سالوادور فلیپه ژاسینتو دالی دومنک اسپانیایی: Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domènech (زاده ۱۱ مه ۱۹۰۴ - ۲۳ ژانویه ۱۹۸۹) نقاش فراواقعگرای اسپانیایی بود. دالی طراحی ماهر بود که بیشتر به خاطر خلق تصاویری گیرا و خیالی در آثار فراواقعگرایش به شهرت رسید. مهارت وی در نقاشی اغلب به تاثیر نقاشان رنسانس نسبت داده میشود. معروفترین اثر سالوادور دالی بهنام تداوم حافظه در سال ۱۹۳۱ خلق شد. وی همچنین در عکاسی، مجسمهسازی و فیلمسازی نیز فعالیت داشت. وی با والت دیسنی تهیهکننده و کارگردان شهیر آمریکایی در ساخت کارتن کوتاه و برنده جایزه اسکار «دستینو» که در سال ۲۰۰۳ و پس از مرگ وی منتشر شد، همکاری داشت. دالی همچنین با آلفرد هیچکاک در ساخت فیلم «طلسم شده» (۱۹۴۵) همکاری کرد.
دالی همواره بر «ریشه عرب» خود تاکید داشت و ادعا میکرد که اجدادش به نسل «مور»ها که جنوب اسپانیا را برای تقریباً ۸۰۰ سال در اختیار داشتند، باز میگردد. همچنین خانواده مادری دالی ریشهای یهودی در بارسلونا داشتند.
دالی که شدیداً فردی خیالپرداز بود، علاقه وافری به انجام کارهایی عجیب برای جلب توجه دیگران داشت. این قبیل کارها اغلب برای کسانی که به هنر وی علاقه داشتند خستهکننده بود و به همان اندازه برای منتقدین وی، آزاردهنده به شمار میرفت. این نوع رفتار غیرعادی دالی گاهگاهی توجه افکار عمومی را بیشتر از آثار هنری وی جلب میکرد و در نتیجه، این رسوایی و بدنامی تعمدی منجر به شناخت گسترده عامه مردم و تقاضا برای خرید آثار وی توسط طیف گستردهای از مردم شد.
سالهای ابتدایی زندگی[ویرایش]
سالوادور فلیپه ژاسینتو دالی دومنک در ۱۱ مه ۱۹۰۴ در شهر فیگوئرس (به اسپانیایی: Figueras) در منطقه کاتالونیای اسپانیا نزدیک به مرز فرانسه به دنیا آمد. برادر بزرگتر دالی بهنام سالوادور (زادهٔ ۱۲ اکتبر ۱۹۰۱)، ۹ ماه قبل از تولد وی به دلیل بیماری التهاب روده و معده در ۱ اوت ۱۹۰۳ از دنیا رفت. پدرش، «سالوادور دالی ای کاسی» وکیل و دفترداری از طبقه متوسط بود که قوانین و انضباط سختگیرانهاش در خانه توسط همسرش ملایم شده بود و در حقیقت، «فلیپا دومنک فریس» مادر دالی تنها کسی بود که تلاشها و زحمات هنری پسرش را تشویق میکرد. والدین دالی هنگامی که پسرشان پنج سال بیشتر نداشت وی را سر قبر برادرش بردند و به او گفتند که روح برادرش در جسم او حلول کردهاست که وی آن را باور کرد. دالی در مورد برادرش گفتهبود: «(ما) شبیه به یکدیگریم مانند دو قطره آب، اما بازتابی متفاوت داریم. او احتمالاً اولین نسخه من بود اما بیش از حد در کمال تصور شد.»
او همچنین خواهری بهنام آنا ماریا داشت که ۳ سال از دالی کوچکتر بود. در سال ۱۹۴۹، او کتابی در مورد زندگی برادرش با نام «دالی از نگاه خواهرش» منتشر کرد. از دوستان کودکی سالوادور میتوان به فوتبالیستهای آینده باشگاه بارسلونا «ساگیباربا» و «جوزف سامیتیر» اشاره کرد. در ایام تعطیلات این سه نفر در پاتوقشان «کاداکس» (شهری بندری در استان خرونا در شرق اسپانیا) با هم فوتبال بازی میکردند.
پس از شرکت دالی در مدرسه نقاشی، در سال ۱۹۱۶ و در جریان تعطیلات تابستانی و سفر به کاداکس با خانواده «رامون پیچوت»، وی برای اولین بار با نقاشی مدرن آشنا شد. پیچوت نقاشی محلی بود که مرتباً به پاریس سفر میکرد. یک سال بعد، پدر دالی نمایشگاهی از آثار نقاشی با ذغال پسرش در منزل خانوادگیشان بر پا کرد. سالوادور جوان اولین نمایش عمومی از آثارش را به سال ۱۹۱۹ در سالن تئاتر شهرداری فیگوئرس برگزار کرد.
در فوریه ۱۹۲۱ و زمانی که دالی ۱۶ سال داشت، مادرش به دلیل سرطان سینه از دنیا رفت. او بعدها در مورد مرگ مادرش گفت: «بزرگترین ضربهای بود که من در زندگیم تجربه کردم. من او را میپرستیدم ... نمیتوانستم غم از دست دادن کسی را فراموش کنم که میپنداشتم ایرادات اجتنابناپذیر ضمیرم را محو میکند.» پس از مرگ مادر، پدر دالی با خواهر همسر سابقش ازدواج کرد. دالی برخلاف باور عدهای، از این ازدواج به دلیل علاقه و احترامی که برای خالهاش قائل بود، اظهار رنجش نکرد.
مادرید و پاریس[ویرایش]
در ۱۹۲۲، دالی به اقامتگاهی دانشجویی در مادرید نقل مکان کرد و در آنجا، در «آکادمی سن فرناندو» (مدرسه هنرهای زیبا) شروع به تحصیل کرد. دالی از همان بدو ورودش به عنوان جوانی خوشپوش، لاغر و قد بلند که مو و خط ریشی بلند داشت و کت، جورابی ساق بلند و شلواری که تا زانویش ادامه داشت و به سبک «آئستتهای» سده ۱۹ (میلادی) انگلستان میپوشید، توجه همگان را به خود جلب کردهبود. اما بیش از همه نقاشیهایش به دلیل تجربه وی از کوبیسم، بیشترین توجه را نسبت به دیگران دانشآموزان آکادمی به خود جلب میکرد. در کارهای ابتدایی کوبیسماش، دالی احتمالاً مفاهیم کلیدی جنبش را به طور کامل نمیشناخت چون که اطلاعات وی از هنر کوبیسم محدود به تعدادی مجله و کاتالوگ بود که توسط پیچوت به او داده شدهبود و در آن زمان، هنرمند کوبیستی در مادرید نبود.
در سال ۱۹۲۴، دالی که هنوز هنرمندی ناشناخته بود صفحهآرایی یک کتاب را برعهدهگرفت. این کتاب، مجموعه شعری کاتالانی بهنام «افسانههای بازماندگان» (به اسپانیایی: Les bruixes de Llers) اثر دوست همشاگردیاش «کارلس فگس دی کلمنت» بود.
دالی همچنین به تجربه دادائیسم پرداخت که آثارش را در تمام عمر تحت تاثیر خود قرار داد. در طول اقامت دالی در آکادمی، وی طرح دوستی صمیمی با «خوزه پپین بلو»، «لوئیس بونوئل» و شاعر معروف «فدریکو گارسیا لورکا» ریخت. دوستی وی با لورکا براساس احساسات شدید دوطرفه پایهگذاری شدهبود، اما دالی بیمناکانه این رابطه عشقی با شاعر جوان را رد کرد.
دالی در سال ۱۹۲۶ اندکی پیش از امتحانات نهایی به دلیل اظهار نظر در مورد عدم شایستگی مسئولین در امتحان گرفتن از وی، از آکادمی اخراج شد. تسلط و مهارت وی بر هنر نقاشی در اثر واقعگرا و بیعیب «سبد نان» که در سال ۱۹۲۶ خلق شده، به خوبی نشان داده شدهاست. در همان سال دالی برای اولین بار به پاریس رفت و در آنجا با پابلو پیکاسو نقاش شهیر اسپانیایی که احترام خاصی دالی برای وی قائل بود، ملاقات کرد. پیکاسو پیش از این ملاقات از خوان میرو نقاش و مجسمهساز اسپانیایی در مورد سالوادور دالی شنیدهبود. در سالهای آتی همزمان با پیشرفت سبک منحصربهفرد دالی در نقاشی، تعدادی از کارهای وی به شدت تحت تاثیر آثاری از پیکاسو و میرو قرار گرفت.
