite a book with a credited author

{{cite book |last= |first= |date= |title= |url= |location= |publisher= |page= |isbn= |accessdate= }}

To cite a book with no credited author

{{cite book |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |title= |url= |location= |publisher= |page= |date= |isbn= |accessdate= }}

To cite an online book that has been archived

{{cite book |last= |first= |date= |title= |url= |deadurl= |location= |publisher= |isbn= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |accessdate= }}

To cite a book written in a foreign language

{{cite book |last= |first= |date= |title= |trans_title= |url= |language= |location= |publisher= |isbn= |accessdate= }}

To cite and quote an archived, two-author, foreign language book re-published as a PDF on an information aggregation service requiring a subscription

{{cite book |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date= |title= |trans_title= |url= |deadurl= |format= |language= |location= |publisher= |isbn= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |accessdate= |via= |subscription= |quote= }}


Full parameter set in horizontal format

{{cite book |last1= |first1= |author-link1= |last2= |first2= |author-link2= |last3= |first3= |author-link3= |last4= |first4= |author-link4= |last5= |first5= |author-link5= |display-authors= |author-mask= |author-name-separator= |author-separator= |lastauthoramp= |date= |year= |origyear= |chapter= |trans_chapter= |chapterurl= |editor1-last= |editor1-first= |editor1-link= |editor2-last= |editor2-first= |editor2-link= |editor3-last= |editor3-first= |editor3-link= |editor4-last= |editor4-first= |editor4-link= |editor5-last= |editor5-first= |editor5-link= |display-editors= |title= |trans_title= |url= |deadurl= |format= |type= |series= |language= |volume= |issue= |others= |edition= |location= |publisher= |publication-date= |page= |pages= |at= |nopp= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi_brokendate= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |accessdate= |via= |registration= |subscription= |laysummary= |laysource= |laydate= |quote= |separator= |postscript= |ref= }}


Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes
{{cite book
| last1                 = 
| first1                = 
| author-link1          = 
| last2                 = 
| first2                = 
| author-link2          = 
| last3                 = 
| first3                = 
| author-link3          = 
| last4                 = 
| first4                = 
| author-link4          = 
| last5                 = 
| first5                = 
| author-link5          = 
| display-authors       = 
| author-mask           = 
| author-name-separator = 
| author-separator      = 
| lastauthoramp         = 
| date                  = 
| year                  = 
| origyear              = 
| chapter               = 
| trans_chapter         = 
| chapterurl            = 
| editor1-last          = 
| editor1-first         = 
| editor1-link          = 
| editor2-last          = 
| editor2-first         = 
| editor2-link          = 
| editor3-last          = 
| editor3-first         = 
| editor3-link          = 
| editor4-last          = 
| editor4-first         = 
| editor4-link          = 
| editor5-last          = 
| editor5-first         = 
| editor5-link          = 
| display-editors       = 
| title                 = 
| trans_title           = 
| url                   = 
| deadurl               = 
| format                = 
| type                  = 
| series                = 
| language              = 
| volume                = 
| issue                 = 
| others                = 
| edition               = 
| location              = 
| publisher             = 
| publication-date      = 
| page                  = 
| pages                 = 
| at                    = 
| nopp                  = 
| arxiv                 = 
| asin                  = 
| bibcode               = 
| doi                   = 
| doi_brokendate        = 
| isbn                  = 
| issn                  = 
| jfm                   = 
| jstor                 = 
| lccn                  = 
| mr                    = 
| oclc                  = 
| ol                    = 
| osti                  = 
| pmc                   = 
| pmid                  = 
| rfc                   = 
| ssrn                  = 
| zbl                   = 
| id                    = 
| archiveurl            = 
| archivedate           = 
| accessdate            = 
| via                   = 
| registration          = 
| subscription          = 
| laysummary            = 
| laysource             = 
| laydate               = 
| quote                 = 
| separator             = 
| postscript            = 
| ref                   = 
}}
 
 
 last or last1
 last or last1
 last1
 last2
 author-last2
 last2
 last3
 author-last3
 last3
 last4
 author-last4
 last4
 last5
 author-last5
 last or last1
 last or last1
 last or last1
 last or last1
 last or last1
 
 
 year or date
 
 chapter
 chapter
 
 editor1-last
 editor1-last
 editor1-last
 editor2-last
 editor2-last
 editor2-last
 editor3-last
 editor3-last
 editor3-last
 editor4-last
 editor4-last
 editor4-last
 editor5-last
 editor5-last
 
 
 title
 
 url
 url
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 publisher
 
 
 
