سانسور

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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سانسور[۱] (به فرانسوی: censure) یا بازکاوی[نیازمند منبع] عمل کنترل سخن و انواع دیگر بیان و ابراز وجود انسان‌ها است. در بسیاری موارد (و نه در همه آن‌ها) این عمل توسط سازمان‌های دولتی انجام می‌شود. انگیزه واضح برای انجام سانسور ایجاد ثبات در جامعه یا بهبود وضعیت آن به گونه‌ای است که سیطره دولت برامور را محقق کند. .................. معمولاً واژه سانسور در مواردی که در محیط‌های عمومی واقع شوند، به کار می‌رود و در رسمی‌ترین وجه آن به شکل سرکوب اندیشه توسط تهدیدهای قانونی و جرم‌انگاری آن‌ها محقق می‌شود.

همچنین معمولاً بحث راجع به سانسور شامل ابزارهای کمتر رسمی کنترل عواطف، توسط محروم کردن چندین اندیشه از وسایل ارتباط جمعی نیز، می‌شود.

آنچه که سانسور می‌شود، می‌تواند از کلمات خاص تا کل مفهوم تغییر کند که ممکن است تحت تأثیر نظام ارزشی قرار داشته باشد.

عبارت‌های تقریباً هم‌معنی ماست‌مالی و sanitization (حذف) به نوع خاصی از سانسور از طریق حذف اشاره دارد که با هدف پاکسازی نمود حقایق یا موارد خاصی که پیش از آن دانسته هستند اما با دیدگاه سانسورچی در تضاد و تناقض هستند انجام می‌گیرد.

عده‌ای ممکن است صحت سیاسی مفرط را نوعی محدودیت بدانند که از جانب جامعه به فرد تحمیل می‌شود (و نه از طریق دولت‌ها) که اگر این پدیده به اوج خود برسد به پدیده خودسانسوری تبدیل خواهد شد.

اصطلاحات[ویرایش]

اصطلاح سانسور از کلمه لاتین censere گرفته شده‌است. در روم سانسورچی دو وظیفه اصلی داشت، شمارش شهروندان و نظارت بر اخلاق ایشان، ریشه اصطلاح Census (سرشماری) نیز همین واژه است.

اولین بار اصطلاح whitewash به معنای شستشوی فکری در مقاله‌ای که در سال ۱۷۶۲ و با نام Evening Post در بوستون منتشر شد به کار رفت. در سال ۱۸۰۰ این کلمه در متون سیاسی رواج یافت و این درست در زمانی بود که یک سرمقاله با نام Aurora در فیلادلفیا اذعان داشت که اگر جان آدامز را به سرعت شستشوی مغزی ندهید، وی سرتاسر حزب دموکرات جمهوری‌خواه ایالات متحده آمریکا همانند زبانه‌های آتش دربرمی‌گیرد و شما را همچون دیواری کثیف به سیاهی شیطان جلوه می‌دهد.

اصطلاح پنهان‌کاری واژه‌ای است که در فضای سیاسی-تبلیغاتی به معنای ایجاد تغییر در اطلاعاتی است که ممکن است برداشت جامعه از آن‌ها نامناسب، جنجالی و متناقض باشد. سانسور در مقایسه با پنهان‌کاری معمولاً به مجموعه‌ای از استانداردهای مشخص و واضح اشاره دارد و نه مجموعه‌ای از استانداردهای مخفی و محرمانه. معمولاً در پدیده سانسور یک هویت مخفی و ناآشکار مانند یک شرکت، دسترسی به اطلاعات موجود در فضای حاکم را قانونمند می‌کند. سانسور دولتی ممکن است در هر رده‌ای درمیان دولت یا مردم شکل گیرد و بدین ترتیب از سانسور رسمی متمایز می‌شود.

انواع[ویرایش]

اغلب نطق‌های عمومی در مجمع‌های سازمان یافته مانند دادگاه یا جلسات شهرداری در رسانه‌هایی مانند روزنامه‌ها، مطبوعات، رادیو، تلویزیون یا اینترنت منتشر می‌شوند. در هر یک از موارد ذکر شده در ابتدا تعداد قلیلی از مردم از طریق وسایل ارتباط جمعی به متن اصلی دسترسی دارند. معمولاً درپدیده سانسور محدود کردن عقاید خاص در یک فضای خلاً صورت نمی‌گیرد بلکه تمایل آن است که جلوی پخش آنچه که ممکن است از رسانه‌های ارتباطی گفته شود، گرفته شود.

منطق سانسور در انواع مختلف داده‌ها متفاوت است. انواع اصلی آن عبارت‌اند از:

  • «سانسور اخلاقی» که در طی آن هر مطلب خلاف اخلاق حذف می‌شود. سانسورچی ارزش‌های پس زمینه متن را زیر سؤال برده و دسترسی به آن را محدود می‌کند. از نمونه‌های آن می‌توان به تصاویر مستهجن اشاره کرد.
  • «سانسور نظامی» فرایند نگهداری از اطلاعات نظامی و تاکتیک‌های نظامی است که می‌بایست به صورت محرمانه و دور از تیررس دشمن صورت پذیرد. از این روش در مبارزه با جاسوسی و در واقع افشای اطلاعات نظامی استفاده می‌شود همچنین سانسور نظامی می‌تواند موردی مانند ایجاد محدودیت در پخش اطلاعات در مورد عملیات‌های نظامی مانند جنگ عراق را دربربگیرد. مثلاً در جنگ عراق دولت آمریکا عکس‌برداری و فیلم‌برداری از سربازان کشته شده و پخش آن در رسانه‌ها را محدود می‌کرد.
  • «سانسور سیاسی» در واقع روشی است که طی آن دولت اطلاعات را از مردم مخفی می‌کند. هدف جلوگیری از ایجاد فضای آزادی بیانی است که ممکن است منجر به شورش شود. دولت‌های مردم سالار معمولاً سانسور سیاسی را آشکارا ناپسند می‌دانند اما به صورت مخفیانه به آن دست می‌زنند. هرگونه نارضایتی در مورد دولت به عنوان یک نقطه ضعف در نظر گرفته می‌شود که می‌تواند حربه‌ای را در اختیار دشمن قرار دهد. تاکتیک‌های مبارزه هم به صورت مخفی هستند: به رسوایی واترگیت رجوع کنید.
  • «سانسور مذهبی» در مورد هرگونه متنی که مخالف یک عقیده خاص است اعمال می‌شود معمولاً مذاهب غالب محدودیت‌هایی را بر مذاهب ضعیف تر اعمال می‌کند. همچنین ممکن است مذهبی عقاید مذهب دیگری را در خلاف جهت خود ببیند و از اشاعه آن‌ها جلوگیری کند.
  • «سانسور شرکتی» نوعی از سانسور است که در طی آن شرکت‌ها از افشای اطلاعات مربوط به وضعیت اقتصادی و بازرگانی شرکت که آن را به صورت منفی جلوه می‌دهد خودداری می‌کنند. شرکت‌های خصوصی که در «تجارت» مطبوعات نقش دارند گاهی از افشای اطلاعات درآمد تبلیغاتی شان یا ارزش سهام شان دربازار بورس خودداری می‌کنند تا وجهه خود را خوب و مناسب جلوه دهند.[۲]