بعضی از گرایشهایی که در سرتاسر عمر دالی ادامه پیدا کرد، در آثار وی در دهه ۱۹۲۰ کاملاً مشهود است. دالی حریصانه سبکهای گوناگون هنری را میبلعید و سپس آثارش را از آکادمیکترین سبکهای هنر کلاسیک که نمایانگر آشنایی وی با «رافائل»، «برانزینو» «فرانسیسکو زربرن»، «یوهانس ورمر» و «دیهگو ولاسکز» بودند تا پیشگامان هنر آوانگارد، گاه در آثاری مجزا و گاه در ترکیبی از آثار بسط میداد. نمایشگاه آثار دالی در بارسلونا توجه بسیاری را به خود جلب کرد و ترکیبی از تحسین و تحیر برای منتقدین هنری به همراه داشت.
در همان دوره، دالی سبیلی منحصربهفرد با تاسی از نقاش اسپانیایی سده ۱۷ «دیهگو ولاسکز» گذاشت.
۱۹۲۹ تا جنگ جهانی دوم[ویرایش]
در سال ۱۹۲۹، دالی با کارگردان و فیلمساز اسپانیایی لوئیس بونوئل در ساخت فیلم کوتاه «سگ اندلسی» همکاری کرد. او بیشتر در نوشتن فیلمنامه به بونوئل کمک کرد اما بعدها مدعی شد که در فیلمبرداری پروژه نیز به شدت درگیر بودهاست، ادعایی که هیچگاه با دلیل و مدرک ثابت نشد. همچنین در همان سال، دالی با همسر آیندهاش «گالا» ملاقات کرد. «النا ایوانوونا دیاکونووا» یک مهاجر روس بود که تقریباً یازده سال از دالی بزرگتر بود و پیش از این، با شاعر سوررئالیست فرانسوی «پل الوارد» ازدواج کردهبود. در این سال، دالی چندین نمایشگاه مهم برگزار کرد و به طور رسمی به گروه سوررئالیستها در محله مون پارناس پاریس پیوست. (اگرچه آثار دالی پیش از این برای تقریباً دو سال شدیداً تحتتاثیر سوررئالیسم بود.) سوررئالیستها روشی که دالی آن را «شیوه انتقادی-توهمی» در دستیابی به ناخودآگاه برای خلاقیت هنری بیشتر مینامید را تشویق کردند.
در ۱۹۳۱، دالی یکی از مشهورترین آثارش بهنام «تداوم حافظه» را خلق کرد. این اثر که ساعتهای نرم یا ساعتهایی در حال ذوب شدن نیز نامیده میشود، تصویری فراواقعگرا از ساعتهای جیبی معرفی میکند. به عنوان تعبیر کلی برای این اثر، نقاش سعی دارد با استفاده از ساعتهای نرم فرضیهای که زمان را صلب و قطعی میانگارد را کم ارزش جلوه دهد و این مفهوم توسط دیگر تصاویر در این کار تقویت میشود، مانند کاربرد دورنمای وسیع و مورچهها و مگسی که ساعتها را میبلعند.
دالی و گالا که از سال ۱۹۲۹ با یکدیگر زندگی میکردند، سرانجام در سال ۱۹۳۴ رسماً با یکدیگر ازدواج کردند. (آنها در ۱۹۵۸ این ازدواج را اینبار در مراسمی کاتولیک تکرار کردند.)
دالی از طریق دلال آثار هنری «جولیان لوی» در سال ۱۹۳۴ به جامعه هنری آمریکا معرفی شد، و نمایش آثار وی در نیویورک که شامل تابلوی «تدوام حافظه» نیز بود خیلی زود تاثیر خود را گذاشت به نحوی که مسئولین لیست «ثبت اجتماعی» ورود نام وی را به این فهرست در مراسم ویژه «مجلس رقص دالی» جشن گرفتند. او در حالی در این مراسم حاضر شد که بر روی سینهاش، قابی شیشهای حاوی یک سینهبند پوشیده بود.
در سال ۱۹۳۶، دالی در «نمایشگاه بینالمللی فراواقعگرایی لندن» شرکت کرد. وی برای سخنرانیاش که «ارواح پارانویید قابل اعتماد» (به اسپانیایی: Fantomes paranoiaques authentiques) نام داشت، لباس غواصی آبهای عمیق به تن کردهبود. او در حالی پا به این مراسم گذاشت که چوب بیلیارد در دست داشت و یک جفت سگ از نژاد وولفهوند روسی همراهیش میکردند. دالی در میانه سخنرانی به دلیل پوشیدن کلاه سنگین غواصی بر سر در نفس کشیدن دچار مشکل شد و اگر کلاه غواصی به موقع باز نشدهبود، احتمالاً خفه میشد. او بعدها در مورد این سخنرانی گفتهبود: فقط خواستم «شیرجه عمیق» رفتنم را در ذهن انسان نشان دهم.
بر طبق زندگینامه شخصی لوئیس بونوئل، دالی و گالا در یک مهمانی بالماسکه در شیکاگو شرکت کردند در حالی که لباس پسربچهٔ لیندبرگ و بچهدزد را بر تن کردهبودند. «ماجرای بچهدزدی لیندبرگ» در سال ۱۹۳۲ و حوادث مرتبط با آن تا اعدام متهم در سال ۱۹۳۶، همواره در صدر خبرهای آن روزها بود و بهوسیله میلیونها نفر دنبال میشد. انتقادات در جراید از این عمل دالی و همسرش به حدی بود که وی مجبور به عذرخواهی شد و هنگامی که به پاریس بازگشت، سوررئالیستها او را به دلیل عذرخواهی از یک عمل سوررئال مورد بازخواست قرار دادند.
آندره برتون شاعر و نویسنده سوررئالیست فرانسوی، دالی را متهم به جانبداری از «پدیده هیتلر» با کاربرد کلماتی نظیر «جدید» و «نامعمول» کرد. اتهامی که نقاش خیلی سریع آن را رد کرد و در پاسخ چنین گفت: «من نه در واقعیت و نه در خیال هیتلری هستم.» با این حال، هنگامی که فرانکو پس از جنگ داخلی اسپانیا به قدرت رسید، دالی به طرفداری از رژیم جدید پرداخت. این طرفداری سرانجام باعث اخراج وی از گروه سوررئالیستها شد. پس از این واقعه، دالی با گفتن «من خود سوررئالیسم هستم» پاسخ داد. آندره برتون آناگرامی بهنام «اویدا دالارز» (برای سالوادور دالی) ابداع کرد که کم و بیش به معنای «حریص برای دلار» بود و آن را به دالی بعد از اخراجش نسبت داد. از آن به بعد سوررئالیستها در مورد دالی با افعال زمان گذشته طوری که وی مردهبود، صحبت میکردند. در این دوران حامی اصلی دالی، شاعر متمول انگلیسی «ادوارد جیمز» بود. جنبش فراواقعگرایی و اعضای مختلف آن (مانند «تد جونز» شاعر، ترومپتنواز و نقاش آمریکایی) سیاست انتقادی و بهشدت سختگیرانهای را در قبال دالی تا زمان مرگش و حتی پس از آن در پیش گرفتند.
ادوارد جیمز با خرید بسیاری از آثار و حمایت مالی برای تقریباً دو سال از دالی جوان به پدیدار شدن نام وی در دنیای هنر کمک کرد. آنها دوستان خوبی شدند و تصویری از جیمز در نقاشی دالی بهنام «قوها انعکاس فیلها» نیز نشان داده شدهاست. آنها همچنین در خلق تعدادی از بادوامترین نمادهای جنبش فراواقعگرایی مانند «تلفن خرچنگی» و «مبل لبهای مائی وست» همکاری کردند.
