کلیسای ملی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
یک کلیسای محلی متعلق به کلیسای دانمارک در حومه کپنهاگ، همراه با پرچم دانمارک در گورستانش

کلیسای ملی کلیسای مسیحی است که مختص یک قومیت یا دولت ملی است. این ایده طی قرن نوزدهم و همزمان با پیدایش ملی‌گرایی نوین پدید آمد.

کشورها و مناطق دارای کلیسای ملی[ویرایش]

کشور کلیسای ملی مذهب %
 ارمنستان کلیسای حواری ارمنی[۱] ارتدکس مشرقی ۹۲٫۵٪ (۲۰۱۷)
 بلغارستان کلیسای ارتدکس بلغارستان[۲] ارتدکس شرقی ۵۹٫۵٪ (۲۰۱۱)
 قبرس کلیسای قبرس ارتدکس شرقی ۸۹٫۱٪ (۲۰۱۱)
 دانمارک کلیسای دانمارک[۳] لوتری ۷۴٫۷٪ (۲۰۱۹)[۴]
 انگلستان کلیسای انگلستان[۵] انگلیکان ۴۷٫۰٪ (۲۰۰۸، همراه با ولز)
 استونی کلیسای اوانگلیکان لوتری استونی[۶] لوتری ۹٫۹۱٪ (۲۰۱۱)
 اتیوپی کلیسای ارتدکس توحیدی اتیوپی[۷] ارتدکس مشرقی ۴۳٫۵٪ (۲۰۰۷)
 جزایر فارو کلیسای جزایر فارو[۸] لوتری ۷۹٫۷٪ (۲۰۱۹)
 فنلاند کلیسای اوانگلیکن لوتری فنلاند[۹] لوتری ۶۹٫۸۳٪ (۲۰۱۸)
 گرجستان کلیسای ارتدکس گرجی[۱۰] ارتدکس شرقی ۸۳٫۴٪ (۲۰۱۴)
 آلمان کلیسای انجیلی در آلمان[۱۱]
کلیسای کاتولیک[۱۱]
پروتستان
کاتولیک رومی
۲۵٫۴٪ (۲۰۱۸)
۲۷٫۷٪ (۲۰۱۷)
 یونان کلیسای یونان[۱۲] ارتدکس شرقی ۹۰٪ (۲۰۱۷)
 ایسلند کلیسای ایسلند[۱۳] لوتری ۶۵٫۱۵٪ (۲۰۱۹)
 ایتالیا کلیسای کاتولیک رومی کاتولیک رومی ۷۸٪ (۲۰۱۸)[۱۴]
 لتونی کلیسای اوانگلیکن لوتری لتونی لوتری ۳۴٫۲٪ (۲۰۱۱)
 لیختن‌اشتاین کلیسای کاتولیک رومی[۱۵] کاتولیک رومی ۷۵٫۹٪ (۲۰۱۰)
 جمهوری مقدونیه شمالی کلیسای ارتدکس مقدونیه[۱۶] ارتدکس شرقی ۶۴٫۴٪ (۲۰۱۱)
 نروژ کلیسای نروژ[۱۷] لوتری ۶۹٫۹۱٪ (۲۰۱۸)
 رومانی کلیسای ارتدکس رومانی ارتدکس شرقی ۸۱٫۹٪ (۲۰۱۱)[۱۸]
 روسیه کلیسای ارتدکس روسی[۱۹] ارتدکس شرقی ۷۱٪ (۲۰۱۷)[۲۰][۲۱]
 اسکاتلند کلیسای اسکاتلند[۲۲] کالوینی ۲۲٪ (۲۰۱۸)
 صربستان کلیسای ارتدکس صربی[۲۳] ارتدکس شرقی ۸۴٫۵۹٪ (۲۰۱۱)
 سوئد کلیسای سوئد[۲۴] لوتری ۶۰٫۹٪ (۲۰۱۶)
 تووالو کلیسای تووالو[۲۵] کالوینی ۹۱٪+ (۲۰۱۲)
 اوکراین کلیسای ارتدکس اوکراین[۲۶]
کلیسای ارتدکس یونانی اوکراین
ارتدکس شرقی
کاتولیک شرقی
۴۳٫۹٪ (۲۰۱۹)
۳۰٫۹٪ (۲۰۱۶)

