ایالات متحده آمریکا

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مختصات: ۳۸°۵۳′ شمالی ۷۷°۰۱′ غربی / ۳۸٫۸۸۳°شمالی ۷۷٫۰۱۷°غربی / 38.883; -77.017

ایالات متحده آمریکا
United States of America
ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا
پرچم
شعار ملیتوکل ما به خداست. (رسمی)
واحدی متشکل از تعدد (سنتی)
سرود ملیپرچم پُرستاره

پایتختواشینگتن دی. سی.
۳۸°۵۳′ شمالی ۷۷°۰۲′ غربی / ۳۸٫۸۸۳°شمالی ۷۷٫۰۳۳°غربی / 38.883; -77.033
بزرگترین شهر نیویورک سیتی
زبان رسمی در سطح فدرال زبان رسمی ندارد
زبان ملی انگلیسی (دوفاکتو)
نوع حکومت جمهوری مشروطهٔ فدرال
نام حاکمان 
رئیس‌جمهور
معاون رئیس‌جمهور
رئیس مجلس نمایندگان
قاضی ارشد

دونالد ترامپ (ج)
مایک پنس (ج)
پال رایان (ج)
جان رابرتس(ج
قوه مقننه کنگره
 -  مجلس علیا سنا
 -  مجلس سفلی مجلس نمایندگان
موارد منجر به تشکیل
از بریتانیای کبیر
اعلام
رسمی
قانون اساسی فعلی
۴ ژوئیه ۱۷۷۶
۳ سپتامبر ۱۷۸۳
۲۱ ژوئن ۱۷۸۸
مساحت
 -  مساحت ۹٬۸۳۳٬۵۱۷کیلومتر مربع (سوم)
 -  آب‌ها (٪) ۶٬۹۷
جمعیت
 -  سرشماری ۳۰۹٬۳۴۹٬۶۸۹ نفر (سرشماری سال ۲۰۱۰)
۳۲۳٬۶۲۵٬۷۶۲ نفر (تخمین سال ۲۰۱۶) 
(سوم)
 -  تراکم جمعیت ۳۵‎/km۲‏ (۱۸۰)
تولید ناخالص داخلی (تخمین ۲۰۱۶)
 -  مجموع ۱۸٬۵۵۸ تریلیون دلار (دوم)
 -  سرانه ۵۷٬۲۲۰ دلار (دهم)
جینی (۲۰۱۳) ۴۰/۸[۱] 
شاخص توسعه انسانی (۲۰۱۴) ۰٫۹۱۵ (بسیار بالا) (هشتم[۲])
واحد پول دلار آمریکا ($) (USD)
منطقه زمانی CET (ساعت جهانی-۵ ‏تا‎ -۱۰)
 -  تابستانی (DST) CEST (ساعت جهانی)
جهت رانندگی راست
دامنه اینترنتی .us .gov .edu .mil .um
پیش‌شماره تلفنی
برق
 -  اختلاف پتانسیل ۱۱۰ ولت

ایالات متحده آمریکا (ایالات متحده)، (U.S.) یا آمریکا یک جمهوری فدرال متشکل از ۵۰ ایالت، یک منطقه فدرال، پنج سرزمین خودمختار و مجموعه‌ای از جزایر پراکنده است که مجموعاً دارای مساحتی معادل ۹/۸ میلیون کیلومتر مربع (۳/۸ میلیون مایل مربع) و جمعیتی برابر ۳۲۵ میلیون نفر می‌باشد. آمریکا چهارمین کشور دنیا از لحاظ وسعت و سومین کشور دنیا از لحاظ جمعیت می‌باشد. پایتخت آمریکا واشینگتن، دی.سی. و پرجمعیت‌ترین شهر آن نیویورک می‌باشد. چهل و هشت ایالت آمریکا و منطقه فدرال پایتخت در سرزمین اصلی ایالات متحده آمریکا واقع در آمریکای شمالی بین کانادا و مکزیک قرار دارند. ایالت آلاسکا در گوشه شمال غربی آمریکای شمالی بین کانادا از شرق و تنگه برینگ و روسیه از غرب جای گرفته‌است. ایالت هاوایی که به صورت مجمع‌الجزایری می‌باشد، در میانه اقیانوس آرام واقع شده‌است. قلمروهای ایالات متحده آمریکا که در دریای کارائیب و اقیانوس آرام پراکنده هستند، نه منطقه زمانی را شامل می‌شوند. جغرافیا، آب و هوا و حیات وحش فوق‌العاده متنوع و گوناگون آمریکا، این کشور را در زمره ۱۷ کشور دارای تنوع زیستی فراوان قرار داده‌است.

سرخ‌پوستان دیرین، ۱۵٬۰۰۰ سال پیش از سیبری به سرزمین‌های اصلی آمریکای شمالی مهاجرت کردند. استعمار قاره آمریکا توسط اروپایی‌ها از قرن شانزدهم میلادی آغاز شد. در آغاز ایالات متحده آمریکا با ۱۳ مستعمره بریتانیایی بنیان نهاده شده در ساحل شرقی پدیدار گردید. چالش‌ها و اختلافات متعدد بین پادشاهی بریتانیای کبیر و مستعمرات سیزده‌گانه پیرو جنگ فرانسویان و سرخپوستان، منجر به آغاز انقلاب در سال ۱۷۷۵ میلادی در آمریکا و نهایتاً اعلامیه استقلال ایالات متحده آمریکا گردید. جنگ در سال ۱۷۸۳ به پایان رسید و بدین گونه ایالات متحده آمریکا نخستین کشوری بود که استقلال خود را از امپراتوری‌های استعماری کسب نمود. قانون اساسی فعلی آمریکا در سال ۱۷۸۸ با اصلاحات دهگانه که مجموعاً با نام منشور حقوق ایالات متحده آمریکا می‌باشد، پی‌ریزی گردید. در سال ۱۷۹۱ قانون اساسی که تضمین‌کننده همه آزادی‌های اساسی مدنی بود، تصویب گردید. در خلال قرن نوزدهم میلادی ایالات متحده آمریکا به شکلی قاطعانه، به توسعه ارضی در سراسر خاک آمریکای شمالی مشغول شد. همچنین در خلال این قرن سرخپوستان تبعید و ایالات جدید به شکلی تدریجی تأسیس گردیدند. در سال ۱۸۴۴ توسعه سرزمین‌های آمریکا در سراسر قاره آمریکای شمالی به پایان رسید. در نیمه دوم قرن نوزدهم میلادی، جنگ داخلی آمریکا منجر به منسوخ شدن برده‌داری در این کشور شد. در سال‌های پایانی قرن نوزدهم، آمریکا به جزایر و آب‌های اقیانوس آرام مسلط شد و اقتصاد این کشور نیز در نتیجه انقلاب صنعتی فراگیر در دنیا، رشد بی‌سابقه‌ای کرد. جنگ آمریکا و اسپانیا و جنگ جهانی اول، موقعیت آمریکا را به شکل یک ابرقدرت نظامی جهانی تثبیت کرد. ایالات متحده در جنگ جهانی دوم به شکل یک ابرقدرت، نخستین کشور تولیدکننده و تنها کشور استفاده‌کننده بمب‌های اتمی در جنگ و به عنوان اعضای دائم شورای امنیت سازمان ملل متحد ظاهر گردید. در خلال جنگ سرد ایالت متحده و اتحاد جماهیر سوسیالیستی شوروی رقابت فضایی قابل توجه‌ای داشتند که این رقابت در پروژه آپولو ۱۱ به اوج خود رسید. بعد از پایان جنگ سرد در سال ۱۹۹۱ و فروپاشی اتحاد جماهیر شوروی، ایالات متحده تبدیل به تنها ابرقدرت جهان شد.

ایالات متحده از اعضاء بنیانگذار سازمان ملل متحد، صندوق بین‌المللی پول، بانک جهانی، سازمان کشورهای آمریکایی (OAS) و تعدادی دیگر از سازمان‌های بین‌المللی است. ایالات متحده کشوری فوق پیشرفته بر پایه تولید ناخالص داخلی و دومین کشور دنیا بر پایه تولید ناخالص داخلی (برابری قدرت خرید) تقریباً یک‌چهارم تولید ناخالص داخلی کل کشورهای جهان می‌باشد. اقتصاد ایالات متحده یک اقتصاد فراصنعتی و عظیم است که در فعالیت‌های خدماتی به شکلی عالی عمل کرده و در زمینه اقتصاد دانش بنیان جزء سرآمدهای دنیا محسوب می‌شود. از لحاظ تولید ایالات متحده دارنده رتبه دوم در جهان است. ایالات متحده اولین کشور واردکننده و دومین کشور صادرکننده جهان است. با وجود اینکه جمعیت آمریکا فقط ۴٫۳٪ جمعیت جهان است، این کشور مالک ۳۳٫۴٪ ثروت جهانی در بین کشورهای دنیاست. ایالات متحده دارای بیشترین سهم ثروت جهانی در بین کشورهای دنیاست. آمریکا از لحاظ چندین شاخص اجتماعی-اقتصادی مثل دستمزد متوسط، شاخص توسعه انسانی سرانه تولید ناخالص داخلی و سوددهی سرانه جزء رتبه‌های بالا در میان کشورهای جهان به‌شمار می‌رود. ایالات متحده دارنده قدرتمندترین نیروی مسلح جهان است. بودجه و هزینه‌کرد نظامی آمریکا، معادل یک سوم کل بودجه نظامی دنیا می‌باشد. ایالات متحده یک قدرت پیشرو و راهبر در زمینه سیاست، فرهنگ و دانش در جهان به‌شمار می‌رود.

نام

نام «آمریکا» اقتباسی است از نام آمریگو وسپوچی جهانگرد و کاشف ایتالیایی که توسط یک نقشه‌ساز آلمانی در سال ۱۵۰۷ میلادی ثبت شد.[۳] «ایالات متحده آمریکا» نیز در مدارک رسمی نخستین بار در یازدهم ژوئیه سال ۱۷۷۸ میلادی استفاده شد و از آن زمان تاکنون جاری بوده‌است.[۴][۵]

این کشور با نام‌های دیگری مانند ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا، (اِمریکا یا آمریکا) و ایالات متحده خوانده می‌شود. در فارسی در گذشته به آن (بطور عامیانه) ینگه دنیا[۶] و در نوشته‌ها، اتازونی (برگرفته از واژهٔ فرانسوی États-Unis، به معنای ایالت‌های متحد)[۷] نیز می‌گفتند. «ینگی دنیا» برگرفته از ترکی عثمانی و به‌معنی «دنیای جدید» است.[۶]

جغرافیای طبیعی

عقاب سرسفید پرنده ملی آمریکا از سال ۱۷۸۲ میلادی

ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا در نیمکرهٔ غربی زمین، و در شمال قارهٔ آمریکا واقع است. این کشور از ۴۸ ایالت همجوار، و دو ایالت جدا از دیگران (شبه جزیره آلاسکا در شمال شرق قارهٔ آمریکا و مجمع‌الجزایر هاوایی در اقیانوس آرام) تشکیل شده‌است. همچنین، در دو منطقهٔ حوزهٔ دریای کارائیب، و نیز بخش‌هایی از اقیانوس آرام، جزایر کوچک و پراکنده‌ای وجود دارند که قلمرو آمریکا محسوب می‌شوند، ولی به گونه‌ای خودگردان اداره می‌شوند (مانند پورتو ریکو).[۸]
آلاسکا بزرگترین[۹] و رودآیلند کوچکترین ایالت در آمریکا می‌باشند.[۱۰]


مقایسه وسعت آلاسکا بزرگترین ایالت آمریکا با وسعت ۴۸ ایالت این کشور (به جز هاوایی و آلاسکا).