در طول این دوران، دالی هیچگاه دست از نوشتن برنمیداشت. در ۱۹۴۱، وی برای هنرپیشه سرشناس فرانسوی «ژان گابین» فیلمنامهای با نام «جزر و مد مهتاب» نوشت. وی همچنین کاتالوگهایی برای نمایشگاههایش نوشت که از آن جمله میتوان به «نگارخانه نودلر» در نیویورک به سال ۱۹۴۳ اشاره کرد، جایی که وی به تفصیل شرح داد:
وی همچنین رمانی در مورد سالن مد برای اتومبیلها نوشت که در سال ۱۹۴۴ منتشر شد. «ادوین کاکس» کاریکاتوری از وی در حالی که اتومبیلی را به عنوان لباس شب پوشیدهاست، کشید که در روزنامه «هرالد میامی» چاپ شد.
در سال ۱۹۴۰ و با گسترش آتش جنگ جهانی دوم در اروپا، دالی و گالا به آمریکا رفته و به مدت ۸ سال در آنجا زندگی کردند. پس از این جابجایی، دالی مجدداً به ممارست در کاتولیسیزم پرداخت. در ۱۹۴۲، وی زندگینامهای به قلم خود با نام «زندگی اسرارآمیز سالوادور دالی» منتشر کرد. در سال ۱۹۴۷، راهبی ایتالیایی به نام «گابریل ماریا براردی» مدعی شد که در خلال اقامت دالی در فرانسه در آن سال، نقش «جنگیر» را برای وی ایفا کردهاست. راهب برای اثبات ادعای خود، مجسمهای از مسیح بر روی صلیب داشت که دالی برای برای تشکر از جنگیرش به وی دادهبود. این مجسمه در سال ۲۰۰۵ پیدا شد و متخصصین اسپانیایی در سوررئالیسم تاکید کردند که شواهد و قرائن کافی در سبکشناسی برای اثبات این که این مجسمه توسط دالی ساخته شدهاست، وجود دارد.
سالهای پایانی در کاتالونیا[ویرایش]
دالی در سال ۱۹۴۹ تصمیم گرفت تا بقیه عمر خود را در کاتالونیای محبوبش زندگی کند. این تصمیم او در انتخاب اسپانیا به عنوان محل زندگی در زمانی که تحت سلطه فرانکو دیکتاتور اسپانیا بود، نکوهشهای گستردهای در میان منتقدین هنری ایجاد کرد. این انتقادات به حدی بود که موجب کنار گذاشتن بعضی از آثار دالی از نمایشگاههای معتبر احتمالاً نه به دلیل ارزیابی ارزش هنری آنها بلکه مسائل سیاسی شد. در ۱۹۵۹، آندره برتون نمایشگاهی با نام «بیعت با سوررئالیسم» به مناسبت تجلیل از چهلمین سالگرد سوررئالیسم تدارک دید که در آن آثاری از سالوادور دالی، خوان میرو، انریکی تابارا و یوگنیو گرانل به نمایش گذاشته شدهبود. یک سال بعد، برتون به شدت به انتقاد از ورود تابلوی «مریم مقدس سیستین» دالی به نمایشگاه بینالمللی فراواقعگرایی در نیویورک پرداخت.
دالی در سالهای پایانی زندگی حرفهایاش، خود را محدود به نقاشی نکرد و بسیاری از کارها و اعمال رسانهای جدید و غیرمنتظره را تجربه کرد. او آثاری در بولتیسم بهوجود آورد و در زمره پیشگامان استفاده از تمامنگاری به شیوهای هنری بود. او در تعدادی از کارهایش از خطای دید نیز استفاده کرد. در سالهای پایانی عمر دالی، هنرمندان جوانی نظیر اندی وارهول به تقدیر از تاثیر آثار وی بر پاپ آرت پرداختند. دالی همچنین علاقه زیادی به علوم طبیعی و ریاضیات داشت. این علاقه در تعدادی از کارهای دالی به وضوح قابل مشاهدهاست، بهویژه آثاری که در دهه ۱۹۵۰ (میلادی) با کاربرد شاخ کرگدن در آنها کشیده شدهاند که اشاره به هندسه ایزدی در خلقت (شاخ کرگدن بر طبق مارپیچی لگاریتمی رشد میکند) و نجابت (دالی کرگدن را به مریم باکره مرتبط کردهبود) داشت. دالی علاوهبراین بهشدت مجذوب دیانای و تسرکت (همتای چهاربعدی یک مکعب) بود. به عنوان نمونه یک تسرکت تانشده در نگاره «مصلوب کردن» ثبت شدهاست.
دوره پس از جنگ جهانی دوم برای دالی همراه با نشانهایی از استعداد سرشار هنری و علاقه وی به مباحثی در خطای دید، علم و مذهب بود. او این دوران را با الهام از واقعه هیروشیما و آموزههای کاتولیک، «عرفان هستهای» نامید. در نگارههایی مانند «مریم مقدس پورت لیگات» (نسخه اول) به سال ۱۹۴۹ و «مصلوب کردن» به سال ۱۹۵۴، دالی سعی در ترکیب پیکرنگاری مسیحی با تصاویری از تجزیه مادی با الهام از فیزیک هستهای داشت. «عرفان هستهای» در آثاری مانند «گاره دی پرپینان» به سال ۱۹۶۵ و «گاوباز توهمزا» که در خلال سالهای ۱۹۶۸-۱۹۷۰ خلق شد، کار شدهاست. در سال ۱۹۶۰، دالی شروع به کار بر روی «موزه و تئاتر دالی» در شهر زادگاهش فیگوئرس کرد؛ این بزرگترین پروژه مستقل دالی بود که تمرکز اصلی وی را تا سال ۱۹۷۴ به خود جلب کرد. او همچنان تا میانههای دهه ۱۹۸۰ بر افزونههایی برای این مجموعه کرد.
در ۱۹۶۸، دالی تبلیغی تلویزیونی برای شکلات لانوین ساخت و در ۱۹۶۹ برای یک شرکت آبنباتسازی اسپانیایی، لوگو طراحی کرد. همچنین، در این سال دالی مسئول تبلیغات مسابقه آواز یوروویژن بود و مجسمهای فلزی عظیمی ساخت که بر روی صحنه کنسرت در مادرید قرار دادهشد.
در برنامهای تلویزیونی با نام «دالی کثیف: یک نظر شخصی» که در ۳ ژوئن ۲۰۰۷ از شبکه ۴ تلویزیون انگلستان پخش شد، منتقد هنری بریان سول به شرح آشناییاش با دالی در اواخر دهه (۱۹۶۰ میلادی) پرداخت که شامل خوابیدن در حالت جنینی بدون شلوار در بغل مجسمهای از مسیح و در حال خودارضایی برای دالی بود که خود را مشغول عکسبرداری نشان میداد در حالی که با دست شلوار خود را لمس میکرد.
در ۱۹۸۰ وضعیت سلامت دالی به وخامت گرائید. همسر سالخوردهاش گالا به او شربتی خطرناک از داروهایی بدون نسخه میخوراند که به سیستم عصبی دالی آسیب رساند که نهایتاً پایانی غیرمنتظره بر تواناییهای هنریش بود. دالی که تا سن ۷۶ سالگی در سلامتی کامل بود، این اتفاق کاملاً شکستهاش کرد و دست راستش مانند بیماری پارکینسون به رعشه دچار شد.
در سال ۱۹۸۲، خوان کارلوس اول پادشاه اسپانیا به دالی لقب مارکز شهر پبول در خرونا را اعطا کرد، پس از آن که پادشاه وی را در بستر بیماری ملاقات کرد و دالی به وی تابلوی «سر اروپا» (که آخرین تابلو در دوران حیاتش بود) را بخشید.
گالا در ۱۰ ژوئن ۱۹۸۲ از دنیا رفت. پس از مرگ وی، دالی انگیزهٔ خود برای ادامه حیات را از دست داد. او از فیگوئرس به پبول و قصری که در آنجا برای گالا خریدهبود، نقلمکان کرد تا در جایی که گالا از دنیا رفتهبود، سالهای باقیمانده از عمرش را سپری کند. در ۱۹۸۴ قسمتی از قصر و اتاقخواب دالی به علتی نامشخص (تلاش برای خودکشی توسط دالی یا غفلت خدمه) آتش گرفت. دالی از این حادثه جان سالم به در برد و به فیگوئرس بازگشت، جایی که گروهی از دوستان، حامیان و هنرمندان تصمیم گرفتند تا وی در موزه و تئاتر خود سالهای پایانی زندگیش را بگذراند.