اسرار دولتی و توجه ناخواسته به برخی مسایل[ویرایش]

یکی از سیاست‌های سانسور گرایی که در زمان استالین و در شوروی سابق حاکم بود ایجاد تغییر در تصاویر افرادی بود که توسط استالین به اعدام محکوم شده بودند.

تصویر بالا قبل از دسامبر ۱۹۳۸ (میلادی):از چپ به راست:وروشیلوف ،مولوتوف ،استالین و یژوف هنگام بازدید از آب راه مسکو-ولگا ،تصویر پایین:بعد از سپتامبر ۱۹۳۸ ،یژوف سقوط می‌کند.استالین دستور می‌دهد که یژوف از عکس حذف شود.

در دوران جنگ سانسور به صورت آشکارا با هدف جلوگیری از افشای اطلاعات مهم و دسترسی دشمن به آن انجام می‌گیرد. معمولاً سانسور مخفی نگاه داشتن زمان و مکان عملیات‌ها و تأخیر در افشای اطلاعات (مانند هدف کاری) را شامل می‌شود و این کار تا زمانی ادامه می‌یابد که این اطلاعات حائز اهمیت باشند. در اینجا ارزش‌های اخلاقی نمود دیگری دارند چرا که افشای اطلاعات نظامی می‌تواند ضررها و آسیب‌های فراوانی را بر نیروهای خودی تحمیل کند و حتی باعث شکست در میدان نبرد شود. در طی جنگ جهانی اول، نامه‌هایی که توسط سربازان انگلیسی نوشته می‌شد سانسور می‌شد. تعدادی فرد نظامی این نامه‌ها را می‌خواندند وبا یک ماژیک مشکی روی مطالبی که می‌توانست باعث افشای اسرار نظامی شود خط می‌کشیدند در جنگ جهانی دوم عبارت دهن لقی کشتی‌ها را غرق می‌کند به عنوان توجیهی برای عمل سانسور به کار می‌رفت و از افراد درخواست می‌شد تا مراقب باشند تا اطلاعات با ارزش فاش نشوند.

یکی از سیاست‌های سانسور گرایی که در زمان استالین و در شوروی سابق حاکم بود ایجاد تغییر در تصاویر افرادی بود که توسط استالین به اعدام محکوم شده بودند. اگر چه تصاویر اصلی در محلی مخفی نگهداری می‌شدند اما این تغییر عمدی تاریخ در اذهان مردم یکی از روش‌های اصلی مکتب استالین و مکتب تمامیت‌خواه آن زمان بود. همچنین در سال‌های اخیر جلوگیری از ورود کارمندان تلویزیون‌ها به محل‌هایی که از آنجا کاروان تابوت‌های نظامیان عبور می‌کند از مصادیق سانسور است اگر چه این سانسور تا حد زیادی ناکام مانده و تصاویر متعددی از تابوت‌ها در روزنامه‌ها و مجلات به چاپ رسیده‌است.

کتب درسی[ویرایش]

محتوای کتب درسی همواره یکی از بحث‌های جنجال‌برانگیز بوده‌است چرا که مخاطب آن افراد کم سن و سالی هستند و اصطلاح شستشوی مغزی در این کتب کماکان به حذف مغرضانه مطالب غیر دلخواه اشاره دارد. گزارش‌های مربوط به جنایات نظامی در طول تاریخ و تاریخ سیاسی همواره چالش‌برانگیز بوده‌اند، مانند کشتار نانکینگ، هولوکاست (یا رد هولوکاست) و بازجویی سرباز زمستانی در جنگ ویتنام. معمولاً جوامع مختلف اشتباهات و سوء تدبیرهای خود را به صورتی ملی گرایانه و با حس وطن‌پرستی جلوه می‌دهند.

همچنین برخی از گروه‌های مذهبی در برهه‌هایی از تاریخ تلاش کرده‌اند تا تدریس فرگشت را در مدارس ممنوع کنند چرا که این نظریه در تقابل با عقاید مذهبی شان است. تدریس مسایل جنسی و زناشویی در مدارس و ارائه مطالبی در مورد رابطه جنسی سالم، کنترل زاد و ولد و روش‌های جلوگیری از باروری از حوزه‌های دیگری هستند که سانسور در مورد آن‌ها رخ می‌دهد.

در مدارس راهنمایی نحوه ارائه حقایق تاریخی نقش بسیار مؤثری در شخصیت افراد ایفا می‌کند. به علت نامناسب دانستن این مفاهیم برای نسل جوان عده‌ای دست به سانسور این نوع از اطلاعات می‌زنند. استفاده از کلمه نامناسب کمی بحث‌برانگیز است و می‌تواند ما را در یک سراشیبی تند قراردهد و پدیده سانسور را گسترده‌تر و سیاسی کند.

پیاده‌سازی[ویرایش]

پدیده سانسور در میان بسیاری از متفکران غرب جلوه‌ای از دیکتاتوری و دیگر نظام‌های سیاسی تمامیت‌خواه است. نظام‌های مردم سالار به خصوص در میان دولت‌های غربی و مفسران دانشگاهی و مطبوعاتی به صورت نظام‌هایی در نظر گرفته می‌شوند که درآن‌ها پدیده سانسور کمتر سازماندهی شده و مسئله مهم در این جوامع مسئله آزادی بیان است. اتحاد جماهیر شوروی سابق برنامه‌های سانسور دولتی را به صورت وسیعی اجرا می‌کرد. مرکز اصلی فرماندهی حفاظت از اسرار نظامی و دولتی با نام گلاویلت مرکز اصلی سانسور دولتی در شوروی سابق بود گلاویلت حتی بر برچسب‌های مشروب و ودکا نظارت داشت پرسنل این مرکز سانسور درهمه دفاتر روزنامه‌ها و انتشارات اتحاد جماهیر شوروی حاضر می‌شدند و ۷۰۰۰ سانسور چی وظیفه نظارت بر اطلاعات قبل از چاپشان را بر عهده داشتند. هیچ رسانه جمعی نتوانست از زیردست کنترل‌های گلاویت رهایی یابد همه شبکه‌های رادیویی و تلویزیونی موظف بودن تعدادی از پرسنل گلاویت را در شورای سردبیری خود استخدام کنند.