قسمتی از رشته کوه‌های راکی در غرب آمریکا قرار گرفته‌است که بزرگترین قله آن در ایالت کلرادو قرار دارد. مرتفع‌ترین نقطه در آمریکا قله کوه مک کینلی (۶۱۹۴ متر) در آلاسکا می‌باشد. در ۴۸ ایالت پایین نیز مرتفع‌ترین قله بر فراز کوه ویتنی (۴۴۲۱ متر) در کالیفرنیا قرار دارد. رودخانه می‌سی‌سی‌پی بزرگ‌ترین و مهم‌ترین رودخانه آمریکای شمالی و چهارمین رودخانه طولانی جهان در آمریکا قرار دارد. این رودخانه که به رودخانه میسوری می‌پیوندد، نقش تجاری و اقتصادی مهمی برای آمریکا دارد. قسمتی از آبشار نیاگارا در مرز بین آمریکا و کانادا قرار دارد و از جاذبه‌های طبیعی توریستی در آمریکا به‌شمار می‌رود.[نیازمند منبع]

وسعت آمریکا

از نظر کل وسعت آب و خاک، آمریکا بعد از روسیه و کانادا، سومین کشور پهناور جهان است.[۱۱]

مختصات و موقعیت جغرافیایی آمریکا

ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا از شمال با کشور کانادا، و در جنوب با کشور مکزیک مرز خاکی دارد. این کشور در شمال غرب قارهٔ آمریکا و سواحل آلاسکا نیز با روسیه مرزهای مشترک آبی دارد. ۴۸ ایالت به هم پیوسته که خاک اصلی آمریکا را تشکیل می‌دهند، از شرق و جنوب شرقی به اقیانوس اطلس و خلیج مکزیک، و از غرب به اقیانوس آرام منتهی می‌شوند. ایالت آلاسکا نیز از شمال به اقیانوس منجمد شمالی، از غرب به تنگهٔ برینگ، و از جنوب غربی به اقیانوس آرام ختم می‌شود. مجمع‌الجزایر هاوایی هم در جنوب غرب خاک اصلی آمریکا و در اقیانوس آرام واقع شده‌اند.[نیازمند منبع]

مناطق جغرافیایی و فرهنگی ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا عبارت‌اند از: نیوانگلند، ایالت‌های ساحلی اقیانوس اطلس، ایالت‌های جنوب، ایالت‌های غرب میانه (میدوست)، ایالت‌های جنوب غربی آمریکا و ایالت‌های غرب.[نیازمند منبع]

کشور ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا در مجموع ۹٬۸۲۶٬۶۳۰ کیلومتر مربع وسعت دارد[۱۲] که البته ۴۷۰ هزار کیلومتر آن را جزایر پراکنده و تحت قلمرو آمریکا در اقیانوس آرام و دریای کارائیب تشکیل می‌دهند.[نیازمند منبع]

جغرافیای انسانی

نقشهٔ پراکندگی مردمی آمریکا از نظر نژاد و نسب قومی (همه‌پرسی رسمی سال ۲۰۰۰)

جمعیت ایالات متحده آمریکا بر پایه برآورد سال ۲۰۱۵ ادارهٔ آمار ایالات متحده آمریکا در حدود ۳۱۶٬۱۵۸٬۶۹۱ نفر تخمین زده شده‌است.[۱۳]

نرخ کلی باروری در ایالات متحده آمریکا بر پایه برآورد سال ۲۰۱۱ در حدود ۱٫۸۹ فرزند برای هر زن است.[نیازمند منبع]

بر اساس آمار منتشرهٔ سال ۲۰۰۳، ترکیب نژادی مردم ایالات متحده آمریکا، بدین شرح است:

در این آمار، نژاد اسپانیایی‌تبار (موسوم به هیسپانیک، یا لاتینو) همراه با نژاد سفید محاسبه شده‌است. بر اساس بررسی سال ۲۰۰۰ مهاجران کشورهای دیگر به ترتیب جمعیت برابر بودند:مکزیک(۱۷۳٬۹۱۹ مهاجر)، چین(۴۵٬۶۵۲)، فیلیپین(۴۲٬۴۷۴)، هند(۴۲٬۰۴۶)، ویتنام(۲۶٬۷۴۷)، السالوادور(۲۲٬۵۷۸)هائیتی(۲۲٬۳۶۴)، کوبا(۲۰٬۸۳۱)، جمهوری دومینکن(۱۷٬۵۳۶)، روسیه(۱۷٬۱۱۰)، جامائیکا(۱۶٬۰۰۰)کانادا(۱۶٬۲۱۰)، کره(۱۵٬۸۳۰)، اوکراین(۱۵٬۸۱۰)، پاکستان(۱۴٬۵۳۵)، کلمبیا(۱۴٬۴۹۸)، بریتانیا(۱۳٬۳۸۵)، بوسنی و هرزگوین(۱۱٬۸۲۸)، گواتمالا(۹٬۹۷۰)، ایران(۸٬۹۱۵ بنگرید به ایرانیان مقیم آمریکا)[۱۴]

زبان

کشور ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا دارای زبان رسمی نیست، گرچه انگلیسی آمریکایی نقش زبان ملی را دارد و در عمل نیز زبان اصلی کشور است. یکی از پیش‌نیازهای مهاجرت و اقامت در آمریکا برای خارجیان، تسلط نسبی به زبان انگلیسی است.[۱۵]

انگلیسی زبان دولت و کسب و کار آمریکاست و همین‌طور زبان بسیاری از کارهای روزانه مردم.

بیش از ۳۰ ایالت، این زبان را زبان رسمی خود کرده‌اند اما دولت فدرال زبان رسمی ندارد. فعالیت‌هایی برای به رسمیت شناختن انگلیسی به‌عنوان زبان رسمی دولتی نیز در جریان است.[۱۶][۱۷]

در سال‌های ۱۹۸۱ و ۲۰۰۶ میلادی سناتورهای آمریکایی سعی کردند که برای آمریکا زبان رسمی تعریف کرده و انگلیسی را به عنوان زبان رسمی معرفی کنند که تلاششان با شکست روبه‌رو شد.[۱۹]

زبان‌های مرسوم در آمریکا به ترتیب عبارت‌اند از:[۲۰]

تاریخ

نخستین ساکنان این قاره را اقوام سرخ‌پوستان آمریکایی تشکیل می‌داده‌اند.
نگاره‌ای از جورج واشینگتن در مبارزه با بریتانیا، هنگام عبور از رودخانه دلاویر
اطلاعات بیشتر: تاریخ ایالات متحده آمریکا، روزشمار تاریخ ایالات متحده آمریکا، و تاریخ زنان در ایالات متحده آمریکا

بیش از ده هزار سال است که انسان در قارهٔ آمریکا زندگی می‌کند.[۲۱] قاره آمریکا توسط کریستف کلمب و در سال ۱۴۹۲ کشف شد اما او به اشتباه فکر کرد که آنجا هندوستان است اما مدت‌ها بعد آمریگو وسپوچی[۲۲]‏ اعلام کرد که این قاره جدیدی است.[۲۳] اما تاریخ آمریکا به‌عنوان یک کشور مستقل به سال ۱۷۸۳ میلادی بازمی‌گردد که در آن آمریکا بر طبق معاهدهٔ پاریس به رسمیت شناخته گردید.[۲۴]

قبل از اعلام استقلال آمریکا در سال ۱۷۷۶،[۲۵] آمریکا مجموعه‌ای از مستعمرات اروپایی بود. بطور مثال، اسپانیایی‌ها در منطقهٔ فلوریدای امروزی ساکن شدند، بریتانیایی‌ها شهر جیمز تاون در ویرجینیای امروزی را آباد کردند، هلندی‌ها نیو آمستردام را که اکنون نیویورک خوانده می‌شود ساختند، و فرانسوی‌ها نیز در ایالت جنوبی لوئیزیانا و اطراف رودخانه می‌سی‌سی‌پی ساکن شدند. ایالت تگزاس بطور نمونه در تاریخ خود زیر شش پرچم مختلف قرار داشته‌است.[نیازمند منبع]

به تدریج با رشد و توسعه کشور، بخش‌های زیادی از مستعمرات سیزده‌گانه رفته رفته شاهد درگیری و شورش علیه حکومت بریتانیا شدند. بدین ترتیب جنگ‌های انقلاب آمریکا از آوریل ۱۷۷۵ با نبرد لگزینگتون آغاز شد، و سرانجام در سال ۱۷۸۳ در پی امضای قرارداد صلح با بریتانیا پایان یافت. نهایتاً استقلال ۱۳ مستعمرهٔ آمریکای شمالی با صدور اعلامیه استقلال آمریکا در ۴ ژوئیه ۱۷۷۶ محقق شد.[۲۶]

در این دوره آمریکا متشکل از ۱۳ ایالت خودمختار بود که تعارض قوانین هر ایالت مانند مالیات بر واردات باعث رکود اقتصادی و در نتیجه شورش‌هایی مانند شورش شیز شد به همین دلیل ۵۵ نماینده از ۱۲ ایالت (به جز رودآیلند) در فیلادلفیا من‌جمله جورج واشینگتن، بنجامین فرانکلین و جیمز مدیسون قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا را تصویب کردند که اکنون نیز قانون اساسی آمریکا است و از آن موقع ۲۵ اصلاحیه خورده‌است.[۲۶]

با شروع قرن جدید و انتقال پایتخت از فیلادلفیا به واشینگتن، دی. سی. و خرید لوئیزیانا در سال ۱۸۰۳ وسعت آمریکا شروع به گسترش بسیاری نمود، و بریتانیا که موقعیت خود را در خطر می‌دید در سال ۱۸۱۲ بار دیگر به آمریکا قشون کشی کرده و پایتخت جدید آمریکا را به آتش کشانید، اما موفق به استقرار در منطقه نگردید.[نیازمند منبع]

دو واقعهٔ بزرگ و پرتنش دیگر در تاریخ آمریکا در قرن نوزدهم یکی جنگ داخلی آمریکا و دیگری ترور آبراهام لینکلن در دهه شصت و پس از اعلامیه آزادی بردگان با استفاده از متمم سیزدهم قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا توسط وی بود. سال ۱۸۶۱ شاهد جنگ داخلی آمریکا بود که با ۶۰۰٬۰۰۰ تلفات و ۵۰۰٬۰۰۰ نفر زخمی، خونین‌ترین جنگ در تاریخ این کشور بوده‌است.[۲۷] علت این جنگ به عدول ایالت‌های جنوبی مشهور به ایالات مؤتلفه آمریکا از حاکمیت مرکزی فدرال آمریکا بازمی‌گردد که خواهان اختیارات مستقل (از جمله ادامه و گسترش اقتصاد برده داری) در اداره ممالک خود بودند. این جنگ در سال ۱۸۶۵ با پیروزی شمالی‌ها به فرماندهی یولیسیز سایمن گرانت بر رابرت ای لی، پایان گرفت.[۲۸]

آمریکا در سالیان بعد از جنگ داخلی خود را مشغول به کشورگشایی (همانند خرید آلاسکا از روسیه) و توسعه صنعت و اقتصاد در سطح جهانی کرد. جنگ جهانی اول که هیچ صدمه‌ای به آمریکا وارد نگردانید دلیل رشد و ترقی هر چه سریعتر کشور گشت تا اینکه حادثه سقوط بازار آزاد آمریکا در ۱۹۲۹ آغازگر یک دوره رکود اقتصادی چند ساله محسوب می‌گردد که در آن نزدیک به یک چهارم جمعیت آمریکا شغل‌های خود را از دست دادند.[۲۴]

با پیروزی و غلبهٔ متفقین در جنگ جهانی دوم و شکست نهایی آلمان نازی در این جنگ و تخریب شدید زیرساخت‌های اقتصادی و صنعتی اروپا، آمریکا که باز کم‌ترین خسارات را متحمل شده بود، به‌عنوان قدرت بزرگ جهانی پدیدار شد. حذف شدن اتحاد جماهیر شوروی از صحنهٔ رقابت با آمریکا در میادینی چون جنگ سرد، جنگ ویتنام، و جنگ کره، عملاً آمریکا را رفته رفته در موقعیت منحصربه‌فردی در جهان قرار داد.[۲۹]