ادعاهایی در مورد مجبور کردن دالی توسط پرستارانش به امضا کردن بومهای سفید وجود دارد. این بومها درآینده (حتی پس از مرگ نقاش) مورد استفاده قرار گرفت و به عنوان آثار اصلی به فروش رفت. در نتیجه، دلالان آثار هنری در رابطه با آثار سالهای پایانی زندگی دالی بسیار محتاط عمل میکنند.
در نوامبر ۱۹۸۸، دالی به علت عارضه قلبی در بیمارستان بستری شد و در تاریخ ۵ دسامبر ۱۹۸۸ «خوان کارلوس اول» پادشاه اسپانیا که خود را همیشه از مریدان سرسخت دالی برمیشمرد، از وی عیادت کرد. در ۲۳ ژانویه ۱۹۸۹، هنگامی که قطعهٔ محبوبش از اپرای «تریستن و ایزولده» اجرا میشد، سالوادور دالی به علت عارضه قلبی در سن ۸۴ سالگی در فیگوئرس از دنیا رفت. وی در سرداب موزه و تئاتر خود به خاک سپردهشد. مراسم تدفین وی در کلیسای سنت پره جایی که وی در آن غسل تعمید داده و در نزدیکی خانهای که در آنجا متولد شدهبود، برگزار شد.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Dalí de Púbol (11 May 1904 – 23 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí (//; Catalan: [səɫβəˈðo ðəˈɫi]; Spanish: [salβaˈðoɾ ðaˈli]), was a prominent Spanish surrealist artist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media.
Dalí attributed his "love of everything that is gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descended from the Moors.
Dalí was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. His eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork, to the dismay of those who held his work in high esteem, and to the irritation of his critics.
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20 (presently 6), in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain. In the Summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24 (presently 10). Dalí's older brother, who had also been named Salvador (born 12 October 1901), had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903. His father, Salvador Dalí i Cusí, was a middle-class lawyer and notary whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domenech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors.
When he was five, Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, "[we] resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was probably a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute." Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his later works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother (1963).
Dalí also had a sister, Anna Maria, who was three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, Dalí As Seen By His Sister. His childhood friends included future FC Barcelona footballers Sagibarba and Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football (soccer) together.
Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he also discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris. The next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1919, a site he would return to decades later.
In February 1921, Dalí's mother died of breast cancer. Dalí was 16 years old; he later said his mother's death "was the greatest blow I had experienced in my life. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had a great love and respect for his aunt.
Madrid and Paris
In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes (Students' Residence) in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. A lean 1.72 metres (5 ft 7 3⁄4 in) tall, Dalí already drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat, stockings, and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century.
At the Residencia, he became close friends with (among others) Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, and Federico García Lorca. The friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances.
However it was his paintings, in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. His only information on Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot, since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time. In 1924, the still-unknown Salvador Dalí illustrated a book for the first time. It was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers ("The Witches of Llers") by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí also experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life.
Dalí was expelled from the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams when he was accused of starting an unrest. His mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had already heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends. As he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works heavily influenced by Picasso and Miró.
Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were already evident in the 1920s. Dalí devoured influences from many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde. His classical influences included Raphael, Bronzino, Francisco de Zurbarán, Vermeer and Velázquez. He used both classical and modernist techniques, sometimes in separate works, and sometimes combined. Exhibitions of his works in Barcelona attracted much attention along with mixtures of praise and puzzled debate from critics.
1929 to World War II
In 1929, Dalí collaborated with surrealist film director Luis Buñuel on the short film Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog). His main contribution was to help Buñuel write the script for the film. Dalí later claimed to have also played a significant role in the filming of the project, but this is not substantiated by contemporary accounts. Also, in August 1929, Dalí met his lifelong and primary muse, inspiration, and future wife Gala, born Elena Ivanovna Diakonova. She was a Russian immigrant ten years his senior, who at that time was married to surrealist poet Paul Éluard. In the same year, Dalí had important professional exhibitions and officially joined the Surrealist group in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris. His work had already been heavily influenced by surrealism for two years. The Surrealists hailed what Dalí called his paranoiac-critical method of accessing the subconscious for greater artistic creativity.
Meanwhile, Dalí's relationship with his father was close to rupture. Don Salvador Dalí y Cusi strongly disapproved of his son's romance with Gala, and saw his connection to the Surrealists as a bad influence on his morals. The final straw was when Don Salvador read in a Barcelona newspaper that his son had recently exhibited in Paris a drawing of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ, with a provocative inscription: "Sometimes, I spit for fun on my mother's portrait".
Outraged, Don Salvador demanded that his son recant publicly. Dalí refused, perhaps out of fear of expulsion from the Surrealist group, and was violently thrown out of his paternal home on December 28, 1929. His father told him that he would be disinherited, and that he should never set foot in Cadaqués again. The following summer, Dalí and Gala rented a small fisherman's cabin in a nearby bay at Port Lligat. He bought the place, and over the years enlarged it by buying the neighbouring fishermen cabins, gradually building his much beloved villa by the sea. Dalí's father would eventually relent and come to accept his son's companion.
In 1931, Dalí painted one of his most famous works, The Persistence of Memory, which introduced a surrealistic image of soft, melting pocket watches. The general interpretation of the work is that the soft watches are a rejection of the assumption that time is rigid or deterministic. This idea is supported by other images in the work, such as the wide expanding landscape, and other limp watches shown being devoured by ants.
Dalí and Gala, having lived together since 1929, were married in 1934 in a semi-secret civil ceremony. They later remarried in a Catholic ceremony in 1958. In addition to inspiring many artworks throughout her life, Gala would act as Dalí's business manager, supporting their extravagant lifestyle while adeptly steering clear of insolvency. Gala seemed to tolerate Dalí's dalliances with younger muses, secure in her own position as his primary relationship. Dalí continued to paint her as they both aged, producing sympathetic and adoring images of his muse. The "tense, complex and ambiguous relationship" lasting over 50 years would later become the subject of an opera, Jo, Dalí (I, Dalí) by Catalan composer Xavier Benguerel.
Dalí was introduced to the United States by art dealer Julien Levy in 1934. The exhibition in New York of Dalí's works, including Persistence of Memory, created an immediate sensation. Social Register listees feted him at a specially organized "Dalí Ball". He showed up wearing a glass case on his chest, which contained a brassiere. In that year, Dalí and Gala also attended a masquerade party in New York, hosted for them by heiress Caresse Crosby. For their costumes, they dressed as the Lindbergh baby and his kidnapper. The resulting uproar in the press was so great that Dalí apologized. When he returned to Paris, the Surrealists confronted him about his apology for a surrealist act.
While the majority of the Surrealist artists had become increasingly associated with leftist politics, Dalí maintained an ambiguous position on the subject of the proper relationship between politics and art. Leading surrealist André Breton accused Dalí of defending the "new" and "irrational" in "the Hitler phenomenon", but Dalí quickly rejected this claim, saying, "I am Hitlerian neither in fact nor intention". Dalí insisted that surrealism could exist in an apolitical context and refused to explicitly denounce fascism. Among other factors, this had landed him in trouble with his colleagues. Later in 1934, Dalí was subjected to a "trial", in which he was formally expelled from the Surrealist group. To this, Dalí retorted, "I myself am surrealism".
In 1936, Dalí took part in the London International Surrealist Exhibition. His lecture, titled Fantômes paranoiaques authentiques, was delivered while wearing a deep-sea diving suit and helmet. He had arrived carrying a billiard cue and leading a pair of Russian wolfhounds, and had to have the helmet unscrewed as he gasped for breath. He commented that "I just wanted to show that I was 'plunging deeply' into the human mind." In 1936, Dalí, aged 32, was featured on the cover of Time magazine.
Also in 1936, at the premiere screening of Joseph Cornell's film Rose Hobart at Julien Levy's gallery in New York City, Dalí became famous for another incident. Levy's program of short surrealist films was timed to take place at the same time as the first surrealism exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, featuring Dalí's work. Dalí was in the audience at the screening, but halfway through the film, he knocked over the projector in a rage. "My idea for a film is exactly that, and I was going to propose it to someone who would pay to have it made", he said. "I never wrote it down or told anyone, but it is as if he had stolen it". Other versions of Dalí's accusation tend to the more poetic: "He stole it from my subconscious!" or even "He stole my dreams!"