 
 
 page or pages
 
 
 
 
 doi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 archivedate
 archiveurl
 url
 
 
 
 
 laysummary
 laysummary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 may also use |last=
 may also use |first=
 may also use |author-link=
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 last6, last7, last8, ad infinitum
 first6, first7, first8, ad infinitum
 author-link6, author-link7, author-link8, ad infinitum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 do not wikilink |chapter= if |chapterurl= is provided
 
 
 may also use |editor-last=
 may also use |editor-first=
 may also use |editor-link=
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 editor6-last, editor7-last, editor8-last, ad infinitum
 editor6-first, editor7-first, editor8-first, ad infinitum
 editor6-link, editor7-link, editor8-link, ad infinitum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 choose one: |page=, |pages= or |at=
 choose one: |page=, |pages= or |at=. When content on multiple pages supports the article text.
 choose one: |page=, |pages= or |at=
 set |nopp=yes to suppress the "p." or "pp." before page numbers
 
 
 
 
 
 always include ISBN if one has been assigned
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Examples

Title

  • {{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
Mysterious Book. 

Title and year

  • {{cite book |title=Mysterious book |date=1901}}
Mysterious Book. 1901. 

Basic usage (single author)

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Joe |authorlink=Joe Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs}}
Bloggs, Joe (1974). Book of Bloggs. 

Basic usage (two authors)

  • {{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |authorlink1=Joe Bloggs |last2=Bloggs |first2=Fred |authorlink2=Fred Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs}}
Bloggs, Joe; Bloggs, Fred (1974). Book of Bloggs. 

Basic usage with url (and accessdate) and edition

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Joe |authorlink=Joe Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs |edition=1st |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |accessdate=February 17, 2006}}
Bloggs, Joe (1974). Book of Bloggs (1st ed.). Retrieved February 17, 2006. 

Citing a chapter in a book with different authors for different chapters and an editor

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Fred |editor-first=John |editor-last=Doe |title=Big Compilation Book with Many Chapters and Distinct Chapter Authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=January 1, 2001 |pages=100–110 |chapter=Chapter 2: The History of the Bloggs Family |isbn=978-1-234-56789-7}}
Bloggs, Fred (January 1, 2001). "Chapter 2: The History of the Bloggs Family". In Doe, John. Big Compilation Book with Many Chapters and Distinct Chapter Authors. Book Publishers. pp. 100–110. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7. 

Citing a chapter in a book with two joint authors and an editor

  • {{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |last2=Egg |first2=Fred |editor-last=Doe |editor-first=John |title=Big Book with Many Chapters and Two Co-authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=January 1, 2001 |origyear=1st. Pub. 1986 |pages=100–110 |chapter=Chapter 6: Getting There |chapterurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |isbn=978-1-234-56789-7 |lastauthoramp=y}}
Bloggs, Joe & Egg, Fred (January 1, 2001) [1st. Pub. 1986]. "Chapter 6: Getting There". In Doe, John. Big Book with Many Chapters and Two Co-authors. Book Publishers. pp. 100–110. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7. 

Three authors, title with a piped wikilink, edition

  • {{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |authorlink1=Joe Bloggs |first2=John |last2=Smith |first3=Jim |last3=Smythe |title=[[A Thousand Acres|1000 Acres]] |edition=2nd}}
Bloggs, Joe; Smith, John; Smythe, Jim. 1000 Acres (2nd ed.). 