وقایع یازدهم سپتامبر آغازگر دوران جدیدی از تمرکز و حضور نظامی آمریکا در کشورهای خاورمیانه و افغانستان بود که تا به امروز ادامه دارد.[نیازمند منبع]

نظام سیاسی

اطلاعات بیشتر: فهرست احزاب سیاسی ایالات متحده آمریکا و کابینه ایالات متحده آمریکا

نظام سیاسی ایالات متحده آمریکا در چارچوب یک قانون اساسی و به صورت یک نظام فدرالی است که از ویژگی‌های حکومتی این کشور به‌شمار می‌رود. سیستم تفکیک قوا در این کشور به شکل کاملاً بارزی به مرحله اجرا درآمده‌است. بنیان‌گذاران و نویسندگان اعلامیه استقلال ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا و قانون اساسی ایالات متحده به دلیل نگرانی از ظهور نظام سلطنتی اروپایی که در آن پادشاه قدرت مطلق را در دست داشت، نظام سیاسی جدید خود را به گونه‌ای طراحی کردند که در آن فرد یا نهادی نتواند قدرت مطلق بدست آورد.[۳۰] این قوانین همچنین طوری در نظر گرفته شده‌اند که از قدرت گرفتن بیش از حد اکثریت بر اقلیت‌ها،[۳۱] و نیز هر یک از شاخه‌های ۳گانهٔ قدرت ممانعت به عمل آورد.[۳۲]

بر اساس قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا، قوهٔ مقننه یا کنگره ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا از دو مجلس تشکیل شده‌است که مسؤولیت قانونگذاری را به‌طور کامل بر عهده دارند: مجلس نمایندگان و مجلس سنا. بر اساس نظام انتخاباتی آمریکا، نمایندگان با رأی مستقیم و برابر مردم انتخاب می‌شوند.[۳۳]

قوای سه‌گانه ایالات متحده آمریکا
قوهٔ مجریه: کاخ سفید، محل کار و زندگی رئیس‌جمهور ایالات متحده آمریکا
روسای فعلی قوای سه‌گانه ایالات متحده آمریکا

رئیس‌جمهور ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا نیز به‌عنوان رئیس قوهٔ مجریه و فرمانده کل قوا با رأی مستقیم مردم و از طریق آرای هیئت الکترال انتخاب می‌شود و در برگزیدن مشاورانش به‌عنوان وزرا اختیارات تام دارد. در حقیقت رئیس‌جمهور، نیازی به کسب رأی اعتماد از کنگره ندارد و کنگره نیز متقابلاً نمی‌تواند با رأی عدم اعتماد، هیئت دولت یا وزرا را برکنار کند.[نیازمند منبع]

سومین شاخه از نظام سیاسی آمریکا، سیستم حقوقی ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا است که کاملاً مستقل عمل می‌کند و نه قوهٔ مجریه و نه قوهٔ مقننه نمی‌توانند بر روند تصمیم‌گیری‌های آن تأثیر بگذارند. به عبارت دیگر، رئیس‌جمهور یا کنگره نمی‌توانند مصوبات قانونی دیوان عالی فدرال ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا را باطل اعلام کنند یا از اجرای آنان سر باز زنند. نظام حزبی در ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا نیز در شکل‌دهی به سیاست و حکومت این کشور، نقش مهمی دارد.[نیازمند منبع]

سیاست خارجی

جان کری وزیر امور خارجه سابق ایالات متحده آمریکا.

ایالات متحده آمریکا به کمک توانایی‌های اقتصادی و نظامی قابل توجه خود، نقش مهمی را درسیاست جهانی ایفا می‌کند. این کشور عضو ثابت شورای امنیت سازمان ملل است و دفتر مرکزی سازمان ملل در شهر نیویورک قرار دارد. به استثنای کشورهای ایران، کره شمالی و سودان، کوبا، ونزوئلا و بولیوی،[۳۴] سایر کشورها دارای روابط دیپلماتیک رسمی با آمریکا هستند.[نیازمند منبع]

آمریکا بوسیله قرارداد تجارت آزاد آمریکای شمالی و سازمان کشورهای آمریکایی با همسایگان خود (کانادا و مکزیک) روابط نزدیکی دارد. دولت این کشور هرساله میلیاردها دلار کمک مالی برای توسعه کشورهای دیگر اختصاص می‌دهد، اما درصد این کمک‌ها از تولید ناخالص ملی نسبت به دیگر کشورهای کمک‌کننده، پائین است.[نیازمند منبع]

رئیس‌جمهور آمریکا یکی از عوامل اصلی تعیین‌کنندهٔ جهت‌های کلی سیاست خارجی آمریکا است. بسیاری از مدارک و اسناد دوران هر رئیس‌جمهور امروزه در کتابخانه‌های ویژه هر رئیس‌جمهور موجود است. کنگره آمریکا بودجه‌های کمک‌های خارجی را تعیین می‌کند، تحریم‌های خارجی وضع می‌کند، و به کمک کمیته‌های مخصوصی در مسائل سیاست خارجه اختیارات بررسی و بازبینی امور ویژه (همانند بررسی عملکرد افراد در ماجرای ایران-کنترا) را دارد.[نیازمند منبع]

بسته به نوع حزب یا گروه در قدرت در هر برهه از زمان (همانند حزب دموکرات یا حزب جمهوریخواهان)، سیاست خارجهٔ آمریکا تحت تأثیر تحولات و گرایش‌های خاص آن حزب یا گروه قرار می‌گیرد.[۳۵] گروه‌های لابی نیر دارای قدرت نفوذ زیادی در تصمیم‌گیری‌های سیاست خارجه هستند.[نیازمند منبع]

ایالت‌ها

نوشتار اصلی: ترتیب عضویت ایالات آمریکا

کشور آمریکا ۵۰ ایالت دارد که هرکدام از آن‌ها بنا بر سامانهٔ فدرالیِ حاکم، دارای سطح بالایی از خودگردانی هستند. تا سال ۲۰۲۱ ایالت (۵۱مین) می‌تواند مجمع‌الجزایر پورتوریکو باشد که با موافقت کنگره در ۲۸ ژوئن ۲۰۱۸ مقدمات آن آغاز شده‌است.[۳۶][۳۷]

البته ناحیهٔ واشینگتن، دی. سی. جزو هیچ‌یک از ایالات آمریکا نیست و در منطقهٔ خودمختار کلمبیا قرار دارد. ناحیهٔ کلمبیا، در اصل بخشی از ایالت مریلند بود که در سال ۱۷۹۰ برای تأسیس مرکز آمریکا، یعنی شهر واشینگتن، دی.سی. در نظر گرفته شد.[نیازمند منبع]

آلاباماآلاسکاآریزوناآرکانزاسکالیفرنیاکلرادوکنتیکتدلاویرفلوریداجورجیاهاواییآیداهوایلینویایندیاناآیوواکانزاسکنتاکیلوئیزیاناایالت مینمریلندماساچوستمیشیگانمینه‌سوتامی‌سی‌سی‌پیمیسورینبراسکانوادانیوهمپشرنیوجرسینیومکزیکوکارولینای شمالیداکوتای شمالیاوهایواوکلاهوماپنسیلوانیارودآیلندکارولینای جنوبیداکوتای جنوبیتنسیتگزاسیوتاورمونتویرجینیاواشنگتنویرجینیای غربیویسکانسینوایومینگدلاویرمریلندنیوهمپشرنیوجرسیماساچوستکنتیکتویرجینیای غربیورمونترودآیلندMap of USA with state names fa.svg
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شهرهای آمریکا

شهر نیویورک، بزرگترین شهر در شرق کشور
شهر لس‌آنجلس بزرگترین شهر در غرب کشور
شیکاگو، بزرگترین شهر در قسمت میانی کشور
اطلاعات بیشتر: فهرست شهرهای ایالات متحده آمریکا و فهرست شهرهای ایالات متحده آمریکا بر پایه جمعیت
رتبه شهر جمعیت
در محدوده شهری
(۲۰۱۲)[۳۸][۳۹]
ایالت
۱ نیویورک ۸٬۳۳۶٬۶۹۷ نیویورک
۲ لس‌آنجلس ۳٬۸۵۷٬۷۹۹ کالیفرنیا
۳ شیکاگو ۲٬۷۱۴٬۸۵۶ ایلینوی
۴ هوستون ۲٬۱۶۰٬۸۲۱ تگزاس
۵ فیلادلفیا ۱٬۵۴۷٬۶۰۷ پنسیلوانیا
۶ فینیکس ۱٬۴۸۸٬۷۵۰ آریزونا
۷ سن‌آنتونیو ۱٬۳۸۲٬۹۵۱ تگزاس
۸ سن دییگو ۱٬۳۳۸٬۳۴۸ کالیفرنیا
۹ دالاس ۱٬۲۴۱٬۱۶۲ تگزاس
۱۰ سن خوزه ۹۸۲٬۷۶۵ کالیفرنیا
رتبه کلان‌شهر (شهر با احتساب حومه) جمعیت
۲۰۱۲[۴۰]
منطقه
۱ نیویورک-نیوآرک-لانگ آیلند-جرزی سیتی ۱۸٬۸۳۱٬۸۵۸ آتلانتیک
۲ لس‌آنجلس بزرگ ۱۳٬۰۵۲٬۹۲۱ غرب
۳ شیکاگو-گری ۹٬۵۲۲٬۴۳۴ غرب میانه
۴ منطقه دالاس-فورت وورث ۶٬۷۰۰٬۹۹۱ جنوب غرب
۵ هیوستون-شوگرلند-گلوستون ۶٬۱۷۷٬۰۳۵ جنوب
۶ فیلادلفیا-کمدن-ویلمینگتن ۶٬۰۱۸٬۸۰۰ آتلانتیک
۷ واشینگتن دی. سی.-آرلینگتن ۵٬۸۶۰٬۳۴۲ آتلانتیک
۸ میامی-فورت لادردیل-وست پالم بیچ ۵٬۷۶۲٬۷۱۷ جنوب
۹ آتلانتا ۵٬۴۵۷٬۸۳۱ جنوب
۱۰ بوستون ۴٬۶۴۰٬۸۰۲ نیو انگلند
۱۱ منطقه خلیج سانفرانسیسکو ۴٬۴۵۵٬۵۶۰ غرب
۱۲ دترویت ۴٬۲۹۲٬۰۶۰ غرب میانه
۱۳ ریورساید-سن برناردینو-انتاریو ۴٬۳۵۰٬۰۹۶ غرب
۱۴ فینیکس-گلندیل-میزا-سکاتزدیل ۴٬۳۲۹٬۵۳۴ جنوب غرب
۱۵ سیتل-تاکوما-بلویو ۳٬۵۵۲٬۱۵۷ غرب

اگر لس‌آنجلس بزرگ را متشکل از ریورساید، سن برناردینو، انتاریو، لانگ بیچ، سنتا آنا و خود شهر لس آنجلس حساب کنیم، این منطقه شهری بیش از ۱۷٬۸۰۰٬۰۰۰ سکنه خواهد داشت که پس از کلانشهر نیویورک بزرگترین منطقه شهری ایالات متحده خواهد بود.

آموزش و پژوهش

استیون چو وزیر نیروی ایالات متحده آمریکا در کابینه باراک اوباما برنده جایزه نوبل فیزیک سال ۱۹۹۷ است. وزارت نیروی ایالات متحده آمریکا بسیاری از آزمایشگاه‌های بزرگ علمی آمریکا را اداره می‌کند.