اقوام دارای کلیسای ملی[ویرایش]

کشور گروه کلیسای ملی مذهب
 مصر قبطی‌ها ارتدکس قبطی[۲۷] ارتدکس مشرقی
 سوریه- ترکیه آرامی‌ها کلیسای ارتدکس سریانی ارتدکس مشرقی
 آشور آشوری‌ها کلیسای آشوری مشرق کلیسای مشرق
 آشور آشوری‌ها کلیسای باستانی مشرق کلیسای مشرق
 آشور آشوری‌ها کلیسای کاتولیک کلدانی[۲۸] کاتولیک شرقی
 سوریه آرامی‌ها کلیسای سریانی کاتولیک کاتولیک شرقی
 لبنان مارونی‌ها کلیسای مارونی[۲۹] کاتولیک شرقی

نقدها[ویرایش]

کارل بارت گرایش «ملی کردن» خدای مسیحی، به ویژه در زمینه کلیساهای ملی که جنگ با سایر ملت‌های مسیحی را در طول جنگ جهانی اول تحریم می‌کرد، به عنوان بدعت محکوم کرد.[۳۰]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes referred to as the Gregorian Armenian Church by Western scholars, serves as the national church of the Armenian people.
  2. Hall, Richard C. (1 January 2012). The Modern Balkans: A History. Reaktion Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-78023-006-1. While this did not restore the Ohrid patriarchate, it did acknowledge the separation between the Orthodox church in Constantinople and the Bulgarian Orthodox church, which was now free to develop as the Bulgarian national church.
  3. Venbrux, Eric; Quartier, Thomas; Venhorst, Claudia; Brenda Mathijssen (September 2013). Changing European Death Ways. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 178. ISBN 978-3-643-90067-8. Simultaneously the church tax, ministers being public servants, and the status of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark as the national church indicate that the state lends its support to the church.
  4. Church membership 1990-2019 Kirkeministeriet (in Danish)
  5. Britannicus (1834). The Church of England. p. 17. Having, in my last, arrive at the great points which I wished to establish--the apostolicity, independence, and authority of the Church of England; and that she is necessarily the National Church, because Christianity is the National Religion.
  6. Elvy, Peter (1991). Opportunities and Limitations in Religious Broadcasting. Edinburgh: CTPI. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-870126-15-1. Denominationally Estonia is Lutheran. During the time of national independence (1918-1940), 80% of the population belonged to the Lutheran National Church, about 17% were Orthodox Christians and the rest belonged to Free Churches.
  7. Lorance, Cody (2008). Ethnographic Chicago. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-615-21862-5. Her findings show that the development of the national church of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which began in the fourth century and made Christianity the state religion of Ethiopia, was also a major contributor to national development in the fields of independence, social progress, national unity and empowerment, literary development, arts, architecture, music, publication, and declaration of a national language and leadership, both spiritually and military.
  8. Proctor, James (13 May 2013). Faroe Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-84162-456-3. Religion is important to the Faroese and 84% of the population belongs to the established national church in the islands, the Evangelical—Lutheran Foroya Kirkja, which has 61 churches in the Faroes and three out of every four marriages are held in one.
  9. Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Britanncia Educational Publishing. 1 June 2013. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-61530-995-5. One of Finland's national churches is the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Evankelis—luterilainen—kirkko), or simply the Church of Finland.
  10. Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (21 September 2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. p. 1195. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3. The Georgian Orthodox Church (GOC) is the Eastern Orthodox Christian body that serves as the national church of the Caucasian country of Georgia. The great majority of Georgians are members of the church.
  11. ۱۱٫۰ ۱۱٫۱ Gelder, Craig Van (2008). The Missional Church and Denominations. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-8028-6358-4. Germany's two churches (the National Church for the Protestants and the Roman Catholic Church) were “proper”with respect to their polities.
  12. Miller, James Edward (2009). The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-8078-3247-9. The creation of a national church of Greece, which the patriarch reluctantly recognized in 1850, set a pattern for other emerging Balkan states to form national churches independent of Constantinople.
  13. Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (1 September 2006). Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7614-2074-3. The National Church of Iceland, formally called the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, is the state religion, and the president of Iceland is its supreme authority.
  14. "Being Christian in Western Europe" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-08-02. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  15. "The Roman Catholic Church is the State Church and as such enjoys the full protection of the State; other confessions shall be entitled to practise their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order." Constitution Religion. توسط Wayback Machine (archived ۲۶ مارس ۲۰۰۹) (archived from the original on 2009-03-26).