In this period, Dalí's main patron in London was the very wealthy Edward James. He had helped Dalí emerge into the art world by purchasing many works and by supporting him financially for two years. They also collaborated on two of the most enduring icons of the Surrealist movement: the Lobster Telephone and the Mae West Lips Sofa.
Meanwhile, Spain was going through a civil war (1936-1939), with many artists taking a side or going into exile.
In 1938, Dalí met Sigmund Freud thanks to Stefan Zweig. Dalí started to sketch Freud's portrait, while the 82-year-old celebrity confided to others that "This boy looks like a fanatic." Dalí was delighted upon hearing later about this comment from his hero.
Later, in September 1938, Salvador Dalí was invited by Gabrielle Coco Chanel to her house "La Pausa" in Roquebrune on the French Riviera. There he painted numerous paintings he later exhibited at Julien Levy Gallery in New York. At the end of the 20th century, "La Pausa" was partially replicated at the Dallas Museum of Art to welcome the Reeves collection and part of Chanel's original furniture for the house.
Also in 1938, Dalí unveiled Rainy Taxi, a three-dimensional artwork, consisting of an actual automobile with two mannequin occupants. The piece was first displayed at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris at the Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, organised by André Breton and Paul Éluard. The Exposition was designed by artist Marcel Duchamp, who also served as host.
At the 1939 New York World's Fair, Dalí debuted his Dream of Venus surrealist pavilion, located in the Amusements Area of the exposition. It featured bizarre sculptures, statues, and live nude models in "costumes" made of fresh seafood, an event photographed by Horst P. Horst, George Platt Lynes and Murray Korman. Like most attractions in the Amusements Area, an admission fee was charged.
In 1939, André Breton coined the derogatory nickname "Avida Dollars", an anagram for "Salvador Dalí", a phonetic rendering of the French phrase avide à dollars, meaning "eager for dollars". This was a derisive reference to the increasing commercialization of Dalí's work, and the perception that Dalí sought self-aggrandizement through fame and fortune. The Surrealists, many of whom were closely connected to the French Communist Party at the time, expelled him from their movement. Some surrealists henceforth spoke of Dalí in the past tense, as if he were dead. The Surrealist movement and various members thereof (such as Ted Joans) would continue to issue extremely harsh polemics against Dalí until the time of his death, and beyond.
World War II
In 1940, as World War II tore through Europe, Dalí and Gala retreated to the United States, where they lived for eight years splitting their time between New York and Monterey, California. They were able to escape because on June 20, 1940, they were issued visas by Aristides de Sousa Mendes, Portuguese consul in Bordeaux, France. Dalí’s arrival in New York was one of the catalysts in the development of that city as a world art center in the post-War years. Salvador and Gala Dalí crossed into Portugal and subsequently sailed on the Excambion from Lisbon to New York in August 1940. After the move, Dalí returned to the practice of Catholicism. "During this period, Dalí never stopped writing", wrote Robert and Nicolas Descharnes.
Dalí worked prolifically in a variety of media during this period, designing jewelry, clothes, furniture, stage sets for plays and ballet, and retail store display windows. In 1939, while working on a window display for Bonwit Teller, he became so enraged by unauthorized changes to his work that he shoved a decorative bathtub through a plate glass window.
Dali spent the winter of 1940-41 in at Hampton Manor, the residence of bra designer and patron of the arts Caresse Crosby, near Bowling Green in Caroline County, Virginia. During his time there, he spent his time on various projects. He was described as a "showman" by residents in the local newspaper.
In 1941, Dalí drafted a film scenario for Jean Gabin called Moontide. In 1942, he published his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí. He wrote catalogs for his exhibitions, such as that at the Knoedler Gallery in New York in 1943. Therein he attacked some often-used surrealist techniques by proclaiming, "Surrealism will at least have served to give experimental proof that total sterility and attempts at automatizations have gone too far and have led to a totalitarian system. ... Today's laziness and the total lack of technique have reached their paroxysm in the psychological signification of the current use of the college" (collage). He also wrote a novel, published in 1944, about a fashion salon for automobiles. This resulted in a drawing by Edwin Cox in The Miami Herald, depicting Dalí dressing an automobile in an evening gown.
In The Secret Life, Dalí suggested that he had split with Luis Buñuel because the latter was a Communist and an atheist. Buñuel was fired (or resigned) from his position at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), supposedly after Cardinal Spellman of New York went to see Iris Barry, head of the film department at MOMA. Buñuel then went back to Hollywood where he worked in the dubbing department of Warner Brothers from 1942 to 1946. In his 1982 autobiography Mon Dernier soupir (My Last Sigh, 1983), Buñuel wrote that, over the years, he had rejected Dalí's attempts at reconciliation.
An Italian friar, Gabriele Maria Berardi, claimed to have performed an exorcism on Dalí while he was in France in 1947. In 2005, a sculpture of Christ on the Cross was discovered in the friar's estate. It had been claimed that Dalí gave this work to his exorcist out of gratitude, and two Spanish art experts confirmed that there were adequate stylistic reasons to believe the sculpture was made by Dalí.
Later years in Spain
In 1948 Dalí and Gala moved back into their house in Port Lligat, on the coast near Cadaqués. For the next three decades, he would spend most of his time there painting, taking time off and spending winters with his wife in Paris and New York. His acceptance and implicit embrace of Franco's dictatorship were strongly disapproved of by other Spanish artists and intellectuals who remained in exile.
In 1959, André Breton organized an exhibit called Homage to Surrealism, celebrating the fortieth anniversary of Surrealism, which contained works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Enrique Tábara, and Eugenio Granell. Breton vehemently fought against the inclusion of Dalí's Sistine Madonna in the International Surrealism Exhibition in New York the following year.
Late in his career Dalí did not confine himself to painting, but explored many unusual or novel media and processes: for example, he experimented with bulletist artworks. Many of his late works incorporated optical illusions, negative space, visual puns and trompe l'œil visual effects. He also experimented with pointillism, enlarged half-tone dot grids (a technique which Roy Lichtenstein would later use), and stereoscopic images. He was among the first artists to employ holography in an artistic manner. In Dalí's later years, young artists such as Andy Warhol proclaimed him an important influence on pop art.
Dalí also developed a keen interest in natural science and mathematics. This is manifested in several of his paintings, notably from the 1950s, in which he painted his subjects as composed of rhinoceros horn shapes. According to Dalí, the rhinoceros horn signifies divine geometry because it grows in a logarithmic spiral. He linked the rhinoceros to themes of chastity and to the Virgin Mary. Dalí was also fascinated by DNA and the tesseract (a 4-dimensional cube); an unfolding of a hypercube is featured in the painting Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus).
At some point, Dalí had a glass floor installed in a room near his studio in Lligat. He made extensive use of it to study foreshortening, both from above and from below, incorporating dramatic perspectives of figures and objects into his paintings.:17–18, 172 He also delighted in using the room for entertaining guests and visitors to his house and studio. In many of his paintings, Dalí used anamorphosis, a form of eccentric and exaggerated perspective which distorts objects beyond recognition; however, when seen from a particular skewed viewpoint, a legible depiction emerges. He used the power of this technique to conceal "secret" or "forbidden" images in plain sight.:20-25
Dalí's post–World War II period bore the hallmarks of technical virtuosity and an intensifying interest in optical effects, science, and religion. He became an increasingly devout Catholic, while at the same time he had been inspired by the shock of Hiroshima and the dawning of the "atomic age". Therefore, Dalí labeled this period "Nuclear Mysticism". In paintings such as The Madonna of Port Lligat (first version, 1949) and Corpus Hypercubus (1954), Dalí sought to synthesize Christian iconography with images of material disintegration inspired by nuclear physics. His Nuclear Mysticism works included such notable pieces as La Gare de Perpignan (1965) and The Hallucinogenic Toreador (1968–70).
In 1960, Dalí began work on his Theatre and Museum in his home town of Figueres; it was his largest single project and a main focus of his energy through 1974, when it opened. He continued to make additions through the mid-1980s.