در اواخر قرن نوزدهم میلادی در ایالات متحده آمریکا نزدیک به ۱۶۰٬۰۰۰ دانشجو در ۱٬۰۰۰ دانشگاه در سرتاسر کشور مشغول به تحصیل بودند. برخی از موسسات دانشگاهی آمریکا (همانند دانشگاه تنسی بطور نمونه) قبل از تأسیس ایالتی که در آن واقع بودند تأسیس شدند.[نیازمند منبع]

در این میان، و در بین موسسات آموزش عالی در آمریکا، موسسات زیر دارای کهن‌ترین سابقه هستند:

مؤسسه سال تأسیس[۴۱]
دانشگاه هاروارد ۱۶۳۶
دانشگاه ویلیام اند ماری ۱۶۹۳
دانشگاه ییل ۱۷۰۱
دانشگاه پرینستون ۱۷۴۶
دانشگاه کلمبیا ۱۷۵۴
دانشگاه پنسیلوانیا ۱۷۵۷

امروزه هزینهٔ آموزش و تحصیلات در سطوح مدرسه‌ای و متوسطه در ایالات متحده را اکثراً دولت پرداخت می‌کند. ایالات متحده با داشتن قریب به ۵٬۸۰۰ دانشگاه یا مؤسسه آموزش عالی[۴۲] تقریباً امکان تحصیلات در سطوح آموزش عالی را برای تمامی افراد جامعه فراهم کرده‌است. وام‌های کم‌بهره، کمک هزینه‌های بلاعوض، و انواع بورس‌های تحصیلی، از اقسام راه‌هایی‌اند که دانشجویان اقدام به پرداخت شهریه‌های خود می‌کنند. در این میان دانشگاه ایالتی اوهایو با داشتن بیش از ۵۳٬۷۱۵ دانشجو در یک پردیس، پرجمعیت‌ترین دانشگاه آمریکا محسوب می‌شود.[۴۳]

در میان آمریکاییان بالای ۲۵ سال، ۸۴٫۶ درصد از دبیرستان فارغ‌التحصیل شده‌اند، ۵۲٫۶ درصد وارد کالج، دانشگاه یا مؤسسات دیگر آموزش عالی شده‌اند، ۲۷٫۲ درصد مدرک کارشناسی دریافت کرده‌اند، و ۹٫۶ درصد دارای مدارک کارشناسی ارشد و بالاتر هستند.[۴۴]

تقریباً ۹۹ درصد آمریکاییان دارای حداقل سواد پایه هستند. در طبقه‌بندی سازمان ملل متحد، شاخص آموزشی در کشور ایالات متحده ۰٫۹۷ است که در رتبه دوازدهم جهانی جای دارد.[۴۵] در سال ۲۰۱۲ ایالات متحده آمریکا در میان کشورهای دنیا از نظر تعداد تحصیل کردگان آموزش عالی به نسبت جمعیت در رتبه چهارم جهان قرار داشت.[۴۶]

پژوهش و توسعه در آمریکا در دو جبهه دولتی و خصوصی با هم رقابت می‌کنند. دره سیلیکون نمونه بارزی از فعالیت‌های بخش خصوصی در توسعه صنعت و فناوری آمریکاست. از سوی دیگر مراکز ملی همانند آزمایشگاه‌های فدرال، ناسا، و مؤسسات ملی بهداشت ایالات متحده آمریکا در پیشبرد صنعت و فناوری کشور نقش کلیدی بر عهده دارند.[نیازمند منبع]

آمریکا یکی از تنها سه کشور دنیا است که هنوز رسماً از سامانه استاندارد بین‌المللی یکاها استفاده نمی‌کند و بلکه پایبند به دستگاه امپراتوری بریتانیااست.[۴۷] با اینحال سیستم متریک رفته رفته در صنعت و سطوح دانشگاهی به تدریج رواج می‌یابد.[نیازمند منبع]

اقتصاد

ورودی ساختمان بورس اوراق بهادار نیویورک در وال استریت بزرگ‌ترین بازار بورس در جهان در معاملات دلاری است.
ایالات متحده در تولید برق از انرژی بادی در جهان پیشتاز است. در (مارس ۲۰۱۱) حدود ۳ درصد[۴۹] برق مورد نیاز این کشور از این طریق تأمین می‌شود.
مقایسهٔ تولید ناخالص داخلی ایالت‌های آمریکا با سایر کشورها در سال ۲۰۱۲.

ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا اقتصاد کاپتالیستی از نوع سرمایه‌داری انحصاری دارد. ویژگی بارز اقتصاد ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا عبارت است از تسلط انحصارها در رشته‌های مختلف، که بر مبنای منابع طبیعی فراوان، زیربنای توسعه‌یافته، تولید انبوه، و مصرف زیاد استوار است. تولید ناخالص داخلی ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا با بیش از ۱۹ تریلیون (۱۹٫۰۰۰ میلیارد) دلار،[۵۰] یعنی حدود ۲۰٪ تولید ناخالص جهان، نخستین اقتصاد بزرگ جهان است.[۵۱]

از لحاظ حجم مبادلات، ایالات متحده بزرگ‌ترین واردکننده، و - پس از آلمان و چین - سومین صادرکنندهٔ بزرگ جهان است.[۵۲] کانادا، چین، مکزیک، ژاپن و آلمان، به ترتیب بزرگ‌ترین شرکای تجاری آمریکا هستند.[۵۳] آمریکا در دههٔ اخیر بزرگ‌ترین بدهی جهان را نیز بر شانه داشته‌است.[۵۴]

بزرگ‌ترین اقلام صادراتی آمریکا به ترتیب تجهیزات صنعتی (۲۹٫۸٪)، ماشین‌آلات (۲۹٫۵٪)، کالاهای مصرفی غیر اتومبیل (۱۲٫۴٪)، خودرو و تولیدات وابسته (۹٫۳٪)، تولیدات صنایع غذایی (۸٫۳٪)، و تولیدات صنایع هوایی (۶٫۶٪) هستند، در حالی که بزرگ‌ترین اقلام وارداتی به آمریکا کالاهای مصرفی غیر اتومبیل (۲۳٪)، سوخت (۲۲٫۱٪)، ماشین‌آلات (۱۹٫۹٪)، تجهیزات صنعتی (۱۴٫۸٪)، تولیدات خودرو (۱۱٫۱٪)، صنایع غذایی (۴٫۲٪)، و صنایع هوایی (۱٫۷٪) هستند.[۵۵]

اما بزرگ‌ترین محصولات تولیدی آمریکا مواد شیمیایی، تولیدات نفتی، فولاد، خودرو، تولیدات صنایع هوایی، ارتباطات، الکترونیک، تولیدات غذایی و مصرفی، و صنایع معدن و چوب هستند.[۵۶] آمریکا همچنین در تولید برق،[۵۷] ظرفیت پالایش نفت،[۵۸] ذخیره‌های زغال سنگ،[۵۹] تولید انرژی بادی،[۶۰] و انرژی هسته‌ای[۶۱] در جهان، رتبه نخست را دارا است.[نیازمند منبع]

بیشتر چرخ‌های اقتصادی آمریکا متعلق به بخش خصوصی است، تا جایی‌که بخش دولتی فقط ۱۲٫۴٪ تولید ناخالص داخلی را سالیانه باعث می‌شود.[۶۲] با اینحال ۷۵٪ تولید ناخالص ملی محصول بخش خدماتی بوده‌است. با اینکه تولیدات کشاورزی آمریکا حدود ۱٪ تولید ناخالص ملی این کشور است، همین سطح تولید حدود ۶۰٪ کل تولیدات کشاورزی جهان را تشکیل می‌دهد.[نیازمند منبع]

شاخص‌های اقتصادی
نرخ بیکاری ۷٬۳٪ اوت ۲۰۱۳[۶۳]
رشد تولید ناخالص داخلی ۴٫۶٪ سال ۲۰۱۲
۲٫۸٪ سال ۲۰۱۲[۶۴]
تورم شاخص بهای مصرف‌کننده ۰٫۱٪ ۲۰۱۳[۶۵]
بدهی ۱۶٫۷ هزار میلیارد دلار۲۰۱۳[۶۶]
میزان فقر ۱۵٪ ۲۰۱۲[۶۷]

بخش بهداشت و خدمات اجتماعی با داشتن ۱۶ میلیون نفر شاغل، بزرگ‌ترین بخش اشتغال آمریکا را تشکیل می‌دهد.[۶۸] از لحاظ مجموع ساعات کاری در طول سال، آمریکایی‌ها بیشترین تعداد روز در سال را کار می‌کنند.[۶۹] با این حال در مقایسه با کشورهای صنعتی دیگر، از نظر تولید بر حسب ساعات کاری آمریکایی‌ها از برخی کشورهای اروپایی عقب ترند.[۷۰]

در میان ۵۰ ایالت آمریکا، از لحاظ درآمد سرانه،[۷۱] ایالت نیوجرسی در رتبه اول، و ایالت می‌سی‌سی‌پی در رتبه آخر در مقایسه با ایالات دیگر قرار دارند.[۷۲] نزدیک به ۱۳٪ آمریکاییان در زیر خط فقر تعیین شده توسط دولت فدرال قرار دارند[۷۳] و فاصله طبقاتی بین بالاترین و پایین‌ترین قشرها جامعه آمریکا همچنان در حال افزایش است.[۷۴]

حمل و نقل

در سال ۲۰۱۰ به ازای هر ۱٬۰۰۰ آمریکایی ۷۹۷ اتومبیل در این کشور وجود داشت[۷۶] و برابر آمار به‌طور متوسط هر آمریکایی بالغ روزانه ۵۵ دقیقه (یا ۲۹ مایل) از اتومبیل استفاده می‌کند.[۷۷] اما در مقایسه با گسترهٔ اتومبیل، پایانهٔ ریلی آن به نسبت کمتر است.[۷۸] از نظر حمل و نقل عمومی، تنها ۹٪ از سفرها از این طریق انجام می‌شود در صورتی که این مقدار برای اروپا ۳۸٪است.[۷۹] استفاده از دوچرخه نیز نسبت به اروپا کمتر است.[۸۰] پنج شرکت بزرگ هواپیمایی دنیا -بر اساس تعداد مسافران- آمریکایی هستند. شرکت امریکن ایرلاینز اولین رتبه را در این میان داراست.[۸۱] همچنین از سی فرودگاه پرترافیک دنیا شانزده فرودگاه متعلق به آمریکاست.[۸۲]

دین و مذهب

آمریکا به‌طور رسمی یک کشور سکولار می‌باشد. در ایالات متحده آمریکا بر اساس متمم اول قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا، دین رسمی وجود ندارد و دولت نسبت به همه ادیان و مذاهب بی‌طرف است، اما همین متمم نیز آزادی تمام ادیان را تضمین کرده‌است. به همین دلیل است که مثلاً زنان محجبهٔ مسلمان آمریکایی اجازه حضور در مراکز دولتی و دانشگاهی کشور را از نظر قانونی دارند.[نیازمند منبع]

در سال ۱۷۷۶ با اعلامیهٔ استقلال، رسماً ایالات متحده آمریکا بنیان‌گذاری شد و چند سال بعد، در ۱۷۹۱، قانون اساسی فعلی آمریکا که شامل اصلاحیهٔ نخست متضمن آزادی‌ها و حقوق مدنی (من‌جمله جدایی نهاد دین از نهاد حکومت، آزادی در انتخاب دین و آزادی در اجرای مناسک دینی) به تصویب رسید. به یمن کثرت و تنوع ادیان ساکنان و نیز اصلاحیهٔ نخست قانون اساسی، آمریکا هیچ‌گاه صاحب دین رسمی و حکومتی نبود.[۸۳]