عده‌ای از متفکران سانسور را مصداقی از سرکوب دیدگاه‌ها یا بهره‌برداری از تبلیغات منفی، دخالت در کار رسانه‌ها و روابط اجتماعی یا ارائه اطلاعات نادرست یا حتی ایجاد مراکز آزادی بیان می‌دانند. درهریک از این روش‌ها اطلاعات مطلوب با سیاست جلوگیری از کسب مخاطب توسط عقاید مختلف و تشکیل جلسات بحث آزاد و دادن میدان به عقاید به حاشیه رانده شده به افراد جامعه تحمیل می‌شود.

گاهی اوقات اطلاعات خاص و منحصربه‌فرد که عده خاصی از آن باخبر هستند دریک فضای شبه سانسور نگهداری شده و به عنوان عقاید براندازانه یا نامناسب با آن‌ها برخورد می‌شود. میشل فوکو در سال ۱۹۷۸ متن اخلاق جنسی و قانون را منتشر کرد که اولین بار در La loi de la pudeur با ترجمه تحت‌اللفظی: قانون پاکی و درستی که در طی آن تجاوز جنسی غیرقانونی و قوانین مربوط به سن فرد برای برقراری رابطه جنسی رضایت داشت رابطه مذهبی را جرم ندانست.

جلوگیری از دسترسی افراد به ابزارهای اشاعه عقاید هم نوعی سانسور محسوب می‌شود این سیاست‌ها معمولاً توسط ارگان‌های دولتی مانند کمیسیون ارتباطات فدرال در ایالات متحده و کمیسیون ارتباطات راه دور رادیو – تلویزیون کانادا (CRTC) در کانادا اعمال می‌شوند. حتی روزنامه‌هایی که از چاپ مطالبی که ناشر با آن‌ها موافق است خودداری می‌کنند، مسئولین سانسورهای سخنرانی که سالن‌ها را به افراد خاصی اجاره نمی‌دهند؛ و افرادی که از حمایت مالی چنین سخنرانی‌هایی خودداری می‌ورزند از عاملین این سیاست‌ها هستند. حذف صداهای خاص در فضای جامعه هم نوعی سانسور محسوب می‌شود. حذف این افکار ناشی از عدم موفقیت رسانه‌های جمعی در برقراری تماس با متهمان است (و بنابراین این رسانه‌ها برای انعکاس اخبار تنها از منابع دولتی کمک می‌گیرند) سانسور باعث شده‌است که مرز بین اخبار واقعی و تفسیرهای آن مبهم و نامشخص شود و حتی رسانه‌ها مفسرانی را به خدمت بگیرند که دارای تمایلات جزئی خاص هستند مانند نانسی گریس، مقام دولتی سابق که در برنامه‌هایی با عنوان اخبار واقعی حضور داشت اما در واقع به تفسیر مطالب می‌پرداخت.

توجه رسانه‌ها به عدم انعکاس اخبار بحث‌برانگیز و مورد توجه بخشی از قشرها جامعه مانند جلوگیری از پخش اخبار دقیق مرگ و میرهای دسته جمعی در میان افراد جامعه‌ای که مورد حمله قرار گرفته‌است یا در حال جنگ است نوعی سانسور محسوب می‌شود. ارائه اخبار پرزرق و برق در مورد محصولات یا خدمات مورد توجه رسانه خبری، مانند پخش اخبار در مورد مقایسه قیمت انواع ماشین یا سفرهای تفریحی به جای پخش اخبار در مورد هنر، صنایع دستی و باغبانی در واقع نوعی سانسور اطلاعات در جهت زیبا جلوه دادن برخی از امور است.

خود سانسوری، معمولاً قوانین فرهنگی وتجاری حاکم بر یک فضا و نه یک قدرت سانسورچی این نوع سانسور را تحمیل می‌کند. وقتی یک رسانه تصمیم می‌گیرد که در جهت منافع خود اطلاعات را دچار تحریف کند و دیدگاهی یکطرفه را ارائه کند به خود سانسوری دست زده‌است.

مثلاً دیدگاه‌های احساسی و بدون پایه و اساس علمی در مورد انرژی هسته‌ای، مهندسی ژنتیک و داروهای شفابخش نوعی سانسوری است همچنین وقتی سیاست‌مداران یا اصحاب فرهنگ جامعه از رسانه‌ها انتظار دارند که مسایل اخلاقی را در نظر بگیرند برای مثال کاریکاتورهای پیامبر اسلام را چاپ نکنند.

منع و اجازه[ویرایش]