Complex usage showing effect of using volume parameter and lastauthoramp parameter (without volume and lastauthoramp)

  • {{cite book |first1=Major-General I.S.O. |last1=Playfair |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |first2=Commander G.M.S |last2=Stitt |first3=Brigadier C.J.C. |last3=Molony |first4=Air Vice-Marshal S.E. |last4=Toomer |editor-first=J.R.M |editor-last=Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK |date=2007 |origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3}}
Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; Stitt, Commander G.M.S; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S.E. (2007) [1st. pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J.R.M, ed. Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 

Complex usage showing effect of using volume parameter and lastauthoramp parameter (with volume and lastauthoramp)

  • {{cite book |first1=Major-General I.S.O. |last1=Playfair |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |first2=Commander G.M.S |last2=Stitt |first3=Brigadier C.J.C. |last3=Molony |first4=Air Vice-Marshal S.E. |last4=Toomer |editor-first=J.R.M |editor-last=Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East |volume=Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK |date=2007 |origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |lastauthoramp=y}}
Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; Stitt, Commander G.M.S; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S.E. (2007) [1st. pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J.R.M, ed. Mediterranean and Middle East. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 

Date without day, wikilinked title and publisher, pages, edition, location

  • {{cite book |last1=Cordell |first1=Bruce R. |last2=Grubb |first2=Jeff |last3=Noonan |first3=David |date=September 2001 |title=[[Manual of the Planes]] |edition=3rd |publisher=[[Wizards of the Coast]] |location=Renton, Wash. |isbn=0-7869-1850-0 |pages=134–137}}
Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes (3rd ed.). Renton, Wash.: Wizards of the Coast. pp. 134–137. ISBN 0-7869-1850-0. 

Other language

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Jean |date=1974 |title=Livre de Bloggs |edition=1st |language=French |trans_title=Book of Bloggs |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |accessdate=February 17, 2006}}
Bloggs, Jean (1974). Livre de Bloggs (in French) (1st ed.). Retrieved February 17, 2006.  Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)

Using a DOI

  • {{cite book |last=Mumford |first=David |authorlink=David Mumford |date=1999 |title=The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes: Includes the Michigan Lectures (1974) on Curves and Their Jacobians |edition=2nd |publisher=[[اشپرینگر ساینس+بیزینس مدیا]] |doi=10.1007/b62130 |isbn=354063293X}}
Mumford, David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes: Includes the Michigan Lectures (1974) on Curves and Their Jacobians (2nd ed.). اشپرینگر ساینس+بیزینس مدیا. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 354063293X. 

Using author-mask parameter

  • {{cite book |first1=Major-General I.S.O. |last1=Playfair |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=Commander G.M.S |last3=Molony |first3=Brigadier C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=Air Vice-Marshal S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK |date=2004 |origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |lastauthoramp=y}}
Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; Stitt, Commander G.M.S; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S.E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J.R.M, ed. Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 
  • {{cite book |first1=Major-General I.S.O. |last1=Playfair |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Flynn |first2=Captain F.C. (R.N.) |last3=Molony |first3=Brigadier C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=Air Vice-Marshal S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II: The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK |date=2004 |origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]]:19541956 |isbn=1-845740-66-1 |lastauthoramp=y |author-mask=2}}
——; Flynn, Captain F.C. (R.N.); Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S.E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:19541956]. Butler, J.R.M, ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II: The Germans Come to the Help of Their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-66-1. 
  • {{cite book |first1=Major-General I.S.O. |last1=Playfair |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Flynn |first2=Captain F.C. (R.N.) |last3=Molony |first3=Brigadier C.J.C. |last4=Gleave |first4=Group Captain T.P. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=Sir James |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume III: British Fortunes reach their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK |date=2004 |origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]]:19541960 |isbn=1-845740-67-X |lastauthoramp=y |author-mask=2}}
——; Flynn, Captain F.C. (R.N.); Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:19541960]. Butler, Sir James, ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume III: British Fortunes Reach Their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-67-X. 

Using display-authors parameter

  • {{cite book |first1=Major-General I.S.O. |last1=Playfair |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=Commander G.M.S |last3=Molony |first3=Brigadier C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=Air Vice-Marshal S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK |date=2004 |origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]] |r=1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |display-authors=1}}
Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; et al. (1954) [1st. pub. HMSO]. Butler, J.R.M, ed. Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 


Parameters

Syntax

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

COinS

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing نرم‌افزار مدیریت مرجع to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See: Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is generally discouraged as many of these templates will add a lot of extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters:

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publicationplace=, |publication-place=
  • |date=, |year=, |publicationdate=, |publication-date=
  • |series=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapterurl=, |chapter-url=, |contributionurl=, |contribution-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |Author#=, |authors#=, |author#-last=, |author-last#=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • any of the identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

Deprecated

The following parameters are deprecated and will no longer work. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • access-date · accessday · accessdaymonth · accessed · accessmonth · accessmonthday · accessyear: Use accessdate to include the full date of access.
  • day: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • dateformat · doilabel: These parameters are no longer supported.