با وجود جدایی دین از سیاست در آمریکا، دین اهمیت ونقش مهمی در این کشور دارد که نماد آن جمله توکل ما به خداست شعار کشور آمریکا است که بر روی اسکناس دلار آمریکا نیز نقش بسته‌است[۸۴] گروه‌های مذهبی قدرت اثرگذاری قابل توجهی در آمریکا دارند در دهه ۱۹۲۰ این گروه‌ها توانستند دولت را ترغیب به ممنوعیت تولید و مصرف مشروبات الکلی کنند[۸۵](اصلاحیه هجدهم قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا ولی با افزایش خشونت‌ها در پی گسترش قاچاق در اصلاحیه بیست و یکم برداشته شد[۲۶])و بر تدریس نظریه تکامل در مدارس آمریکا به صورت محدود و در برخی ایالات محدودیت ایجاد کنند.[۸۶] گروه‌های مذهبی به خصوص پروتستانهای انجیلی و کاتولیک‌ها، مواضع سرسختانه‌ای را دربرابر موضوعات چون همجنسگرایی، سقط جنین و آموزش مختلط در مدارس آمریکا، اتخاذ کرده‌اند.[نیازمند منبع]

بر اساس آمار سال ۲۰۰۲، ترکیب مذهبی مردم آمریکا به شرح زیر بوده‌است:[۸۷] پروتستان ۵۲٪، کاتولیک ۲۴٪، مورمون ۲٪، یهودی ۲٪، مسلمان ۱٪، دیگران ۱۰٪، بدون دین ۱۰٪.[نیازمند منبع]

پروتستانهای آمریکا نیز به فرقه‌های متعددی تقسیم می‌شوند. برخی از آنان میلیون‌ها نفر را دربر می‌گیرند، در حالی که کلیساهای کوچک، تنها هزاران عضو دارند.[نیازمند منبع]

برخی از فرقه‌های مذهبی معروف آمریکا عبارت‌اند از:

اپیسکوپلین‌ها، پرسبیترین‌ها، متدیست‌ها، باپتیست‌ها، یونیتارین‌ها، مریدان مسیح، کلیسای اصلاحی هلندی، کویکرها و کانگروگیشنالیست‌ها.[نیازمند منبع]

فرهنگ

بوفالوی دونده، اثر ادوارد مایبریج در سال ۱۸۸۷ در شهر فیلادلفیا به نمایش درآمد.
اطلاعات بیشتر: فرهنگ و هنر آمریکا

در عرصه هنر و معماری هنرمندان آمریکایی از فرانک لوید رایت گرفته تا اندی وارهال آثار بسیار قابل توجهی در سطح جهانی خلق کرده‌اند. هرم ورودی موزه لوور، کاخ مجلس ملی بنگلادش، برج خلیفه دوبی، و دروازهٔ اروپا در مادرید اسپانیا، نمونه‌هایی از خلاقیت معماران آمریکایی در سراسر جهان است.[نیازمند منبع]

ادوارد مایبریج در سال ۱۸۷۸ برای نخستین بار تصاویر متحرکی را خلق کرد که اسب و بوفالوی وحشی آمریکایی را در حال دویدن نشان می‌داد. نخستین فیلم تجارتی آمریکا فیلمی بود که توسط دستگاه کینتسکوپ ساخت توماس ادیسون در ۱۸۹۴ در شهر نیویورک به نمایش درآمد.[۸۸] از آن زمان تاکنون آمریکا دارای صنعت فیلم‌سازی و سینمایی بسیار بزرگی شده‌است که مرکز آن امروزه هالیوود در شهر لس‌آنجلس است. هالیوود امروزه با ۶۳ میلیارد دلار درآمد، ۳۵ درصد کل تولیدات صنعت فیلمسازی جهان را به خود اختصاص داده‌است.[۸۹] این صنعت با هنر تئاتر در آمریکا رابطهٔ تنگاتنگی دارد، اما بر خلاف سینما، مرکز هنر تئاتر همچنان در شهر نیویورک است، جاییکه عمده‌ترین مراکز هنرهای نمایشی در جهان در آن قرار دارند.[۹۰] برادوی از این لحاظ دارای شهرت و سابقهٔ بی‌همتاییست.

موسیقی امروزه به شکل تولید و اجرای زنده در آمریکا دارای فعالیت بسیار زیادیست به‌طوری‌که در سال ۲۰۰۸ میلادی بیش از ۱۰ میلیارد دلار درآمد تنها حاصل از صنعت ضبط و فروش موسیقی در آمریکا کسب گردید.[۹۱] سبکهای اصیل موسیقی آمریکایی می‌توان به سبکهای جاز، بلوز، هیپ هاپ و کانتری اشاره کرد.[نیازمند منبع]

ادبیات آمریکا در مدت نسبتاً کوتاه عمر این کشور، از مشهورترین چهره‌های شناخته شده ادبیات بشری را به دنیا ارزانی داشته. از مارک توین و ادگار آلن پو و رالف والدو امرسون گرفته تا ارنست همینگوی و جک لندن و امیلی دیکنسون، ادبیات آمریکا را قطعاً از نقاط درخشان فرهنگ این کشور می‌توان به حساب آورد که بر هنرهای کشورهای دیگر تأثیرات فراوانی داشته‌است. از دیگر نویسندگان برتر تاریخ آمریکا می‌توان تی اس الیوت، ویلیام فاکنر، تنسی ویلیامز، جی دی سالینجر، آیزاک آسیموف، مایکل کرایتون، و ریموند کارور را نام برد که آشنای نزدیک صاحبان قلم ادبیات جهان‌اند.[نیازمند منبع]

غذا و آشپزی

آشپزی آمریکایی همچون سرزمین آمریکا دارای تنوع و گوناگونی فراوانیست و از آشپزی آمریکایی چینی تا آشپزی مستعمرات سیزده‌گانه، غذای آمریکاییان دارای طعم و خواص منحصربه‌فردیست که برخی از این غذاها همانند استیک و باربیکیو و چیزبرگر در دنیا محبوبیت عام دارند و برخی دیگر همانند خوراک مار زنگی، پاستای گولاش آمریکایی، پیتزای نیویورکی و گامبو کمتر در خارج از مرزهای آمریکا شهرت یافته‌اند.[نیازمند منبع]

ورزش

از قرن نوزدهم بیسبال به‌عنوان ورزش ملی آمریکا شناخته شد. در وهله بعد فوتبال آمریکایی، بسکتبال و هاکی روی یخ ورزش‌های ملی آمریکا قرار گرفتند. شاید امروزه فوتبال آمریکایی پرطرفدارترین ورزش در آمریکا باشد. اما بسته به موقعیت جغرافیایی ترتیب اهمیت این ورزشها تفاوت خواهد داشت.[نیازمند منبع]

این ورزشها در سطوح مختلف نیز برگزار می‌شوند. بطور نمونه فوتبال کالجی و بسکتبال کالجی در سطوح ملی و سراسری بسیار پرطرفدارند.[۹۲] بوکس و اسب‌دوانی نیز بسیار پرطرفدارند، اما این ورزش‌ها زیر سایه دو ورزش گلف و اتومبیل‌رانی (به خصوص مسابقات نسکار) هستند.[نیازمند منبع]

ایالات متحده آمریکا در بازی‌های المپیک سابقه درخشانی دارد. این کشور تاکنون هشت مرتبه به ترتیب در بازی‌های سال‌های ۱۹۰۴، ۱۹۳۲ (زمستانی)، ۱۹۳۲ (تابستانی)، ۱۹۶۰، ۱۹۸۰، ۱۹۸۴، ۱۹۹۶، و ۲۰۰۲ میزبان بازی‌های المپیک بوده‌است. آمریکا با داشتن ۲٬۱۰۳ مدال در المپیک تابستانی موفق‌ترین کشور دنیا در المپیک محسوب می‌شود،[۹۳][۹۴] و با داشتن ۲۱۶ مدال در بازی‌های المپیک زمستانی در رده دوم جای می‌گیرد.[۹۵]

 رتبه در جهان  تعداد طلا تعداد نقره تعداد برنز در مجموع
۱ سابقه آمریکا در مجموع دوره‌های بازی‌های المپیک تابستانی ۹۷۶ ۷۵۸ ۶۶۶ ۲۴۰۰
۲ سابقه آمریکا در مجموع دوره‌های بازی‌های المپیک زمستانی ۹۶ ۱۰۲ ۸۳ ۲۸۱

نیروهای مسلح

ناو هواپیمابر آبراهام لینکلن.
آمریکا با دارا بودن دوازده ناو هواپیمابر بزرگ‌ترین نیروی دریایی دنیا را داراست.

نیروهای نظامی آمریکا به پنج دسته اصلی تقسیم می‌شوند:[۹۶]

وزیر دفاع (در حال حاضر جیمز متیس) زیر نظر رئیس‌جمهور (در حال حاضر دونالد ترامپ) که مقام فرمانده کل قوا را بر عهده دارد فعالیت می‌کند.[نیازمند منبع]

در سال ۲۰۰۴ ایالات متحده آمریکا با بودجه نظامی ۵۲۲ میلیارد دلار، ۳٫۷٪ تولید ناخالص داخلی را صرف هزینه‌های نظامی کرد، که این هزینه‌های نظامی به تنهایی تقریباً معادل نصف هزینه‌های نظامی جهانی بودند.[۹۷]

رئیس‌جمهور ایالات متحده آمریکا برای اقدام نظامی از مشورت‌های مشاور امنیت ملی ایالات متحده آمریکا برخوردار است. در رده پایین‌تر، وزیر دفاع قرار دارد؛ رئیس ستاد مشترک ارتش ایالات متحده آمریکا هم به فرمانده کل قوا و هم به وزیر دفاع مشورت می‌دهد.[نیازمند منبع]

امنیت و قوای نظمیه

نظم و امنیت در سطح شهر و ایالت را کلانتر و پلیس‌های محلی و ایالتی بر عهده دارند. در برخی موارد و در مواقع مشخص و معینی، ارگانهای فدرال همانند اف‌بی‌آی و مارشال‌ها وارد عمل می‌شوند. سیستم قضایی نیز به همین گونه (و از سطوح محلی به سمت سطوح فدرال) بنا نهاده شده‌است. آمریکا در میان کشورهای پیشرفته دارای آمار جرم و جنایت بالاتری بوده‌است، بخصوص در موارد مربوط به سلاح‌های گرم.[۹۸] در سال ۲۰۰۹ به ازای هر یکصد هزار نفر تعداد ۵ قتل در آمریکا رخ داد.[۹۹] نقش متمم دوم قانون اساسی ایالات متحده آمریکا (در اعطای آزادی حمل سلاح گرم به شهروندان) همواره مورد توجه بحث‌های فراوانی بوده‌است. آمریکا همچنین دارای تعداد نسبی بیشتری جمعیت زندانی می‌باشد.[۱۰۰] و این کشور از معدود کشورهای پیشرفته‌است که هنوز مجرمین را (در ۳۴ ایالت و برخی موارد فدرال) اعدام می‌کند. از سال ۱۹۷۶ تا کنون، تعداد یکهزار اعدام صورت گرفته.[۱۰۱] در سال ۲۰۱۰ پس از کشورهای چین، ایران، کره شمالی، و یمن، آمریکا از این لحاظ در جهان در رتبه پنجم بود.[۱۰۲] با اینحال این قانون از ایالت به ایالت فرق می‌کند. بطور مثال حکم اعدام در ایالات نیوجرسی، نیومکزیکو و ایلینوی ممنوع است.[۱۰۳]

رسانه‌ها

دفتر مرکزی روزنامه یو اس ای تودی در ویرجینیا قرار دارد که در صدر پرتیراژترین روزنامه‌های آمریکا می‌باشد.