از زمان اختراع صنعت چاپ، توزیع بروشورهای محدود محصولات مختلف به عنوان یک راهکار برای مقابله با منابع ضروری قدرتمند مطرح شد با استفاده از شبکه‌های اطلاعاتی گسترده، سیستم‌های ذخیره اطلاعات و سیستم‌های به اشتراک‌گذاری فایل نقطه به نقطه غیر متمرکز مانند فری نت بر برخی از انواع سانسور غلبه کرده‌ایم. در پدیده‌ای جدید تر که نوعی پدیده ضد سانسور است فرد مستقیماً با افراد جامعه صحبت می‌کند و عقاید فرهنگی خود را برای آن‌ها بیان می‌نماید. افراد مختلف از روش‌های برقراری ارتباط جمعی استفاده می‌کنند تا از تحریف اصطلاحات توسط رسانه‌های ارتباط جمعی قدرتمند جلوگیری کنند. در طول تاریخ اعتصاب و تظاهرات دسته جمعی به عنوان یک روش در مقابله با تحمیل‌های ناخواسته مطرح بوده‌است اگر چه امروزه با استفاده از سیستم‌های آمپلی فایر می‌توان به راحتی کنترل سخنرانی درمیان یک جمعیت را دردست گرفت. تکنولوژی تقویت صوت باعث شده‌است که عده‌ای فکر کنند همه افرادی که دریک اجتماع یا تظاهرات حضور دارند با مطالبی که از تریبون پخش می‌شود موافق هستند و حال آنکه در واقعیت ممکن است اجتماع حاضر تنها با بخشی از آنچه اعلام می‌شود همسو باشد به هر حال اعلام نظر جمع از طریق رسانه‌ها و شبکه‌های ارتباطی براساس آنچه در پشت تریبون گفته شده‌است نوعی سانسور نظرات تک تک افراد حاضر در آن جمع است. جالب تر آنکه سانسور ادبیات جنسی در ایالات متحده همواره به صورت ارائه تلفظ‌های غیر آمریکایی صورت نمی‌گیرد. مثلاً به جای “shit” ممکن است ازنسخه زبان‌های اسکاتلندی یا انگلیسی بریتانیایی یعنی “Shite” یا به جای “Fuck” از “fook” استفاده شود. (توجه: در اوایل سال ۲۰۰۴ این مطلب در تلویزیون FCC اعلام شد قبل از آنکه این شبکه متحمل جرایم اعلام شده شود) امروزه سانسور به شکل محدود کردن دسترسی مناسب به اطلاعات عمومی بر اساس روش‌های بهینه تر از اطلاعات الکترونیکی توسط موسسات قانون‌گذار. درحالیکه حق دسترسی و پخش گزارش‌های مبتنی بر اطلاعات عمومی به موسساتی محدود می‌شود که می‌توانند اسناد کاغذی را اسکن کرده و سپس بخوانند. هزینه خرید کاغذ و دیگر لوازم مورد نیاز برای انعکاس اطلاعات در مقایسه با هزینه کپی کردن بسیار زیاد بوده و همین امر در قانون مند کردن اشاعه اخبار در مورد دولت‌ها نقش زیادی دارد در دنیای شبکه‌های الکترونیکی گسترده و دنیای الگوریتم‌های امنیتی پیشرفته که دسترسی به چنین شبکه‌هایی را قانونمند می‌کنند و با توجه به هزینه پایین بازنمایی تصاویر، تحمیل هزینه‌های گزاف بر صنعت نشر که در انعکاس اخبار به صورت محدود نقش عمده‌ای دارد با قوانین مالیات نشری که در آمریکا اعمال می‌شود اما در قرن ۱۷ از قوانین آمریکا حذف شد برابری می‌کند. حتی ارتباطات شبکه‌ای کاملاً باز می‌تواند مامنی برای سانسور باشد چنین شبکه‌هایی بر اساس تکنولوژی‌هایی کار می‌کنند که درمیان همه افراد جامعه به صورت مساوی توزیع نشده‌است افرادی که منابع کافی برای دسترسی به چنین شبکه‌هایی را در اختیار دارند و حتی ممکن است برای خیلی از افراد ناشناخته باشند از این قدرت دسترسی خود برای تولید اطلاعات استفاده می‌کنند و این اطلاعات را که قبلاً توسط افرادی که کاربر شبکه نبودند تولید می‌شد را براساس نظر افراد قدرتمند تهیه می‌نمایند.

سانسور در سراسر جهان[ویرایش]

سانسور بیشتر در کشورهای جهان سومی و کشورهایی که اصل سکولاریسم را رعایت نمی‌کنند رخ می‌دهد، ولی این بدان معنا نیست که در کشورهای دیگر رخ نمی‌دهد، به عنوان مثال سانسور در ترکیه که یک کشور سکولار است متداول است یا سانسور تصاویر در شوروی سابق متداول بوده‌است.

سانسور رسانه‌ها[ویرایش]

انواع دیگر سانسور[ویرایش]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. «سانسور، بررسی» [عمومی] هم‌ارزِ «censorship, censure (fr.)»؛ منبع: گروه واژه‌گزینی. «فارسی». در همان. دفتر اول. فرهنگ واژه‌های مصوب فرهنگستان. تهران: انتشارات فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی. شابک ۹۶۴-۷۵۳۱-۳۱-۱ (ذیل سرواژهٔ سانسور)
  2. صنعت نشر، بولتن داخلی اتحادیه ناشران و کتابفروشان تهران، شماره ۳

منابع[ویرایش]

  • Abbott, Randy. «A Critical Analysis of the Library-Related Literature Concerning Censorship in Public Libraries and Public School Libraries in the United States During the ۱۹۸۰s.» Project for degree of Education Specialist, University of South Florida, December ۱۹۸۷. [ED ۳۰۸ ۸۶۴]
  • Burress, Lee. Battle of the Books. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. [ED ۳۰۸ ۵۰۸]
  • Butler, Judith, "Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative» (۱۹۹۷)
  • Foucault, Michel, edited by Lawrence D. Kritzman. Philosophy, Culture: interviews and other writings 1977-1984 (New York/London: 1988, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-90082-4) [The text Sexual Morality and the Law is Chapter 16 of the book]
  • O'Reilly, Robert C. and Larry Parker. "Censorship or Curriculum Modification?» Paper presented at a School Boards Association, 1982, 14 p. [ED ۲۲۶ ۴۳۲]
  • Hansen, Terry. The Missing Times: News media complicity in the UFO cover-up, 2000. ISBN 0-7388-3612-5
  • Hendrikson, Leslie. "Library Censorship: ERIC Digest No. 23." ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, Colorado, November 1985. [ED ۲۶۴ ۱۶۵]
  • Hoffman, Frank. "Intellectual Freedom and Censorship." Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. [ED ۳۰۷ ۶۵۲]
  • Marek, Kate. "Schoolbook Censorship USA." June 1987. [ED ۳۰۰ ۰۱۸]
  • National Coalition against Censorship (NCAC). "Books on Trial: A Survey of Recent Cases." January 1985. [ED ۲۵۸ ۵۹۷]
  • Small, Robert C. , Jr. "Preparing the New English Teacher to Deal with Censorship, or Will I Have to Face it Alone?» Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English, 1987, 16 p.
(Arguing that an English teacher should get advice from school librarians in preparing to encounter three levels of censorship:
  1. Rejection of adolescent fiction and popular teen magazines as having low value,
  2. Experienced colleagues discouraging "difficult" lesson plans,
  3. Outside interest groups limiting students' exposure. [ED ۲۸۹ ۱۷۲])

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

وب پیوندها[ویرایش]

پیوندهای فری نت[ویرایش]

  • آزمایش کلینکس برنامه‌ای دربارهٔ سانسور در فری نت
  • کورون منبع کتاب‌ها و دیگر اسناد سانسور شده در فرانسه.
  • کورون منبع کتاب‌ها و دیگر اسناد سانسور شده در انگلستان.
The plaster cast of David at the Victoria and Albert Museum has a detachable plaster fig leaf which is displayed nearby. Legend claims that the fig leaf was created in response to Queen Victoria's shock upon first viewing the statue's nudity, and was hung on the figure prior to royal visits, using two strategically placed hooks.[1]

Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient."[2][3][4] Censorship can be conducted by governments,[5] private institutions, and corporations.