Dalí continued to indulge in publicity stunts and self-consciously outrageous behavior. To promote his 1962 book The World of Salvador Dalí, he appeared in a Manhattan bookstore on a bed, wired up to a machine that traced his brain waves and blood pressure. He would autograph books while thus monitored, and the book buyer would also be given the paper chart recording.
In 1968, Dalí filmed a humorous television advertisement for Lanvin chocolates. In this, he proclaims in French "Je suis fou du chocolat Lanvin!" ("I'm crazy about Lanvin chocolate!") while biting a morsel, causing him to become cross-eyed and his moustache to swivel upwards. In 1969, he designed the Chupa Chups logo, in addition to facilitating the design of the advertising campaign for the 1969 Eurovision Song Contest and creating a large on-stage metal sculpture that stood at the Teatro Real in Madrid.
In the television programme Dirty Dalí: A Private View broadcast on Channel 4 on June 3, 2007, art critic Brian Sewell described his acquaintance with Dalí in the late 1960s, which included lying down in the fetal position without trousers in the armpit of a figure of Christ and masturbating for Dalí, who pretended to take photos while fumbling in his own trousers.
Final years and death
In 1968, Dalí had bought a castle in Púbol for Gala; and starting in 1971 she would retreat there alone for weeks at a time. By Dalí's own admission, he had agreed not to go there without written permission from his wife. His fears of abandonment and estrangement from his longtime artistic muse contributed to depression and failing health.
In 1980 at age 76, Dalí's health took a catastrophic turn. His right hand trembled terribly, with Parkinson-like symptoms. His near-senile wife allegedly had been dosing him with a dangerous cocktail of unprescribed medicine that damaged his nervous system, thus causing an untimely end to his artistic capacity.
In 1982, King Juan Carlos bestowed on Dalí the title of Marqués de Dalí de Púbol (Marquis of Dalí de Púbol) in the nobility of Spain, hereby referring to Púbol, the place where he lived. The title was in first instance hereditary, but on request of Dalí changed to life only in 1983.
Gala died on 10 June 1982, at the age of 87. After Gala's death, Dalí lost much of his will to live. He deliberately dehydrated himself, possibly as a suicide attempt; there are also claims that he had tried to put himself into a state of suspended animation as he had read that some microorganisms could do. He moved from Figueres to the castle in Púbol, which was the site of her death and her grave.
In 1984, a fire broke out in his bedroom under unclear circumstances. It was possibly a suicide attempt by Dalí, or possibly simple negligence by his staff. Dalí was rescued by friend and collaborator Robert Descharnes and returned to Figueres, where a group of his friends, patrons, and fellow artists saw to it that he was comfortable living in his Theater-Museum in his final years.
There have been allegations that Dalí was forced by his guardians to sign blank canvases that would later, even after his death, be used in forgeries and sold as originals. It is also alleged that he knowingly sold otherwise-blank lithograph paper which he had signed, possibly producing over 50,000 such sheets from 1965 until his death. As a result, art dealers tend to be wary of late works attributed to Dalí.
In November 1988, Dalí entered the hospital with heart failure; a pacemaker had been implanted previously. On December 5, 1988, he was visited by King Juan Carlos, who confessed that he had always been a serious devotee of Dalí. Dalí gave the king a drawing (Head of Europa, which would turn out to be Dalí's final drawing) after the king visited him on his deathbed.
On the morning of 23 January 1989, while his favorite record of Tristan and Isolde played, Dalí died of heart failure at Figueres at the age of 84. He is buried in the crypt below the stage of his Theatre and Museum in Figueres. The location is across the street from the church of Sant Pere, where he had his baptism, first communion, and funeral, and is only three blocks from the house where he was born.
The Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation currently serves as his official estate. The US copyright representative for the Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation is the Artists Rights Society. In 2002, the Society made news when it asked Google to remove a customized version of its logo put up to commemorate Dalí, alleging that portions of specific artworks under its protection had been used without permission. Google complied with the request, but denied that there was any copyright violation.
On 26 June, 2017 it was announced that a judge in Madrid had ordered the exhumation of Dali's body in order to obtain samples for a paternity suit. Maria Pilar Abel Martínez, born in 1956, had stated that her mother, a maid, had been having an affair with the painter in 1955. Ms Martínez claimed that several times, often in front of others, her mother had told her that Dalí was her father. At the time of the alleged affair, Dalí was married to Gala.
Dalí employed extensive symbolism in his work. For instance, the hallmark "melting watches" that first appear in The Persistence of Memory suggest Einstein's theory that time is relative and not fixed. The idea for clocks functioning symbolically in this way came to Dalí when he was staring at a runny piece of Camembert cheese on a hot August day.
The elephant is also a recurring image in Dalí's works. It appeared in his 1944 work Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening. The elephants, inspired by Gian Lorenzo Bernini's sculpture base in Rome of an elephant carrying an ancient obelisk, are portrayed "with long, multijointed, almost invisible legs of desire" along with obelisks on their backs. Coupled with the image of their brittle legs, these encumbrances, noted for their phallic overtones, create a sense of phantom reality. "The elephant is a distortion in space", one analysis explains, "its spindly legs contrasting the idea of weightlessness with structure." "I am painting pictures which make me die for joy, I am creating with an absolute naturalness, without the slightest aesthetic concern, I am making things that inspire me with a profound emotion and I am trying to paint them honestly." —Salvador Dalí, in Dawn Ades, Dalí and Surrealism.
The egg is another common Dalíesque image. He connects the egg to the prenatal and intrauterine, thus using it to symbolize hope and love; it appears in The Great Masturbator and The Metamorphosis of Narcissus. The Metamorphosis of Narcissus also symbolized death and petrification. There are also giant sculptures of eggs in various locations at Dalí's house in Port Lligat as well as at the Dalí Theatre and Museum in Figueres.
Various other animals appear throughout his work as well: ants point to death, decay, and immense sexual desire; the snail is connected to the human head (he saw a snail on a bicycle outside Freud's house when he first met Sigmund Freud); and locusts are a symbol of waste and fear.
Both Dalí and his father enjoyed eating sea urchins, freshly caught in the sea near Cadaqués. The radial symmetry of the sea urchin fascinated Dalí, and he adapted its form to many art works. Other foods also appear throughout his work.
References to Dalí in the context of science are made in terms of his fascination with the paradigm shift that accompanied the birth of quantum mechanics in the twentieth century. Inspired by Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, in 1958 he wrote in his "Anti-Matter Manifesto": "In the Surrealist period, I wanted to create the iconography of the interior world and the world of the marvelous, of my father Freud. Today, the exterior world and that of physics has transcended the one of psychology. My father today is Dr. Heisenberg."
In this respect, The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory, which appeared in 1954, in harking back to The Persistence of Memory and in portraying that painting in fragmentation and disintegration, summarizes Dalí's acknowledgment of the new science.
Endeavors outside painting
Dalí was a versatile artist. Some of his more popular works are sculptures and other objects, and he is also noted for his contributions to theatre, fashion, and photography, among other areas.
Sculptures and other objects
Two of the most popular objects of the surrealist movement were Lobster Telephone and Mae West Lips Sofa, completed by Dalí in 1936 and 1937, respectively. Surrealist artist and patron Edward James commissioned both of these pieces from Dalí; James inherited a large English estate in West Dean, West Sussex when he was five and was one of the foremost supporters of the surrealists in the 1930s. "Lobsters and telephones had strong sexual connotations for [Dalí]", according to the display caption for the Lobster Telephone at the Tate Gallery, "and he drew a close analogy between food and sex." The telephone was functional, and James purchased four of them from Dalí to replace the phones in his retreat home. One now appears at the Tate Gallery; the second can be found at the German Telephone Museum in Frankfurt; the third belongs to the Edward James Foundation; and the fourth is at the National Gallery of Australia.
The wood and satin Mae West Lips Sofa was shaped after the lips of actress Mae West, whom Dalí apparently found fascinating. West was previously the subject of Dalí's 1935 painting The Face of Mae West. The Mae West Lips Sofa currently resides at the Brighton and Hove Museum in England.
Between 1941 and 1970, Dalí created an ensemble of 39 pieces of jewelry; many pieces are intricate, and some contain moving parts. The most famous assemblage, The Royal Heart, is made of gold and is encrusted with 46 rubies, 42 diamonds, and four emeralds, created in such a way that the center "beats" much like a real heart. Dalí himself commented that "Without an audience, without the presence of spectators, these jewels would not fulfill the function for which they came into being. The viewer, then, is the ultimate artist." The "Dalí – Joies" ("The Jewels of Dalí") collection can be seen at the Dalí Theater Museum in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain, where it is on permanent exhibition.