به غیر از ارگان‌هایی همانند گروه فرارسی شماره‌ای، صدای آمریکا، یا هیئت کارفرمایان پخش که توسط ارگان‌های دولتی برای مخاطبین خارج از آمریکا تنظیم می‌شوند، اکثر رسانه‌های درون آمریکا یا همانند شبکه‌هایی نظیر فاکس، اچ بی‌او، ام‌تی‌وی، و سی ان ان بطور کاملاً خصوصی و با درآمد حاصل از تبلیغات و آگهی‌های تجارتی اداره می‌گردند، یا همانند رادیوی عمومی ملی و پی‌بی‌اس توسط موسسات و بنیادهای خیریه تأمین مالی می‌گردند.[نیازمند منبع]

از ۱۲۰۰ شبکهٔ تلویریونی آمریکا، از بزرگترین و نامدارترین آنان در تاریخ رسانه‌های آمریکا می‌توان به ۳ شبکهٔ ای‌بی‌سی، ان‌بی‌سی، و سی‌بی‌اس اشاره نمود.[۱۰۴]

قدیمی‌ترین روزنامهٔ آمریکا با تیراژ ثابت و برنامهٔ چاپ روزانه در ۳۰ مهٔ سال ۱۷۸۳ شروع به کار کرد، و فیلادلفیا ایونینگ پست نام داشت. در سال ۲۰۰۸، ۶۲۵۳ هفته‌نامه و ۱۴۲۲ روزنامه در آمریکا درحال فعالیت بود.[۱۰۵]

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  84. History of 'In God We Trust'”.  Retrieved on 2009-04-17.
  85. Stark, ‎Rodney. Sims Bainbridge. Religion, deviance, and social control. Routledge, 1996. 87. ISBN ‎0-415-91529-5. 
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  92. Krane, David K.. Professional Football Widens Its Lead Over Baseball as Nation's Favorite Sport. . Harris Interactive, 2002-10-30.  Retrieved on 2007-09-14. Maccambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game: The Epic Story of How Pro Football Captured a Nation. New York: Random House. ISBN: 0-375-50454-0.
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پیوند به بیرون

Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100

United States of America
Motto: 
Projection of North America with the United States in green
The United States and its territories
The United States including its territories
CapitalWashington, D.C.
38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
Largest cityNew York City
40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
Official languagesNone at federal level[fn 2]
National languageEnglish[fn 3]
Ethnic groups (2016)[6]By race:
77.1% White
13.3% Black
5.6% Asian
2.6% Other/multiracial
1.2% Native
0.2% Pacific Islander
Ethnicity:
17.6% Hispanic or Latino
82.4% non-Hispanic or Latino
Religion (2016)[7]73.7% Christian
18.2% Unaffiliated
2.1% Jewish
0.8% Muslim
2.5% Other
2.6% Unknown
DemonymAmerican
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Donald Trump
Mike Pence
Paul Ryan
John Roberts
LegislatureCongress
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from Great Britain
July 4, 1776
March 1, 1781
September 3, 1783
June 21, 1788
March 24, 1976
Area
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[8] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
6.97
• Total land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2)
Population
• 2017 estimate
325,719,178[9] (3rd)
• 2010 census
308,745,538[10] (3rd)
• Density
85/sq mi (32.8/km2) (179th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$19.390 trillion[11] (2nd)
• Per capita
$59,501[11] (11th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$19.390 trillion[11] (1st)
• Per capita
$59,501[11] (7th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 39.0[12]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.924[13]
very high · 13th
CurrencyUnited States dollar ($) (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 to −12, +10, +11
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 to −10[fn 4]
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright[fn 5]
Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeUS
Internet TLD.us

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[fn 6] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[fn 7] and slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles (10.1 million km2). With a population of over 325 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.[19]

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago.[20] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776. The war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power.[21] The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories,[22] displacing Native American tribes, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848.[22] During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.[23][24] By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean,[25] and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar.[26] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 moon landing. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[27]

The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law".[28] The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations. The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[29] The U.S. economy is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world.[30] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value.[31][32] Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total,[33] the U.S. holds 33% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[34] The United States ranks among the highest nations in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage,[35] human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person.[36] The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending,[37] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[38]

Etymology

The Americas are named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[39]

In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[40] The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army. Addressed to Lt. Col. Joseph Reed, Moylan expressed his wish to carry the "full and ample powers of the United States of America" to Spain to assist in the revolutionary war effort.[41][42][43] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[44]

The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[45] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[46] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[45] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[45]

The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia".[47]

The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[48] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[49]

A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.[50]

History

Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history

Monks Mound in Cahokia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the largest and most influential settlement in Mississippian culture. The concrete staircase follows the approximate course of ancient wooden stairs.
The Cliff Palace, built by the Ancestral Puebloans, is the largest Native cliff dwelling in Mesa Verde National Park.

The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago,[51] though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[52] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward, either along the Pacific coast[53][54] or through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[55] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and it is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[56] While the Clovis culture was thought, throughout the late 20th century, to represent the first human settlement of the Americas,[57] in recent years consensus has changed in recognition of pre-Clovis cultures.[58]

Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[59] From approximately 800 to 1600 AD[60] the Mississippian culture flourished, and its largest city Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[61] While in the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed.[62] Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo. The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.[63] In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth[64] and fifteenth centuries,[65] lasting until the end of the Revolutionary War.[66]

The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[67] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[68] During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[69] After his initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbor, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich—the acting First Lord of the Admiralty of the British Royal Navy.[70]

European settlements

Saint Augustine, Florida, the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States (1565)[71]

After Spain sent Columbus on his first voyage to the New World in 1492, other explorers followed. The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[71] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[72][73]

Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[74] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[75]

A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[76] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[77][78] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[79][80] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[81]

With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established.[82] All had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[83] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[84] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both religion and religious liberty.[85]

The Thirteen Colonies and neighboring polities in 1748

During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[86] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[87]

In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[88] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[89][fn 8]

After having arrived in the Hawaiian islands in 1778, Captain Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California. He made landfall on the Oregon coast at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, naming his landing point Cape Foulweather. Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43° north before they could begin their exploration of the coast northward.[91] In March 1778, Cook landed on Bligh Island and named the inlet "King George's Sound". He recorded that the native name was Nutka or Nootka, apparently misunderstanding his conversations at Friendly Cove/Yuquot; his informant may have been explaining that he was on an island (itchme nutka, a place you can "go around"). There may also have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth, the natives' autonym (a name for themselves). It may also have simply been based on Cook's mispronunciation of Yuquot, the native name of the place.[92]

Effects on and interaction with native populations

Death of Captain Cook by Johann Zoffany (1795)

With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[93] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons, primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements.[94][95][96][97][98][99]

In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[100] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[101][102]

Captain James Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months. He returned to Hawaii to resupply, initially exploring the coasts of Maui and the big island, trading with locals and then making anchor at Kealakekua Bay in January 1779. When his ships and company left the islands, a ship's mast broke in bad weather, forcing them to return in mid-February. Cook would be killed days later.[103] [fn 9][fn 10]

Independence and expansion (1776–1865)

The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[116]

The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which recognized, in a long preamble, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the thirteen United Colonies formed an independent nation and had no further allegiance to the British crown. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day.[117] The Second Continental Congress declared on September 9 "where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States' ".[118] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a weak government that operated until 1789.[117]

Britain recognized the independence of the United States following their defeat at Yorktown in 1781.[119] In the peace treaty of 1783, American sovereignty was recognized from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[120]

Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[121][122][123] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[124] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[125]

Map of the states and territories of the United States, c. 1834

Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[126] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[127] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[128] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[129] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[130]

From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[131] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[132] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[133]

The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states.[134] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[135] Over a half-century, the loss of the American bison (sometimes called "buffalo") was an existential blow to many Plains Indians cultures.[136] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, conflicts and state-sanctioned murder, including the California Genocide, continued throughout the West into the 1900s.[137][138][139][140]

Civil War and Reconstruction era

Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[141] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[142] This led to Missouri's controversial denouncement of the issue, as well as the formation of many short-lived territories such as the State of Scott, a county that left Tennessee to stay anti-slavery.[143][unreliable source?]

With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[142] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[144] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery.

Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[145] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[146] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.

Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, an assassin's bullet on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.

Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[147] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[148]

Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization

Ellis Island, in New York City, was a major gateway for European immigration[149]
The Statue of Liberty in New York City, dedicated in 1886, is a symbol of the United States as well as its ideals of freedom, democracy, and justice [150]

In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[151] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[152]

The end of the Indian Wars further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[153] Mainland expansion was completed by the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[154] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[155] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[156] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[157]

Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[158] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[159] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[160][161][162]

World War I, Great Depression, and World War II

Crowd gathering on Wall Street after the 1929 crash

The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I, in 1914, until 1917 when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[163]

In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[164] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[165] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[166] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[167] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[168]

At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying material to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[169] During the war, the United States was referred as one of the "Four Policemen"[170] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[171][172] Although the nation lost more than 400,000 soldiers,[173] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[174]

The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon, which lead Oppenheimer to recall verses from the Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita, notably being: "I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds".

The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[175] The United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[176][177] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[178]

Cold War and civil rights era

Martin Luther King, Jr. speaking to an anti-Vietnam War rally at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul on April 27, 1967
U.S. President Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, meeting in Geneva in 1985

After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[179] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.

The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments.[180] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[181] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[181] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.

At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[182][183] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[184] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[185][186][187] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.

The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[188]

The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[189][190][191][192][193] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[194]

The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[195][196][197][198] This brought about unipolarity[199] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.

Contemporary history

After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H.W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[200]

Originating in U.S. defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic networks, and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[201]

Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[202] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[203]

On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[204] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[205][206] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[207] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[208][209]

Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[210] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[211] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[212] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[213] Barack Obama, the first African-American[214] and multiracial[215] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[216] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[217] and a relative decline in unemployment.[218] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[219] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[220]

In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during 2016,[221] but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.[222] Although the recession reached its trough in June 2009, voters remained frustrated with the slow pace of the economic recovery. The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's policies, won control of the House of Representatives with a landslide in 2010 and control of the Senate in 2014.[223]

American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in 2009 and 2010, and the war in the region was declared formally over in December 2011.[224] The withdrawal caused an escalation of sectarian insurgency,[225] leading to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in the region.[226] In 2014, Obama announced a restoration of full diplomatic relations with Cuba for the first time since 1961.[needs update][227] The next year, the United States as a member of the P5+1 countries signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement aimed to slow the development of Iran's nuclear program,[228] though the U.S. withdrew from the deal in May 2018.[229] In the United States presidential election of 2016, Republican Donald Trump was elected as the 45th president of the United States. Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.[230]

Geography, climate, and environment

A composite satellite image of the contiguous United States and surrounding areas

The land area of the entire United States is approximately 3,800,000 square miles (9,841,955 km2),[231] with the contiguous United States making up 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940.6 km2) of that. Alaska, separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at 663,268 square miles (1,717,856.2 km2). Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2) in area. The populated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 square miles (23,789 km2).[232] Measured by only land area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada.[233]

The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China. The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.[fn 7] The Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, lists the size of the United States as 3,677,649 square miles (9,525,067 km2), as they do not count the country's coastal or territorial waters.[234] The World Factbook, which includes those waters, gives 3,796,742 square miles (9,833,517 km2).[235]

The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.[236] The Appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaboard from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest.[237] The MississippiMissouri River, the world's fourth longest river system, runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.[237]

Highest peak in the country, Denali

The Rocky Mountains, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado.[238] Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave.[239] The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific coast, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m). The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California,[240] and only about 84 miles (135 km) apart.[241] At an elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's Denali (Mount McKinley) is the highest peak in the country and North America.[242] Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.[243] The United States has the most ecoregions out of any country in the world.[244]

The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.[245] The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.[246] Extreme weather is not uncommon—the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur within the country, mainly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South.[247]

Wildlife

The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.[248]

The U.S. ecology is megadiverse: about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and over 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland.[249] The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species.[250] About 91,000 insect species have been described.[251] The bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States, and is an enduring symbol of the country itself.[252]