Governments[5] and private organizations may engage in censorship. Other groups or institutions may propose and petition for censorship.[6] When an individual such as an author or other creator engages in censorship of their own works or speech, it is referred to as self-censorship. It occurs in a variety of different media, including speech, books, music, films, and other arts, the press, radio, television, and the Internet for a variety of claimed reasons including national security, to control obscenity, child pornography, and hate speech, to protect children or other vulnerable groups, to promote or restrict political or religious views, and to prevent slander and libel.

Book burning in Chile following the 1973 coup that installed the Pinochet regime.

Direct censorship may or may not be legal, depending on the type, location, and content. Many countries provide strong protections against censorship by law, but none of these protections are absolute and frequently a claim of necessity to balance conflicting rights is made, in order to determine what could and could not be censored. There are no laws against self-censorship.

History

Chinese troops destroyed the statue Goddess of Democracy in Tiananmen Square in 1989, and continue to censor information about those events.[8] This statue, now known as the Victims of Communism Memorial, was recreated by Thomas Marsh in Washington, DC.

In 399 BC, Greek philosopher, Socrates, while defying attempts by the Greek state to censor his philosophical teachings, was accused of collateral charges related to the corruption of Athenian youth and sentenced to death by drinking a poison, hemlock.

The details of Socrates's conviction are recorded by Plato as follows. In 399 BC, Socrates went on trial[9] and was subsequently found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of impiety (asebeia,[10] "not believing in the gods of the state"),[11] and as a punishment sentenced to death, caused by the drinking of a mixture containing hemlock.[12][13][14][15]

Socrates' student, Plato, is said to have advocated censorship in his essay on The Republic, which opposed the existence of democracy. In contrast to Plato, Greek playwright Euripides (480–406 BC) defended the true liberty of freeborn men, including the right to speak freely. In 1766, Sweden became the first country to abolish censorship by law.[16]

Rationale

The rationale for censorship is different for various types of information censored:

  • Moral censorship is the removal of materials that are obscene or otherwise considered morally questionable. Pornography, for example, is often censored under this rationale, especially child pornography, which is illegal and censored in most jurisdictions in the world.[17][18]
  • Military censorship is the process of keeping military intelligence and tactics confidential and away from the enemy. This is used to counter espionage.
  • Political censorship occurs when governments hold back information from their citizens. This is often done to exert control over the populace and prevent free expression that might foment rebellion.
  • Religious censorship is the means by which any material considered objectionable by a certain religion is removed. This often involves a dominant religion forcing limitations on less prevalent ones. Alternatively, one religion may shun the works of another when they believe the content is not appropriate for their religion.
  • Corporate censorship is the process by which editors in corporate media outlets intervene to disrupt the publishing of information that portrays their business or business partners in a negative light,[19][20] or intervene to prevent alternate offers from reaching public exposure.[21]

Types

Political

Canada

Cuba

Cuban media used to be operated under the supervision of the Communist Party's Department of Revolutionary Orientation, which "develops and coordinates propaganda strategies".[22] Connection to the Internet is restricted and censored.[23]

China

The People's Republic of China employs sophisticated censorship mechanisms, referred to as the Golden Shield Project, to monitor the internet. Popular search engines such as Baidu also remove politically sensitive search results.[24][25][26]

Eastern Bloc

Strict censorship existed in the Eastern Bloc.[27] Throughout the bloc, the various ministries of culture held a tight rein on their writers.[28] Cultural products there reflected the propaganda needs of the state.[28] Party-approved censors exercised strict control in the early years.[29] In the Stalinist period, even the weather forecasts were changed if they suggested that the sun might not shine on May Day.[29] Under Nicolae Ceauşescu in Romania, weather reports were doctored so that the temperatures were not seen to rise above or fall below the levels which dictated that work must stop.[29]

Possession and use of copying machines was tightly controlled in order to hinder production and distribution of samizdat, illegal self-published books and magazines. Possession of even a single samizdat manuscript such as a book by Andrei Sinyavsky was a serious crime which might involve a visit from the KGB. Another outlet for works which did not find favor with the authorities was publishing abroad.

Iran

Iraq

Iraq under Baathist Saddam Hussein had much the same techniques of press censorship as did Romania under Nicolae Ceauşescu but with greater potential violence.[citation needed]

North Korea

Serbia

According to Christian Mihr, executive director of Reporters Without Borders, "censorship in Serbia is neither direct nor transparent, but is easy to prove." [30] According to Mihr there are numerous examples of censorship and self-censorship in Serbia [31] According to Mihr, Serbian prime minister Aleksandar Vučić has proved "very sensitive to criticism, even on critical questions," as was the case with Natalija Miletic, correspondent for Deutsche Welle Radio, who questioned him in Berlin about the media situation in Serbia and about allegations that some ministers in the Serbian government had plagiarized their diplomas, and who later received threats and offensive articles on the Serbian press.[31]

Multiple news outlets have accused Vučić of anti-democratic strongman tendencies.[32][33][34][35][36] In July 2014, journalists associations were concerned about the freedom of the media in Serbia, in which Vučić came under criticism.[37][38]

In September 2015 five members of United States Congress (Edie Bernice Johnson, Carlos Curbelo, Scott Perry, Adam Kinzinger, and Zoe Lofgren) have informed Vice President of the United States Joseph Biden that Aleksandar's brother, Andrej Vučić, is leading a group responsible for deteriorating media freedom in Serbia.[39]

Singapore

In the Republic of Singapore, Section 33 of the Films Act originally banned the making, distribution and exhibition of "party political films", at pain of a fine not exceeding $100,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years. The Act further defines a "party political film" as any film or video

(a) which is an advertisement made by or on behalf of any political party in Singapore or any body whose objects relate wholly or mainly to politics in Singapore, or any branch of such party or body; or
(b) which is made by any person and directed towards any political end in Singapore

In 2001, the short documentary called A Vision of Persistence on opposition politician J. B. Jeyaretnam was also banned for being a "party political film". The makers of the documentary, all lecturers at the Ngee Ann Polytechnic, later submitted written apologies and withdrew the documentary from being screened at the 2001 Singapore International Film Festival in April, having been told they could be charged in court. Another short documentary called Singapore Rebel by Martyn See, which documented Singapore Democratic Party leader Dr Chee Soon Juan's acts of civil disobedience, was banned from the 2005 Singapore International Film Festival on the same grounds and See is being investigated for possible violations of the Films Act.