Description

Authors

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Aliases: first1.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author. See the display parameters to change. Aliases: author1 through authorn.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, author-link, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlinkn. Aliases: author1-link through authorn-link.
  • coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Requires author, authors, or lastn Include coauthors in authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as Illustrated by John Smith or Translated by John Smith.
When using Shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Title

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics.
    • trans_title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans_title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] &#124;
space &amp;#91; &amp;#93; &amp;#124;


  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release.
  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • trans_chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans_chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name&#32;or فهرست کدهای ایزو ۶۳۹-۱ code; use of ISO 639-1 also adds appropriate language categorization; do not use icons or templates.

Date

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[۱] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more]. Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.
  • OR:
    • year: Year of source being referenced. Required with some types of {{sfn}} citations;[more] otherwise use date.
    • month: (deprecated) Name of the month or season of publication. Use date instead.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.
  1. Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Publisher

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. Not normally included for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

Edition, series, volume

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised" etc. Displays " ed." after this field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volumes of four characters or less display in bold.

In-source locations

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content. Displays preceded with ​p.​ unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded with ​pp.​ unless |nopp=y. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use |at=.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the ​p.​ or ​pp.​ notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

URL

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع.
    • accessdate: Full date when original URL was accessed; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[۱] Do not wikilink. Not required for web pages or linked documents that do not change; mainly for use of web pages that change frequently or have no publication date. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and بایگانی اینترنتی (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archivedate.
      • archivedate: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[۱] Do not wikilink.
      • deadurl: When the URL is still live, but preemptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported یوآرآی. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. پروتکل اینترنت نسخه ۶ host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be کدبندی درصدی. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7c %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ Accessdate and archivedate in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Anchor

Identifiers

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier.

Quote

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes.&#32;When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.

Editors

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editors, editorn.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editorn-last, editorn-first.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editorn-link.
Display:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; exactly four editors will show three editors followed by "et al., eds."

Laysummary

  • layurl: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: laysummary.
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses.

Display options

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &amp;#32;.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &amp;#32;.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed except when there are nine authors, then the author list in the citation is truncated to eight authors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed except when there are four editors, then the editor list in the citation is truncated to three editors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains four editor names and one wishes all four editor names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-editors=4. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • lastauthoramp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |lastauthoramp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty has the same effect but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &amp;#32;.

Subscription or registration required

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes; superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes; supersedes registration if both are set.

TemplateData

این توضیحاتِ داده‌های الگو این الگو است که توسط ویرایشگر دیداری و دیگر ابزارها استفاده می‌شود.

Cite book

This template formats a citation to a book using the provided bibliographic information (such as author and title) as well as various formatting options.

پارامترهای الگو

پارامترتوضیحاتنوعوضعیت
URLurl

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found

رشتهاختیاری
Titletitle

The title of the book; displays in italics

رشتهضروری
Last namelastauthorauthor1authorslast1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

ناشناختهضروری
First namefirstfirst1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

ناشناختهضروری
Author linkauthorlinkauthorlink1

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of second authorlast2author2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

ناشناختهاختیاری
First name of second authorfirst2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author link for second authorauthorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

صفحهاختیاری
Last namelast3author3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

ناشناختهاختیاری
First namefirst3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author linkauthorlink3author3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

صفحهاختیاری
Last namelast4author4

The surname of the fourth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

ناشناختهاختیاری
First namefirst4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth author; don't wikilink.

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author linkauthorlink4author4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.