Dalí took a stab at industrial design in the 1970s with a 500-piece run of the upscale Suomi tableware by Timo Sarpaneva that Dalí decorated for the German Rosenthal porcelain maker's "Studio Linie".
Theatre and film
In theatre, Dalí constructed the scenery for Federico García Lorca's 1927 romantic play Mariana Pineda. For Bacchanale (1939), a ballet based on and set to the music of Richard Wagner's 1845 opera Tannhäuser, Dalí provided both the set design and the libretto. Bacchanale was followed by set designs for Labyrinth in 1941 and The Three-Cornered Hat in 1949.
Dalí became intensely interested in film when he was young, going to the theatre most Sundays. He was part of the era where silent films were being viewed and drawing on the medium of film became popular. He believed there were two dimensions to the theories of film and cinema: "things themselves", the facts that are presented in the world of the camera; and "photographic imagination", the way the camera shows the picture and how creative or imaginative it looks. Dalí was active in front of and behind the scenes in the film world.
He is credited as co-creator of Luis Buñuel's surrealist film Un Chien Andalou, a 17-minute French art film co-written with Luis Buñuel that is widely remembered for its graphic opening scene simulating the slashing of a human eyeball with a razor. This film is what Dalí is known for in the independent film world. Un Chien Andalou was Dalí's way of creating his dreamlike qualities in the real world. Images would change and scenes would switch, leading the viewer in a completely different direction from the one they were previously viewing. The second film he produced with Buñuel was entitled L'Age d'Or, and it was performed at Studio 28 in Paris in 1930. L'Age d'Or was "banned for years after fascist and anti-Semitic groups staged a stink bomb and ink-throwing riot in the Paris theater where it was shown".
Although negative aspects of society were being thrown into the life of Dalí which affected the commercial success of his artwork, it did not hold him back from expressing his own ideas and beliefs in his art. Both of these films, Un Chien Andalou and L'Age d'Or, have had a tremendous impact on the independent surrealist film movement. "If Un Chien Andalou stands as the supreme record of Surrealism's adventures into the realm of the unconscious, then L'Âge d'Or is perhaps the most trenchant and implacable expression of its revolutionary intent".
Dalí worked with other famous filmmakers, such as Alfred Hitchcock. The most well-known of his film projects is probably the dream sequence in Hitchcock's Spellbound, which heavily delves into themes of psychoanalysis. Hitchcock needed a dreamlike quality to his film, which dealt with the idea that a repressed experience can directly trigger a neurosis, and he knew that Dalí's work would help create the atmosphere he wanted in his film. He also worked on a documentary called Chaos and Creation, which has a lot of artistic references thrown into it to help one see what Dalí's vision of art really is.
Dalí also worked with Walt Disney on the short film production Destino. Completed in 2003 by Baker Bloodworth and Walt's nephew Roy E. Disney, it contains dreamlike images of strange figures flying and walking about. It is based on Mexican songwriter Armando Dominguez' song "Destino". When Disney hired Dalí to help produce the film in 1946, they were not prepared for the quantity of work that lay ahead. For eight months, they worked on it continuously, until their efforts had to stop when they realized they were in financial trouble. However, it was eventually finished 48 years later, and shown in various film festivals. The film consists of Dalí's artwork interacting with Disney's character animation.
Dalí completed only one other film in his lifetime, Impressions of Upper Mongolia (1975), in which he narrated a story about an expedition in search of giant hallucinogenic mushrooms. The imagery was based on microscopic uric acid stains on the brass band of a ballpoint pen on which Dalí had been urinating for several weeks.
In the mid-1970s, film director Alejandro Jodorowsky cast Dali in the role of the Padishah Emperor in a production of Dune, based on the novel by Frank Herbert. According to the 2013 documentary on the film, Jodorowsky's Dune, Jodorowsky met Dali in the King Cole Bar in the St. Regis hotel in Manhattan to discuss the role. Dali expressed interest in the film but required as a condition of appearing that he be made the highest paid actor in Hollywood. Jodorowsky accordingly cast Dali as the emperor, but he planned to cut Dali's screen time to mere minutes, promising he be the highest-paid actor on a per minute basis. The film was ultimately never made.
In the year 1927, Dali began to write the libretto for an opera, which he called Être Dieu (To Be God). He wrote this together with Federico Garcia Lorca one afternoon in the Café Regina Victoria in Madrid. In 1974, for a recording in Paris, the opera was adapted by the Spanish writer Manuel Vazquez Montalban, who wrote the libretto, while the music was created by Igor Wakhevitch. During the recording, however, Dali refused to follow the text written by Montalban, and instead, began to improvise in the belief that “Salvador Dali never repeats himself.”
Fashion and photography
Dalí built a repertoire in the fashion and photography businesses as well. His cooperation with Italian fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli was well-known, when Dalí was commissioned to produce a white dress with a lobster print. Other designs Dalí made for her include a shoe-shaped hat, and a pink belt with lips for a buckle. He was also involved in creating textile designs and perfume bottles. In 1950, Dalí created a special "costume for the year 2045" with Christian Dior.
Photographers with whom he collaborated include Man Ray, Brassaï, Cecil Beaton, and Philippe Halsman. With Man Ray and Brassaï, Dalí photographed nature; with the others, he explored a range of obscure topics, including (with Halsman) the Dalí Atomica series (1948) — inspired by his painting Leda Atomica — which in one photograph depicts "a painter's easel, three cats, a bucket of water, and Dalí himself floating in the air."
One of Dalí's most unorthodox artistic creations may have been an entire persona, in addition to his own. At a French nightclub in 1965, Dalí met Amanda Lear, a fashion model then known as Peki D'Oslo. Lear became his protégée and muse, later writing about their affair in her authorized biography My Life With Dalí (1986). Transfixed by the mannish, larger-than-life Lear, Dalí masterminded her successful transition from modeling to the music world, advising her on self-presentation and helping spin mysterious stories about her origin as she took the disco-art scene by storm. According to Lear, she and Dalí were united in a "spiritual marriage" on a deserted mountaintop. She was referred to as Dalí's "Frankenstein", and some observers believed Lear's assumed name was a pun on the French phrase "L'Amant Dalí", or "Lover of Dalí". Lear took the place of an earlier muse, Ultra Violet (Isabelle Collin Dufresne), who had left Dalí's side to join The Factory of Andy Warhol.
Both former apprentices would go on to successfully promote their own careers in the arts. On April 10, 2005, they joined a panel discussion "Reminiscences of Dalí: A Conversation with Friends of the Artist" as part of a symposium "The Dalí Renaissance" for a major retrospective Dalí show at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Their conversation is recorded in the 236-page exhibition catalog The Dalí Renaissance: New Perspectives on His Life and Art after 1940.
Architectural achievements include his Port Lligat house near Cadaqués, as well as his Theatre and Museum in Figueres. A major work outside of Spain was the temporary Dream of Venus surrealist pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair, which contained within it a number of unusual sculptures and statues, including live performers posing as statues.
Under the encouragement of poet Federico García Lorca, Dalí attempted an approach to a literary career through the means of the "pure novel". In his only novel Hidden Faces (1944), Dalí describes, in vividly visual terms, the intrigues and love affairs of a group of dazzling, eccentric aristocrats who, with their luxurious and extravagant lifestyle, symbolize the decadence of the 1930s. The Comte de Grandsailles and Solange de Cléda pursue an awkward love affair, but property transactions, interwar political turmoil, the French Resistance, his marriage to another woman and her responsibilities as a landowner and businesswoman drive them apart. It is variously set in Paris, rural France, Casablanca in North Africa and Palm Springs in the United States. Secondary characters include ageing widow Barbara Rogers, her bisexual daughter Veronica, Veronica's sometime female lover Betka, and Baba, a disfigured US fighter pilot. The novel concludes at the end of the Second World War, with Solange dying before Grandsailles can return to his former property and reunite with her. The novel was written in New York, and translated by Haakon Chevalier.