This law, however, is often disregarded when such political films are made supporting the ruling People's Action Party (PAP). Channel NewsAsia's five-part documentary series on Singapore's PAP ministers in 2005, for example, was not considered a party political film.

Exceptions are also made when political films are made concerning political parties of other nations. Films such as Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 911 are thus allowed to screen regardless of the law.

Since March 2009, the Films Act has been amended to allow party political films as long as they were deemed factual and objective by a consultative committee. Some months later, this committee lifted the ban on Singapore Rebel.

Soviet Union

Independent journalism did not exist in the Soviet Union until Mikhail Gorbachev became its leader; all reporting was directed by the Communist Party or related organizations. Pravda, the predominant newspaper in the Soviet Union, had a monopoly. Foreign newspapers were available only if they were published by Communist Parties sympathetic to the Soviet Union.

Spain

Turkey

Online access to all language versions of Wikipedia was blocked in Turkey on 29 April 2017 by Erdoğan's government.[40]

United Kingdom

United States

In the United States, censorship occurs through books, film festivals, politics, and public schools.[41] See banned books for more information. Additionally, critics of campaign finance reform in the United States say this reform imposes widespread restrictions on political speech.[42][43]

Uruguay

Censorship also takes place in capitalist nations, such as Uruguay. In 1973, a military coup took power in Uruguay, and the State practiced censorship. For example, writer Eduardo Galeano was imprisoned and later was forced to flee. His book Open Veins of Latin America was banned by the right-wing military government, not only in Uruguay, but also in Chile and Argentina.[44]

State secrets and prevention of attention

Wieczór Wrocławia – Daily newspaper of Wrocław, People's Republic of Poland, March 20–21, 1981, with censor intervention on first and last pages – under the headlines "Co zdarzyło się w Bydgoszczy?" (What happened in Bydgoszcz?) and "Pogotowie strajkowe w całym kraju" (Country-wide strike alert). The censor had removed a section regarding the strike alert; hence the workers in the printing house blanked out an official propaganda section. The right-hand page also includes a hand-written confirmation of that decision by the local "Solidarność" Trade Union.

In wartime, explicit censorship is carried out with the intent of preventing the release of information that might be useful to an enemy. Typically it involves keeping times or locations secret, or delaying the release of information (e.g., an operational objective) until it is of no possible use to enemy forces. The moral issues here are often seen as somewhat different, as the proponents of this form of censorship argues that release of tactical information usually presents a greater risk of casualties among one's own forces and could possibly lead to loss of the overall conflict.

During World War I letters written by British soldiers would have to go through censorship. This consisted of officers going through letters with a black marker and crossing out anything which might compromise operational secrecy before the letter was sent.[45] The World War II catchphrase "Loose lips sink ships" was used as a common justification to exercise official wartime censorship and encourage individual restraint when sharing potentially sensitive information.

An example of "sanitization" policies comes from the USSR under Joseph Stalin, where publicly used photographs were often altered to remove people whom Stalin had condemned to execution. Though past photographs may have been remembered or kept, this deliberate and systematic alteration to all of history in the public mind is seen as one of the central themes of Stalinism and totalitarianism.

Censorship is occasionally carried out to aid authorities or to protect an individual, as with some kidnappings when attention and media coverage of the victim can sometimes be seen as unhelpful.[46][47]

Religion

Censorship by religion is a form of censorship where freedom of expression is controlled or limited using religious authority or on the basis of the teachings of the religion. This form of censorship has a long history and is practiced in many societies and by many religions. Examples include the Galileo affair, Edict of Compiègne, the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (list of prohibited books) and the condemnation of Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses by Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Images of the Islamic figure Muhammad are also regularly censored. In some secular countries, this is sometimes done to prevent hurting religious sentiments.[48]

Educational sources

Historic Russian censorship. Book Notes of my life by N.I. Grech, published in St. Petersburg 1886 by A.S. Suvorin. The censored text was replaced by dots.

The content of school textbooks is often an issue of debate, since their target audience is young people. The term whitewashing is commonly used to refer to revisionism aimed at glossing over difficult or questionable historical events, or a biased presentation thereof. The reporting of military atrocities in history is extremely controversial, as in the case of The Holocaust (or Holocaust denial), Bombing of Dresden, the Nanking Massacre as found with Japanese history textbook controversies, the Armenian Genocide, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, and the Winter Soldier Investigation of the Vietnam War.

In the context of secondary school education, the way facts and history are presented greatly influences the interpretation of contemporary thought, opinion and socialization. One argument for censoring the type of information disseminated is based on the inappropriate quality of such material for the young. The use of the "inappropriate" distinction is in itself controversial, as it changed heavily. A Ballantine Books version of the book Fahrenheit 451 which is the version used by most school classes[49] contained approximately 75 separate edits, omissions, and changes from the original Bradbury manuscript.

In February 2006, a National Geographic cover was censored by the Nashravaran Journalistic Institute. The offending cover was about the subject of love and a picture of an embracing couple was hidden beneath a white sticker.[50][50]

Economic Induced Censorship

Economic induced censorship, is a type of censorship enacted by economic markets, to favor, and disregard types of information. Economic induced censorship, is also caused, by market forces which privatize and establish commodification of certain information that is not accessible by the general public, primarily because of the cost associated with commodified information such as academic journals, industry reports and pay to use repositories.[51]

The concept was illustrated as a censorship pyramid[52] that was conceptualized by primarily Julian Assange, along with Andy Müller-Maguhn, Jacob Appelbaum and Jérémie Zimmermann, in the Cypherpunks (book).

Self-censorship

Author Ozzie Zehner self-censored the American edition of his environmental book, Green Illusions,[53] fearing food libel laws.

Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences (actual or perceived) of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship is often practiced by film producers, film directors, publishers, news anchors, journalists, musicians, and other kinds of authors including individuals who use social media.[54]

According to a Pew Research Center and the Columbia Journalism Review survey, "About one-quarter of the local and national journalists say they have purposely avoided newsworthy stories, while nearly as many acknowledge they have softened the tone of stories to benefit the interests of their news organizations. Fully four-in-ten (41%) admit they have engaged in either or both of these practices."[55]

Threats to media freedom have shown a significant increase in Europe in recent years, according to a study published in April 2017 by the Council of Europe. This results in a fear of physical or psychological violence, and the ultimate result is self-censorship by journalists.[56]

Copy, picture, and writer approval

Copy approval is the right to read and amend an article, usually an interview, before publication. Many publications refuse to give copy approval but it is increasingly becoming common practice when dealing with publicity anxious celebrities.[57] Picture approval is the right given to an individual to choose which photos will be published and which will not. Robert Redford is well known for insisting upon picture approval.[58] Writer approval is when writers are chosen based on whether they will write flattering articles or not. Hollywood publicist Pat Kingsley is known for banning certain writers who wrote undesirably about one of her clients from interviewing any of her other clients.[citation needed]

By media

Books

Nazi book burning in Berlin, May 1933.