There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas.[253] Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area.[254] Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching; about .86% is used for military purposes.[255][256]

Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since 1970. Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation,[257][258] and international responses to global warming.[259][260] Many federal and state agencies are involved. The most prominent is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970.[261] The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act.[262] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.[263]

Demographics

Population

Historical population
Census Pop.
17903,929,214
18005,308,48335.1%
18107,239,88136.4%
18209,638,45333.1%
183012,866,02033.5%
184017,069,45332.7%
185023,191,87635.9%
186031,443,32135.6%
187038,558,37122.6%
188050,189,20930.2%
189062,979,76625.5%
190076,212,16821.0%
191092,228,49621.0%
1920106,021,53715.0%
1930123,202,62416.2%
1940132,164,5697.3%
1950151,325,79814.5%
1960179,323,17518.5%
1970203,211,92613.3%
1980226,545,80511.5%
1990248,709,8739.8%
2000281,421,90613.2%
2010308,745,5389.7%
Est. 2017[9]325,719,1785.5%
1610–1780 population data.[264]
Note that the census numbers do
not include Native Americans until 1860.[265]

The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be 325,719,178 as of July 1, 2017, and to be adding 1 person (net gain) every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day.[33] The U.S. population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from 76.2 million in 1900 to 281.4 million in 2000.[266] The third most populous nation in the world, after China and India, the United States is the only major industrialized nation in which large population increases are projected.[267] In the 1800s the average woman had 7.04 children; by the 1900s this number had decreased to 3.56.[268] Since the early 1970s the birth rate has been below the replacement rate of 2.1 with 1.86 children per woman in 2014. Foreign-born immigration has caused the U.S. population to continue its rapid increase with the foreign-born population doubling from almost 20 million in 1990 to over 40 million in 2010, representing one-third of the population increase.[269] The foreign-born population reached 45 million in 2015.[270] The United States has a very diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members.[271] German Americans are the largest ethnic group (more than 50 million) – followed by Irish Americans (circa 37 million), Mexican Americans (circa 31 million) and English Americans (circa 28 million).[272][273]

White Americans (mostly European ancestry group with 73.1% of total population) are the largest racial group; black Americans are the nation's largest racial minority (note that in the U.S. Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group), and third-largest ancestry group.[271] Asian Americans are the country's second-largest racial minority; the three largest Asian American ethnic groups are Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, and Indian Americans.[271] According to a 2015 survey, the largest American community with European ancestry is German Americans, which consists of more than 14% of total population.[274] In 2010, the U.S. population included an estimated 5.2 million people with some American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry (2.9 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.2 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.5 million exclusively).[275] The census counted more than 19 million people of "Some Other Race" who were "unable to identify with any" of its five official race categories in 2010, over 18.5 million (97%) of whom are of Hispanic ethnicity.[275]

Most common ancestry in each U.S. state in 2000
     German      American      Mexican      Irish      African      Italian      English      Japanese      Puerto Rican

The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans (the terms are officially interchangeable) is a major demographic trend. The 50.5 million Americans of Hispanic descent[275] are identified as sharing a distinct "ethnicity" by the Census Bureau; 64% of Hispanic Americans are of Mexican descent.[276] Between 2000 and 2010, the country's Hispanic population increased 43% while the non-Hispanic population rose just 4.9%.[277] Much of this growth is from immigration; in 2007, 12.6% of the U.S. population was foreign-born, with 54% of that figure born in Latin America.[278][fn 11]

Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constituted 37.2% of the population in 2012[284] and over 50% of children under age one,[285][281] and are projected to constitute the majority by 2044.[285]

The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,000, which is 5 births below the world average.[286] Its population growth rate is positive at 0.7%, higher than that of many developed nations.[287] In fiscal year 2016, over one million immigrants (most of whom entered through family reunification) were granted legal residence.[288] Mexico has been the leading source of new residents since the 1965 Immigration Act. China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the 1990s.[289] As of 2012, approximately 11.4 million residents are illegal immigrants.[290] As of 2015, 47% of all immigrants are Hispanic, 26% are Asian, 18% are white and 8% are black. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing.[270]

A 2017 Gallup poll concluded that 4.5% of adult Americans identified as LGBT with 5.1% of women identifying as LGBT, compared with 3.9% of men.[291] The highest percentage came from the District of Columbia (10%), while the lowest state was North Dakota at 1.7%.[292]

About 82% of Americans live in urban areas (including suburbs);[235] about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000.[293] The U.S. has numerous clusters of cities known as megaregions, the largest being the Great Lakes Megalopolis followed by the Northeast Megalopolis and Southern California. In 2008, 273 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million (New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston).[294] There are 52 metropolitan areas with populations greater than one million.[295] Of the 50 fastest-growing metro areas, 47 are in the West or South.[296] The metro areas of San Bernardino, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, and Phoenix all grew by more than a million people between 2000 and 2008.[295]

Leading population centers (see complete list)
Rank Core city (cities) Metro area population Metropolitan Statistical Area Region[297]
New York City
New York City

Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Chicago
Chicago

Dallas
Dallas

1 New York City 20,320,876 New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA MSA Northeast
2 Los Angeles 13,353,907 Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA MSA West
3 Chicago 9,533,040 Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSA Midwest
4 Dallas–Fort Worth 7,399,662 Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSA South
5 Houston 6,892,427 Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSA South
6 Washington, D.C. 6,216,589 Washington, DC–VA–MD–WV MSA South
7 Miami 6,158,824 Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL MSA South
8 Philadelphia 6,096,120 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSA Northeast
9 Atlanta 5,884,736 Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA MSA South
10 Boston 4,836,531 Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSA Northeast
11 Phoenix 4,737,270 Phoenix–Mesa–Chandler, AZ MSA West
12 San Francisco 4,727,357 San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSA West
13 Riverside–San Bernardino 4,580,670 Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario, CA MSA West
14 Detroit 4,313,002 Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI MSA Midwest
15 Seattle 3,867,046 Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSA West
16 Minneapolis–St. Paul 3,600,618 Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSA Midwest
17 San Diego 3,337,685 San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSA West
18 Tampa–St. Petersburg 3,091,399 Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSA South
19 Denver 2,888,227 Denver–Aurora–Lakewood, CO MSA West
20 Baltimore 2,808,175 Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD MSA South
Based on 2017 MSA population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau[298]

Language

English (American English) is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2010, about 230 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language.[299][300] Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in 32 states.[301]

Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii, by state law.[302] Alaska recognizes twenty Native languages as well as English.[303] While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French.[304] Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents including court forms.[305]

Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan[306] is officially recognized by American Samoa. Chamorro[307] is an official language of Guam. Both Carolinian and Chamorro have official recognition in the Northern Mariana Islands.[308] Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico and is more widely spoken than English there.[309]

The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: Spanish (around 7.2 million students), French (1.5 million), and German (500,000). Other commonly taught languages (with 100,000 to 250,000 learners) include Latin, Japanese, ASL, Italian, and Chinese.[310][311] 18% of all Americans claim to speak at least one language in addition to English.[312]

Languages spoken at home by more than 1 million persons in the U.S. (2016)[313][314][fn 12]
Language Percent of
population
Number of
speakers
Number who
speak English
very well
Number who
speak English
less than
very well
English (only) ~80% 237,810,023 N/A N/A
Spanish
(including Spanish Creole but excluding Puerto Rico)
13% 40,489,813 23,899,421 16,590,392
Chinese
(all varieties, including Mandarin and Cantonese)
1.0% 3,372,930 1,518,619 1,854,311
Tagalog
(including Filipino)
0.5% 1,701,960 1,159,211 542,749
Vietnamese 0.4% 1,509,993 634,273 875,720
Arabic
(all varieties)
0.3% 1,231,098 770,882 460,216
French
(including Patois and Cajun)
0.3% 1,216,668 965,584 251,087
Korean 0.2% 1,088,788 505,734 583,054

Religion

Religious affiliation in the U.S. (2014)[315]
Affiliation % of U.S. population
Christianity 70.6 70.6
 
Protestant 46.5 46.5
 
Evangelical Protestant 25.4 25.4
 
Mainline Protestant 14.7 14.7
 
Black church 6.5 6.5
 
Catholic 20.8 20.8
 
Mormon 1.6 1.6
 
Jehovah's Witnesses 0.8 0.8
 
Eastern Orthodox 0.5 0.5
 
Other Christian 0.4 0.4
 
Judaism 1.9 1.9
 
Hinduism 1.2 1.2
 
Islam 0.9 0.9
 
Buddhism 0.9 0.9
 
Other faiths 1.8 1.8
 
Irreligion 22.8 22.8
 
Nothing in particular 15.8 15.8
 
Agnostic 4.0 4
 
Atheist 3.1 3.1
 
Don't know or refused answer 0.6 0.6
 

The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.

In a 2013 survey, 56% of Americans said that religion played a "very important role in their lives", a far higher figure than that of any other wealthy nation.[316] In a 2009 Gallup poll, 42% of Americans said that they attended church weekly or almost weekly; the figures ranged from a low of 23% in Vermont to a high of 63% in Mississippi.[317]

As with other Western countries, the U.S. is becoming less religious. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under 30.[318] Polls show that overall American confidence in organized religion has been declining since the mid to late 1980s,[319] and that younger Americans, in particular, are becoming increasingly irreligious.[315][320] According to a 2012 study, the Protestant share of the U.S. population had dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religious category of the majority for the first time.[321][322] Americans with no religion have 1.7 children compared to 2.2 among Christians. The unaffiliated are less likely to get married with 37% marrying compared to 52% of Christians.[323]

According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians;[324] Protestants accounted for 46.5%, while Roman Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the largest single denomination.[325] In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion.[315] These include Judaism (1.9%), Hinduism (1.2%), Buddhism (0.9%), and Islam (0.9%).[315] The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion—up from 8.2% in 1990.[325][326][327] There are also Unitarian Universalist, Scientologist, Baha'i, Sikh, Jain, Shinto, Confucian, Taoist, Druid, Native American, Wiccan, humanist and deist communities.[328]

Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at 15.4%,[329] and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination at 5.3% of the U.S. population.[329] Apart from Baptists, other Protestant categories include nondenominational Protestants, Methodists, Pentecostals, unspecified Protestants, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, other Reformed, Episcopalians/Anglicans, Quakers, Adventists, Holiness, Christian fundamentalists, Anabaptists, Pietists, and multiple others.[329] Two-thirds of American Protestants consider themselves to be born again.[329] Roman Catholicism in the United States has its origin primarily in the Spanish and French colonization of the Americas, as well as in the English colony of Maryland.[330] It later grew because of Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration. Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population.[331] Utah is the only state where Mormonism is the religion of the majority of the population.[332] The Mormon Corridor also extends to parts of Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada and Wyoming.[333] Eastern Orthodoxy is claimed by 5% of people in Alaska,[334] a former Russian colony, and maintains a presence on the U.S. mainland due to recent immigration from Eastern Europe. Finally, a number of other Christian groups are active across the country, including the Oneness Pentecostals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Restorationists, Churches of Christ, Christian Scientists, Unitarians and many others.