His other, nonfictional literary works include The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942), Diary of a Genius (1952–63), and Oui: The Paranoid-Critical Revolution (1927–33).
The artist worked extensively in the graphic arts, producing many etchings and lithographs. While his early work in printmaking is equal in quality to his important paintings, as he grew older he would sell the rights to images but not be involved in the print production itself. In addition, a large number of fakes were produced in the 1980s and 1990s, thus further confusing the Dalí print market.
After his arrival in the United States, Dalí engaged in heavy self-promotion. Later, Dali Museum executive director Hank Hine appreciated his "ingenious self-promotion" during the 2016 VR exhibition Disney and Dalí: Architects of the Imagination. While many of his stunts were seen as antics by art critics at the time, they were later interpreted as performances.
His status as an extravagant artist was put to use in several publicity campaigns for Lanvin chocolates, "If you got it, flaunt it!" for Braniff International Airlines (1968), and Iberia Airlines.
Politics and personality
Salvador Dalí's politics played a significant role in his emergence as an artist. In his youth, he embraced both anarchism and communism, though his writings tell anecdotes of making radical political statements more to shock listeners than from any deep conviction. This was in keeping with Dalí's allegiance to the Dada movement.
As he grew older his political allegiances changed, especially as the Surrealist movement went through transformations under the leadership of the Trotskyist writer André Breton, who is said to have called Dalí in for questioning on his politics. In his 1970 book Dalí by Dalí, Dalí declared himself to be both an anarchist and monarchist.
With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), Dalí fled from the fighting and refused to align himself with any group. He did the same during World War II (1939–1945), for which he was heavily criticized; George Orwell accused him of "scuttling off like a rat as soon as France is in danger" after Dalí had prospered in France during the pre-war years. "When the European War approaches he has one preoccupation only: how to find a place which has good cookery and from which he can make a quick bolt if danger comes too near", Orwell observed. In a notable 1944 review of Dalí's autobiography, Orwell wrote, "One ought to be able to hold in one's head simultaneously the two facts that Dalí is a good draughtsman and a disgusting human being".
After his return to Catalonia post World War II, Dalí moved closer to the authoritarian regime of Francisco Franco. Some of Dalí's statements were supportive, congratulating Franco for his actions aimed "at clearing Spain of destructive forces". Dalí, having returned to the Catholic faith and becoming increasingly religious as time went on, may have been referring to the Republican atrocities during the Spanish Civil War. Dalí sent telegrams to Franco, praising him for signing death warrants for prisoners. He even met Franco personally, and painted a portrait of Franco's granddaughter.
He also once sent a telegram praising the Conducător, Romanian Communist leader Nicolae Ceauşescu, for his adoption of a scepter as part of his regalia. The Romanian daily newspaper Scînteia published it, without suspecting its mocking aspect. One of Dalí's few possible bits of open disobedience was his continued praise of Federico García Lorca even in the years when Lorca's works were banned.[not in citation given]
Dalí, a colorful and imposing presence with his ever–present long cape, walking stick, haughty expression, and upturned waxed moustache, was famous for having said that "every morning upon awakening, I experience a supreme pleasure: that of being Salvador Dalí". The entertainer Cher and her husband Sonny Bono, when young, came to a party at Dalí's expensive residence in New York's Plaza Hotel and were startled when Cher sat down on an oddly shaped sexual vibrator left in an easy chair. In the 1960s, he gave the actress Mia Farrow a dead mouse in a bottle, hand-painted, which her mother, actress Maureen O'Sullivan, demanded be removed from her house.
Dali's religious views were a matter of interest. In interviews Dali revealed his mysticism. In his later years, while still remaining a Roman Catholic, Dalí also claimed to be an agnostic.
When signing autographs for fans, Dalí would always keep their pens. Salvador Dalí frequently traveled with his pet ocelot Babou, even bringing it aboard the luxury ocean liner SS France. He was also known to avoid paying tabs at restaurants by drawing on the checks he wrote. His theory was the restaurant would never want to cash such a valuable piece of art, and he was usually correct.
Besides visual puns, Dalí shared in the surrealist delight in verbal puns, obscure allusions, and word games. He often spoke in a bizarre combination of French, Spanish, Catalan, and English which was sometimes amusing as well as arcane. His copious writings freely mixed words from different languages with terms entirely of his own devising.
When interviewed by Mike Wallace on his 60 Minutes television show, Dalí kept referring to himself in the third person, as the "Divino Dalí" (Divine Dalí), and told the startled Wallace matter-of-factly that he did not believe in his death. On January 27, 1957, he was the mystery guest on the US panel show What's My Line? and signed the chalkboard with thick white paint. His answers were misleading and prompted guidance from host Daly.
Dali appeared in public a number of occasions with an anteater, notably on a lead in Paris in 1969 and on The Dick Cavett Show on March 6, 1970 when he carried a small anteater on-stage. It has been claimed that he surprised fellow guest Lillian Gish by flinging the anteater onto her lap.
During his childhood, Dalí's father would force him to look at grotesque images of advance stage untreated sexually transmitted diseases. This led the young Dalí to develop a fear of and obsession with sex, decay, and castration. These became frequent themes in his various works, most famously in his 1929 painting The Great Masturbator. In 1922, Dalí attended the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando where he met Spanish poet Federico García Lorca, an openly gay man. Dalí is rumored to have had an affair with Lorca and a life-long love and obsession with him after Lorca's assassination in 1936. Although Dalí denied this in his autobiography, various accounts from those close to him along with exchanged letters do hint at an attempted love affair between the two. In his later years, Dalí admitted to finding himself drawn towards men, as long as they were androgynous and feminine.
In 1929, when Dalí met his future wife, Gala, he was said to still be a virgin because of his fear of being touched and of female genitalia. He was reputed to be a voyeur deriving sexual gratification from watching his wife and others perform sexual acts, and the couple were known to throw large orgies at their mansion. Their open marriage gave Gala the freedom to have multiple affairs until her death, but ambiguity and rumors continued to surround Dalí's own sexual preferences. Despite his grandiose public image, Dalí had a sense of inadequacy in regard to his sexual self. In spite of his fears that masturbation would lead to impotence, homosexuality, and insanity, throughout his life Dalí regularly practiced self-gratification in front of a mirror. It is believed that Dalí solely engaged in masturbation and nothing else, because of his fear of physical contact.
In Carlos Lozano's biography, Sex, Surrealism, Dalí, and Me, produced with the collaboration of Clifford Thurlow, Lozano makes it clear that Dalí never stopped being a surrealist. As Dalí said of himself: "the only difference between me and the surrealists is that I am a surrealist".
Salvador Dalí has been cited as a major inspiration by many modern artists, such as Damien Hirst, Jeff Koons, and most other modern surrealists. Salvador Dalí's manic expression and famous moustache have made him something of a cultural icon for the bizarre and surreal. He has been portrayed on film by Robert Pattinson in Little Ashes (2008), and by Adrien Brody in Midnight in Paris (2011). He was also parodied in a series of painting skits on Captain Kangaroo as "Salvador Silly" (played by Cosmo Allegretti) and in a Sesame Street muppet skit as "Salvador Dada" (an orange gold Anything Muppet performed by Jim Henson).
List of selected works
Dalí produced over 1,500 paintings in his career in addition to producing illustrations for books, lithographs, designs for theatre sets and costumes, a great number of drawings, dozens of sculptures, and various other projects, including an animated short film for Disney. He also collaborated with director Jack Bond in 1965, creating a movie titled Dalí in New York. Below is a chronological sample of important and representative work, as well as some notes on what Dalí did in particular years.
Dalí museums and permanent exhibitions
The largest collection of Dalí's work is at the Dalí Theatre and Museum in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain. The Salvador Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida, contains the collection of Reynolds and Eleanor Morse, and holds over 1500 works by Dalí, including seven large "masterworks". Other significant collections include the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid; the Salvador Dalí Gallery in San Juan Capistrano, California; Espace Dalí in Montmartre, Paris, France; and Dalí Universe in London, England.
The unlikeliest venue for Dalí's work was the Rikers Island jail in New York City. A sketch of the Crucifixion that he donated to the jail in 1965, hung in the inmate dining room for 16 years before it was moved to the prison lobby for safekeeping. Ironically, the drawing was stolen from that location in March 2003 and has not been recovered.
Major temporary exhibitions