Book censorship can be enacted at the national or sub-national level, and can carry legal penalties for their infraction. Books may also be challenged at a local, community level. As a result, books can be removed from schools or libraries, although these bans do not extend outside of that area.

Films

Aside from the usual justifications of pornography and obscenity, some films are censored due to changing racial attitudes or political correctness in order to avoid ethnic stereotyping and/or ethnic offense despite its historical or artistic value. One example is the still withdrawn "Censored Eleven" series of animated cartoons, which may have been innocent then, but are "incorrect" now.

Film censorship is carried out by various countries to differing degrees. For example, only 34 foreign films a year are approved for official distribution in China's strictly controlled film market.[59]

Music

Music censorship has been implemented by states, religions, educational systems, families, retailers and lobbying groups – and in most cases they violate international conventions of human rights.[60]

Maps

Censorship of maps is often employed for military purposes. For example, the technique was used in former East Germany, especially for the areas near the border to West Germany in order to make attempts of defection more difficult. Censorship of maps is also applied by Google Maps, where certain areas are grayed out or blacked or areas are purposely left outdated with old imagery.[61]

Individual words

Under subsection 48(3) and (4) of the Penang Islamic Religious Administration Enactment 2004, non-Muslims in Malaysia are penalized for using the following words, or to write or publish them, in any form, version or translation in any language or for use in any publicity material in any medium: "Allah", "Firman Allah", "Ulama", "Hadith", "Ibadah", "Kaabah", "Qadhi'", "Illahi", "Wahyu", "Mubaligh", "Syariah", "Qiblat", "Haji", "Mufti", "Rasul", "Iman", "Dakwah", "Wali", "Fatwa", "Imam", "Nabi", "Sheikh", "Khutbah", "Tabligh", "Akhirat", "Azan", "Al Quran", "As Sunnah", "Auliya'", "Karamah", "False Moon God", "Syahadah", "Baitullah", "Musolla", "Zakat Fitrah", "Hajjah", "Taqwa" and "Soleh".[62][63][64]

Publishers of the Spanish reference dictionary Real Acádemia Española received petitions to censor the entries "Jewishness", "Gypsiness", "black work" and "weak sex", claiming that they are either offensive or non-PC.[65]

One elementary school's obscenity filter changed every reference to the word "tit" to "breast," so when a child typed "U.S. Constitution" into the school computer, it changed it to Consbreastution.[66]

Art

Art is loved and feared because of its evocative power. Destroying or oppressing art can potentially justify its meaning even more.[67]

British photographer and visual artist Graham Ovenden's photos and paintings were ordered to be destroyed by a London's magistrate court in 2015 for being "indecent"[68] and their copies had been removed from the online Tate gallery.[69]

Artworks using these four colors were banned by Israeli law in the 1980s

A 1980 Israeli law forbade banned artwork composed of the four colours of the Palestinian flag,[70] and Palestinians were arrested for displaying such artwork or even for carrying sliced melons with the same pattern.[71][72][73]

Cuban Artist: Tania Bruguera

Moath al-Alwi is a Guantanamo Bay Prisoner who creates model ships as an expression of art. Alwi does so with the few tools he has at his disposal such as floss and shampoo bottles, and he is also allowed to use a small pair of scissors with rounded edges. A few of Alwi's pieces are on display at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. There are also other artworks on display at the College that were created by other inmates. The artwork that is being displayed might be the only way for some of the inmates to communicate with the outside. Recently things have changed though. The military has come up with a new policy that won't allow the artwork at Guantanamo Bay Military Prison to leave the prison. The art work created by Alwi and other prisoners is now government property and can be destroyed by them or disposed in whatever way they choose, making it no longer the artist's property. [74]

Around 300 artists in Cuba are fighting for their artistic freedom due to new censorship rules Cuba's government has in place for artists. Recently, Tania Bruguera, a musician was detained upon arriving to Havana and released after four days because of these new censorships restrains Cuba has on artists there.[75]

Nazi art show
The Degenerate Art Exhibition

An example of extreme state censorship was the Nazis requirements of using art as propaganda. Art was only allowed to be used as a political instrument to control people and failure to act in accordance with the censors was punishable by law, even fatal. The Degenerate Art Exhibition is a historical instance that's goal was to advertise Nazi values and slander others.[76]

Internet

Internet censorship and surveillance by country (2018)[77][78][79][80][81]

Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. It may be carried out by governments or by private organizations either at the behest of government or on their own initiative. Individuals and organizations may engage in self-censorship on their own or due to intimidation and fear.

The issues associated with Internet censorship are similar to those for offline censorship of more traditional media. One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: residents of a country that bans certain information can find it on websites hosted outside the country. Thus censors must work to prevent access to information even though they lack physical or legal control over the websites themselves. This in turn requires the use of technical censorship methods that are unique to the Internet, such as site blocking and content filtering.[82]

Unless the censor has total control over all Internet-connected computers, such as in North Korea or Cuba, total censorship of information is very difficult or impossible to achieve due to the underlying distributed technology of the Internet. Pseudonymity and data havens (such as Freenet) protect free speech using technologies that guarantee material cannot be removed and prevents the identification of authors. Technologically savvy users can often find ways to access blocked content. Nevertheless, blocking remains an effective means of limiting access to sensitive information for most users when censors, such as those in China, are able to devote significant resources to building and maintaining a comprehensive censorship system.[82]

Views about the feasibility and effectiveness of Internet censorship have evolved in parallel with the development of the Internet and censorship technologies:

  • A 1993 Time Magazine article quotes computer scientist John Gillmore, one of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, as saying "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it."[83]
  • In November 2007, "Father of the Internet" Vint Cerf stated that he sees government control of the Internet failing because the Web is almost entirely privately owned.[84]
  • A report of research conducted in 2007 and published in 2009 by the Beckman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University stated that: "We are confident that the [censorship circumvention] tool developers will for the most part keep ahead of the governments' blocking efforts", but also that "...we believe that less than two percent of all filtered Internet users use circumvention tools".[85]
  • In contrast, a 2011 report by researchers at the Oxford Internet Institute published by UNESCO concludes "... the control of information on the Internet and Web is certainly feasible, and technological advances do not therefore guarantee greater freedom of speech."[82]