  16. Rae, Heather (15 August 2002). State Identities and the Homogenisation of Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-521-79708-5. The creation of a national Church was also central to building national identity, with the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC) established in 1967, much to the outrage of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
  17. Cristofori, Rinaldo; Ferrari, Silvio (28 February 2013). Law and Religion in the 21st Century: Relations between States and Religious Communities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-4094-9733-2. The State shall support all religious communities including the Church of Norway on an equal footing, but the Church of Norway shall 'remain the people's Church and is as such supported by the State', thereby upholding its function as a national Church.
  18. Romania, اطلاعات‌نامه جهان
  19. Prizel, Ilya (13 August 1998). National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-521-57697-0. Although nominally a national church, the Russian Orthodox Church developed from a defensive, nativist institution to the ideological foundation of an imperial idea.
  20. "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-09-09.
  21. There is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In August 2012, ARENA determined that about 46.8% of Russians are Christians (including Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, and non-denominational), which is slightly less than an absolute 50%+ majority. However, later that year the Levada Center بایگانی‌شده در ۲۰۱۲-۱۲-۳۱ توسط Wayback Machine determined that 76% of Russians are Christians, and in June 2013 the Public Opinion Foundation determined that 65% of Russians are Christians. These findings are in line with Pew's 2010 survey, which determined that 73.3% of Russians are Christians, with VTSIOM's 2010 survey (~77% Christian), and with Ipsos MORI بایگانی‌شده در ۲۰۱۳-۰۱-۱۷ توسط Wayback Machine's 2011 survey (69%).
  22. Morton, Andrew R. (1994). God's Will in a Time of Crisis: A Colloquium Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Baillie Commission. Edinburgh: CTPI. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-870126-27-4. In October 1929, the Established Church and the United Free Church were united to form the national Church of Scotland.
  23. Tomasevich, Jozo (1 January 1975). The Chetniks. Stanford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9. He also had the support of the Serbian Orthodox Church, which as a national church long identified with the national destiny and aspirations of the Serbian people was naturally inclined to identify itself with the movement that had the backing of the king and the Servian-dominated government-in-exile.
  24. Gilley, Sheridan; Stanley, Brian (2006). The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8, World Christianities C.1815-c.1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-521-81456-0. The Church of Sweden could be characterised as 'national church' or 'folk church', but not as 'state church', because the independence of the church was expressed by the establishment of a Church Assembly in 1863.
  25. West, Barbara A. (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 845. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7. A second important cultural feature of the Tuvaluan nation is the centrality of the national church, the Ekalesia o Tuvalu, or Church of Tuvalu, in which up to 97 percent of the population claims membership.
  26. Velychenko, Stephen (1 January 1992). National History as Cultural Process: A Survey of the Interpretations of Ukraine's Past in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian Historical Writing from the Earliest Times to 1914. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-920862-75-9. For this reason the Ukrainian Orthodox Church was the true democratic national church of the Ukrainian nation.
  27. Makari, Peter E. (2007). Conflict & Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt. Syracuse University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8156-3144-6. The Coptic Orthodox Church is the historic, and national, church of Egypt and is deeply tied to a monastic tradition of spiritual growth and preparation for ministry of monks and nuns, a tradition that continues to thrive.
  28. B. Shelledy, Robert (2003). Legions Not Always Visible on Parade: The Vatican's Influence in World Politics. University of Wisconsin--Madison. The Chaldean Church is located primarily in Iraq and functions in many ways like a national Orthodox Church.
  29. Ajami, Fouad (30 May 2012). The Syrian Rebellion. Hoover Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8179-1506-3. The Maronite Church is a national church. Its creed is attachment to Lebanon and its independence. The founding ethos of the Maronites is their migration from the Syrian plains to the freedom and “purity” of their home in Mount Lebanon.
  30. Barth, Ethnics, ed. Braun, transl. Bromiley, New York, 1981, p. 305.