The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.[317]

Family structure

As of 2007, 58% of Americans age 18 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 25% had never been married.[335] Women now work mostly outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor's degrees.[336]

The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is 26.5 per 1,000 women. The rate has declined by 57% since 1991.[337] In 2013, the highest teenage birth rate was in Alabama, and the lowest in Wyoming.[337][338] Abortion is legal throughout the U.S., owing to Roe v. Wade, a 1973 landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of 241 per 1,000 live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.[339] In 2013, the average age at first birth was 26 and 40.6% of births were to unmarried women.[340]

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2016 was 1.82 births per 1000 woman.[341] Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries).[342] In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the U.S. accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide.[343] Same-sex marriage is legal nationwide and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U.S.[344]

Health

Massachusetts General Hospital is one of the oldest health-care institutions in the United States

The United States has a life expectancy of 79.8 years at birth, up from 75.2 years in 1990.[345][346][347] Life expectancy ranged from a high of 81.3 years in Hawaii to a low of 73.4 years in American Samoa.[348][349] The infant mortality rate of 6.17 per thousand places the United States 56th-lowest out of 224 countries.[350]

Increasing obesity in the United States and health improvements elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in 1987, to 42nd in 2007.[351] Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30 years, are the highest in the industrialized world, and are among the highest anywhere.[352][353] Approximately one-third of the adult population is obese and an additional third is overweight.[354] Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered epidemic by health care professionals.[355]

In 2010, coronary artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.S. Low back pain, depression, musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, drug abuse, kidney disease, cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates.[347] U.S. teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher than in other Western nations, especially among blacks and Hispanics.[356] Suicide rates have increased in nearly every state from 1999 through 2016, and is a leading cause of death in the United States.[357] Drug overdoses, two-thirds of which are from opioids, are the leading cause of death for those under the age of 50.[358]

The U.S. is a global leader in medical innovation. America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since 1975 as ranked by a 2001 poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.[359] Since 1966, more Americans have received the Nobel Prize in Medicine than the rest of the world combined. From 1989 to 2002, four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe.[360] The U.S. health-care system far outspends any other nation, measured in both per capita spending and percentage of GDP.[361]

Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal. In 2014, 13.4% of the population did not carry health insurance.[362] The subject of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a major political issue.[363][364] In 2006, Massachusetts became the first state to mandate universal health insurance.[365] Federal legislation passed in early 2010 would ostensibly create a near-universal health insurance system around the country by 2014,[needs update] though the bill and its ultimate effect are issues of controversy.[366][367]

Education

The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819, is one of the many public universities in the United States. Universal government-funded education exists in the United States, while there are also many privately funded institutions.

American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.[368]

About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. Just over 2% of children are homeschooled.[369] The U.S. spends more on education per student than any nation in the world, spending more than $11,000 per elementary student in 2010 and more than $12,000 per high school student.[370] Some 80% of U.S. college students attend public universities.[371]

The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities listed by different ranking organizations are in the U.S.[372][373][374] There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees.[375] The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%.[235][376] The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world.[377]

As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some other OECD nations but spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending.[370][378] As of 2018, student loan debt exceeded 1.5 trillion dollars, more than Americans owe on credit cards.[379][380]

Government and politics

The United States Capitol,
where Congress meets:
the Senate, left; the House, right
The White House, home and workplace of the U.S. President

The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law".[28] The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.[381] For 2016, the U.S. ranked 21st on the Democracy Index[382] (tied with Italy) and 18th on the Corruption Perceptions Index.[383]

In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.[384]

The federal government is composed of three branches:

The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the 2010 census, seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had 53.[389] The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one member of Congress — these members are not allowed to vote.[390]

The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories do not have senators.[390] The President serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The President is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.[391] The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life.[392]

The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature.[393] The governor (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.

The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times;[394] the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803)[395] in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.[396]

Political divisions

Map of U.S. Economic Exclusion Zone,[397] highlighting states, territories and possessions

The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal district, five territories and several uninhabited island possessions.[398][399][400] The states and territories are the principal administrative districts in the country. These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, Washington DC.[401] The states and the District of Columbia choose the President of the United States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three (because of the 23rd Amendment).[402] Territories of the United States such as Puerto Rico do not have presidential electors, and so people in those territories cannot vote for the president.[390]

Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The total number of voting Representatives is 435. There are also 6 non-voting representatives who represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories.[403]

The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. citizens and tribal lands are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.[404]

Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U.S. territories except American Samoa.[405][406]

Parties and elections

Congressional leadership meeting with President Obama in 2011.[407]
Donald Trump
45th President
since January 20, 2017
Mike Pence
48th Vice President
since January 20, 2017

The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.[408] For elective offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1856, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Since the Civil War, only one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912—has won as much as 20% of the popular vote. The President and Vice-president are elected through the Electoral College system.[409]

Within American political culture, the center-right Republican Party is considered "conservative" and the center-left Democratic Party is considered "liberal".[410][411] The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as "blue states", are relatively liberal. The "red states" of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.

Republican Donald Trump, the winner of the 2016 presidential election, is serving as the 45th President of the United States.[412] Leadership in the Senate includes Republican Vice President Mike Pence, Republican President Pro Tempore Orrin Hatch, Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, and Minority Leader Chuck Schumer.[413] Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Paul Ryan, Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, and Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.[414]

In the 115th United States Congress, both the House of Representatives and the Senate are controlled by the Republican Party. The Senate consists of 51 Republicans, and 47 Democrats with 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 241 Republicans and 194 Democrats.[415] In state governorships, there are 33 Republicans, 16 Democrats, and 1 Independent.[416] Among the DC mayor and the 5 territorial governors, there are 2 Republicans, 1 Democrat, 1 New Progressive, and 2 Independents.[417][418]

Foreign relations

The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters. It is a member of the G7,[420] G20, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States (although the U.S. still maintains relations with Taiwan and supplies it with military equipment).[421]

The United States has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom[422] and strong ties with Canada,[423] Australia,[424] New Zealand,[425] the Philippines,[426] Japan,[427] South Korea,[428] Israel,[429] and several European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, and Spain. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the trilateral North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico. In 2008, the United States spent a net $25.4 billion on official development assistance, the most in the world. As a share of America's large gross national income (GNI), however, the U.S. contribution of 0.18% ranked last among 22 donor states. By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous.[430]

The U.S. exercises full international defense authority and responsibility for three sovereign nations through Compact of Free Association with Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau. These are Pacific island nations, once part of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands after World War II, which gained independence in subsequent years.[431]

On October 25, 2017, Vice President Mike Pence announced at a In Defense of Christians annual dinner meeting in Washington that the United States would stop funding United Nations relief efforts, cases tackling the persecution of Christians in the Middle East, but insisted that the U.S. would instead help and aid Christians directly through the United States Agency for International Development.[432] Pence said that he will be visiting the Middle East in December and will meet with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to discuss peace agreements.[433][434]

Government finance

U.S. federal debt held by the public as a percentage of GDP, from 1790 to 2013.[435]
Government Revenue and spending GDP.png

Taxes in the United States are levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency.[436] Both non-resident citizens and Green Card holders living abroad are taxed on their income irrespective of where they live or where there income is earned. It is the only country in the world, other than Eritrea, to do so.[437]

In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP.[438] During FY2012, the federal government collected approximately $2.45 trillion in tax revenue, up $147 billion or 6% versus FY2011 revenues of $2.30 trillion. Primary receipt categories included individual income taxes ($1,132B or 47%), Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($845B or 35%), and corporate taxes ($242B or 10%).[439] Based on CBO estimates,[440] under 2013 tax law the top 1% will be paying the highest average tax rates since 1979, while other income groups will remain at historic lows.[441]

U.S. taxation has historically been generally progressive, especially the federal income taxes, though by most measures it became noticeably less progressive after 1980.[442][443] It has sometimes been described as among the most progressive in the developed world, but this characterization is controversial.[444][445][446][447][443] The highest 10% of income earners pay a majority of federal taxes,[448] and about half of all taxes.[449] Payroll taxes for Social Security are a flat regressive tax, with no tax charged on income above $118,500 (for 2015 and 2016) and no tax at all paid on unearned income from things such as stocks and capital gains.[450][451] The historic reasoning for the regressive nature of the payroll tax is that entitlement programs have not been viewed as welfare transfers.[452][453] However, according to the Congressional Budget Office the net effect of Social Security is that the benefit to tax ratio ranges from roughly 70% for the top earnings quintile to about 170% for the lowest earning quintile, making the system progressive.[454]

The top 10% paid 51.8% of total federal taxes in 2009, and the top 1%, with 13.4% of pre-tax national income, paid 22.3% of federal taxes.[455] In 2013 the Tax Policy Center projected total federal effective tax rates of 35.5% for the top 1%, 27.2% for the top quintile, 13.8% for the middle quintile, and −2.7% for the bottom quintile.[456][457] The incidence of corporate income tax has been a matter of considerable ongoing controversy for decades.[447][458] State and local taxes vary widely, but are generally less progressive than federal taxes as they rely heavily on broadly borne regressive sales and property taxes that yield less volatile revenue streams, though their consideration does not eliminate the progressive nature of overall taxation.[447][459]

During FY 2012, the federal government spent $3.54 trillion on a budget or cash basis, down $60 billion or 1.7% vs. FY 2011 spending of $3.60 trillion. Major categories of FY 2012 spending included: Medicare & Medicaid ($802B or 23% of spending), Social Security ($768B or 22%), Defense Department ($670B or 19%), non-defense discretionary ($615B or 17%), other mandatory ($461B or 13%) and interest ($223B or 6%).[439]

The total national debt of the United States in the United States was $18.527 trillion (106% of the GDP) in 2014.[460][fn 13]

Military

The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The United States Department of Defense administers the armed forces, including the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force. The Coast Guard is run by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and by the Department of the Navy during times of war. In 2008, the armed forces had 1.4 million personnel on active duty. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2.3 million. The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors.[465]

Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System.[466] American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy's Atlantic and Pacific fleets. The military operates 865 bases and facilities abroad,[467] and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.[468]

The military budget of the United States in 2011 was more than $700 billion, 41% of global military spending and equal to the next 14 largest national military expenditures combined. At 4.7% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia.[469] U.S. defense spending as a percentage of GDP ranked 23rd globally in 2012 according to the CIA.[470] Defense's share of U.S. spending has generally declined in recent decades, from Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal outlays in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal outlays in 2011.[471]

US global military presence.

The proposed base Department of Defense budget for 2012, $553 billion, was a 4.2% increase over 2011; an additional $118 billion was proposed for the military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan.[472] The last American troops serving in Iraq departed in December 2011;[473] 4,484 service members were killed during the Iraq War.[474] Approximately 90,000 U.S. troops were serving in Afghanistan in April 2012;[475] by November 8, 2013 2,285 had been killed during the War in Afghanistan.[476]

Law enforcement and crime

Law enforcement in the U.S. is maintained primarily by local police departments. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) is the largest in the country.

Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with state police providing broader services. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal laws.[477] At the federal level and in almost every state, a legal system operates on a common law. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Plea bargaining in the United States is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.[478]

In 2015, there were 15,696 murders which was 1,532 more than in 2014, a 10.8% increase, the largest since 1971.[479] The murder rate in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people.[480] In 2016 the murder rate increased by 8.6%, with 17,250 murders that year.[481] The national clearance rate for homicides in 2015 was 64.1%, compared to 90% in 1965.[482] In 2012 there were 4.7 murders per 100,000 persons in the United States, a 54% decline from the modern peak of 10.2 in 1980.[483] In 2001–2, the United States had above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence compared to other developed nations.[484] A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States "homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher."[485] Gun ownership rights continue to be the subject of contentious political debate.

From 1980 through 2008 males represented 77% of homicide victims and 90% of offenders. Blacks committed 52.5% of all homicides during that span, at a rate almost eight times that of whites ("whites" includes most Hispanics), and were victimized at a rate six times that of whites. Most homicides were intraracial, with 93% of black victims killed by blacks and 84% of white victims killed by whites.[486] In 2012, Louisiana had the highest rate of murder and non-negligent manslaughter in the U.S., and New Hampshire the lowest.[487] The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports estimates that there were 3,246 violent and property crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012, for a total of over 9 million total crimes.[488]

Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and used in 31 states.[489][490] No executions took place from 1967 to 1977, owing in part to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In 1976, that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed. Since the decision there have been more than 1,300 executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma.[491] Meanwhile, several states have either abolished or struck down death penalty laws. In 2015, the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.[492]

The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world.[493] At the start of 2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in every 100 adults.[494] In December 2012, the combined U.S. adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997.