A BBC World Service poll of 27,973 adults in 26 countries, including 14,306 Internet users,[86] was conducted between 30 November 2009 and 7 February 2010. The head of the polling organization felt, overall, that the poll showed that:

Despite worries about privacy and fraud, people around the world see access to the internet as their fundamental right. They think the web is a force for good, and most don’t want governments to regulate it.[87]

The poll found that nearly four in five (78%) Internet users felt that the Internet had brought them greater freedom, that most Internet users (53%) felt that "the internet should never be regulated by any level of government anywhere", and almost four in five Internet users and non-users around the world felt that access to the Internet was a fundamental right (50% strongly agreed, 29% somewhat agreed, 9% somewhat disagreed, 6% strongly disagreed, and 6% gave no opinion).[88]

Social media

The rising usages of social media in many nations has led to the emergence of citizens organizing protests through social media, sometimes called "Twitter Revolutions". The most notable of these social media led protests were parts Arab Spring uprisings, starting in 2010. In response to the use of social media in these protests, the Tunisian government began a hack of Tunisian citizens' Facebook accounts, and reports arose of accounts being deleted.[89]

Automated systems can be used to censor social media posts, and therefore limit what citizens can say online. This most notably occurs in China, where social media posts are automatically censored depending on content. In 2013, Harvard political science professor Gary King led a study to determine what caused social media posts to be censored and found that posts mentioning the government were not more or less likely to be deleted if they were supportive or critical of the government. Posts mentioning collective action were more likely to be deleted than those that had not mentioned collective action.[90] Currently, social media censorship appears primarily as a way to restrict Internet users' ability to organize protests. For the Chinese government, seeing citizens unhappy with local governance is beneficial as state and national leaders can replace unpopular officials. King and his researchers were able to predict when certain officials would be removed based on the number of unfavorable social media posts.[91]

Research has proved that criticism is tolerable on social media sites, therefore it is not censored unless it has a higher chance of collective action. It isn't important whether the criticism is supportive or unsupportive of the states' leaders, the main priority of censoring certain social media posts is to make sure that no big actions are being made due to something that was said on the internet. Posts that challenge the Party's political leading role in the Chinese government are more likely to be censored due to the challenges it poses to the Chinese Communist Party.[92]

Video games

Since the early 1980s, advocates of video games have emphasized their use as an expressive medium, arguing for their protection under the laws governing freedom of speech and also as an educational tool. Detractors argue that video games are harmful and therefore should be subject to legislative oversight and restrictions. Many video games have certain elements removed or edited due to regional rating standards.[93][94] For example, in the Japanese and PAL Versions of No More Heroes, blood splatter and gore is removed from the gameplay. Decapitation scenes are implied, but not shown. Scenes of missing body parts after having been cut off, are replaced with the same scene, but showing the body parts fully intact.[95]

Surveillance as an aid

Surveillance and censorship are different. Surveillance can be performed without censorship, but it is harder to engage in censorship without some form of surveillance.[96] And even when surveillance does not lead directly to censorship, the widespread knowledge or belief that a person, their computer, or their use of the Internet is under surveillance can lead to self-censorship.[97]

Protection of sources is no longer just a matter of journalistic ethics; it increasingly also depends on the journalist's computer skills and all journalists should equip themselves with a "digital survival kit" if they are exchanging sensitive information online or storing it on a computer or mobile phone.[98][99] And individuals associated with high-profile rights organizations, dissident, protest, or reform groups are urged to take extra precautions to protect their online identities.[100]

Implementation

Censored pre-press proof of two articles from "Notícias da Amadora", a Portuguese newspaper, 1970

The former Soviet Union maintained a particularly extensive program of state-imposed censorship. The main organ for official censorship in the Soviet Union was the Chief Agency for Protection of Military and State Secrets generally known as the Glavlit, its Russian acronym. The Glavlit handled censorship matters arising from domestic writings of just about any kind – even beer and vodka labels. Glavlit censorship personnel were present in every large Soviet publishing house or newspaper; the agency employed some 70,000 censors to review information before it was disseminated by publishing houses, editorial offices, and broadcasting studios. No mass medium escaped Glavlit's control. All press agencies and radio and television stations had Glavlit representatives on their editorial staffs.[citation needed]

Sometimes, public knowledge of the existence of a specific document is subtly suppressed, a situation resembling censorship. The authorities taking such action will justify it by declaring the work to be "subversive" or "inconvenient". An example is Michel Foucault's 1978 text Sexual Morality and the Law (later republished as The Danger of Child Sexuality), originally published as La loi de la pudeur [literally, "the law of decency"]. This work defends the decriminalization of statutory rape and the abolition of age of consent laws.[citation needed]

When a publisher comes under pressure to suppress a book, but has already entered into a contract with the author, they will sometimes effectively censor the book by deliberately ordering a small print run and making minimal, if any, attempts to publicize it. This practice became known in the early 2000s as privishing (private publishing).[101]

Criticism

Artistic allegory of communist press censorship, 1989

Censorship has been criticized throughout history for being unfair and hindering progress. In a 1997 essay on Internet censorship, social commentator Michael Landier claims that censorship is counterproductive as it prevents the censored topic from being discussed. Landier expands his argument by claiming that those who impose censorship must consider what they censor to be true, as individuals believing themselves to be correct would welcome the opportunity to disprove those with opposing views.[102]

Censorship is often used to impose moral values on society, as in the censorship of material considered obscene. English novelist E. M. Forster was a staunch opponent of censoring material on the grounds that it was obscene or immoral, raising the issue of moral subjectivity and the constant changing of moral values. When the novel Lady Chatterley's Lover was put on trial in 1960, Forster wrote:[103]

Lady Chatterley's Lover is a literary work of importance...I do not think that it could be held obscene, but am in a difficulty here, for the reason that I have never been able to follow the legal definition of obscenity. The law tells me that obscenity may deprave and corrupt, but as far as I know, it offers no definition of depravity or corruption.

By country

Censorship by country collects information on censorship, internet censorship, press freedom, freedom of speech, and human rights by country and presents it in a sortable table, together with links to articles with more information. In addition to countries, the table includes information on former countries, disputed countries, political sub-units within countries, and regional organizations.

See also

Related articles

Freedoms

References

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Works cited

  • Crampton, R. J. (1997), Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century and After, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-16422-1
  • Major, Patrick; Mitter, Rana (2004), "East is East and West is West?", in Major, Patrick (ed.), Across the Blocs: Exploring Comparative Cold War Cultural and Social History, Taylor & Francis, Inc., ISBN 978-0-7146-8464-2

Further reading