صفحهاختیاری
Last namelast5author5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

ناشناختهاختیاری
First namefirst5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author linkauthorlink5author5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

صفحهاختیاری
Last namelast6author6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

ناشناختهاختیاری
First namefirst6author6-link

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author linkauthorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

صفحهاختیاری
Last namelast7author7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

ناشناختهاختیاری
First namefirst7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author linkauthorlink7author7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

صفحهاختیاری
Last namelast8author8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

ناشناختهاختیاری
First namefirst8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author linkauthorlink8author8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

صفحهاختیاری
Last namelast9author9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

ناشناختهاختیاری
First namefirst9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

ناشناختهاختیاری
Author linkauthorlink9author9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

صفحهاختیاری
datedate

Full date of the source; do not wikilink

رشتهاختیاری
Workwork

Name of the work in which the cited book text is found

رشتهاختیاری
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

رشتهپیشنهادشده
URL access dateaccessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

رشتهاختیاری
Othersothers

Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

رشتهاختیاری
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; use 'date' instead, if month and day are also known

رشتهپیشنهادشده
Original yearorigyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

رشتهاختیاری
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

رشتهپیشنهادشده
Editor last nameeditor-lasteditoreditor1-lasteditors

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

ناشناختهاختیاری
Editor first nameeditor-firsteditor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

ناشناختهاختیاری
Editor linkeditor-linkeditor1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of second editoreditor2-last

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of second editoreditor2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for second editoreditor2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of third editoreditor3-last

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of third editoreditor3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for third editoreditor3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of fourth editoreditor4-last

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of fourth editoreditor4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for fourth editoreditor4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of fifth editoreditor5-last

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of fifth editoreditor5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for fifth editoreditor5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of sixth editoreditor6-last

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of sixth editoreditor6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for sixth editoreditor6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of seventh editoreditor7-last

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of seventh editoreditor7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for seventh editoreditor7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of eighth editoreditor8-last

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of eighth editoreditor8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for eighth editoreditor8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor

صفحهاختیاری
Last name of ninth editoreditor9-last

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'

رشتهاختیاری
First name of ninth editoreditor9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'

رشتهاختیاری
Link for ninth editoreditor9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor

صفحهاختیاری
Editionedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed by ' ed.'

رشتهاختیاری
Series identifierseriesversion

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal

رشتهاختیاری
Volumevolume

For one publication published in several volumes

رشتهاختیاری
Location of publicationlocationplace

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place

رشتهپیشنهادشده
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

رشتهاختیاری
Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

رشتهاختیاری
Pagepage

The number of a single page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'; use either page= or pages=, but not both

رشتهاختیاری
Page(s) citedpages

A range of pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source); displays after 'pp.'; use either page= or pages=, but not both

رشتهپیشنهادشده
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

رشتهاختیاری
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

رشتهاختیاری
Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

رشتهاختیاری
Translated titletrans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

رشتهاختیاری
Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source; may be wikilinked or with 'chapterurl' but not both

رشتهاختیاری
Translated chaptertrans_chapter

An English language chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

رشتهاختیاری
Chapter URLchapterurlchapter-url

The URL of the online location where the text of the chapter can be found

رشتهاختیاری
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

رشتهاختیاری
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url'; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

رشتهاختیاری
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

رشتهاختیاری
ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

رشتهاختیاری
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

رشتهاختیاری
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

رشتهاختیاری
DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

رشتهاختیاری
DOI broken datedoi_brokendate

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

رشتهاختیاری
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number; 8 characters; may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen

رشتهاختیاری
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

رشتهاختیاری
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

رشتهاختیاری
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

رشتهاختیاری
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

رشتهاختیاری
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

رشتهاختیاری
OLol

Open Library identifier

رشتهاختیاری
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

رشتهاختیاری
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

رشتهاختیاری
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

رشتهاختیاری
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

رشتهاختیاری
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

رشتهاختیاری
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

رشتهاختیاری
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

رشتهاختیاری
Archive URLarchiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

رشتهاختیاری
Archive datearchivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

رشتهاختیاری
Dead URLdeadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

رشتهاختیاری
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

رشتهاختیاری
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv template

رشتهاختیاری
Separatorseparator

The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

پیش‌فرض
.
رشتهاختیاری
Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined

پیش‌فرض
.
رشتهاختیاری
Lay URLlayurllaysummary

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source

رشتهاختیاری
Lay sourcelaysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

رشتهاختیاری
Lay datelaydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

رشتهاختیاری
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

رشتهاختیاری
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

پیش‌فرض
,
رشتهاختیاری
Author separatorauthor-separator

Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

پیش‌فرض
;
رشتهاختیاری
Display authorsdisplay-authorsdisplayauthors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used; default is to do so after 8 of 9 are listed

پیش‌فرض
8
شمارهاختیاری
Last author ampersandlastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

رشتهاختیاری

See also

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.