کیسه کشیش

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فارسیEnglish
کیسه کشیش
Capsella bursa-pastoris.JPG
کیسه کشیش، Capsella bursa-pastoris
آرایه‌شناسی
فرمانرو: گیاه
راسته: کلم‌سانان
تیره: شب‌بویان
Species: C. bursa-pastoris
نام علمی
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Kise keshish.JPG

کیسه کشیش (نام علمی: Capsella bursa-pastoris ) یکی از گیاهان است.

گیاهی یک ساله است که با بذر تکثیر می‌یابد. دارای ریشه‌ای دوکی‌شکل، در تمام خاک‌ها رشد می‌نماید و نیاز کمی در خاک دارد، ولی خاک ترد و پوک را ترجیح می‌دهد.

ویژگی‌ها[ویرایش]

دوره رویش: تقریباً در تمام طول سال مخصوصاً پاییز
برگ‌ها کوتیلدونی: تخم مرغی کشیده، خیلی کوچک، برگ دم کوتاه
برگ‌های شاخه: در ابتدا مدور یا قاشقی‌شکل، اولین برگ معمولاً کامل و بدون دندانه، برگ‌های بعدی کشیده، دندانه دار یا با لوب‌های حاشیه مواج تا عمیقاً شکاف دار، همه برگ‌ها دارای برگ دم، برگ‌های ساقه نیزه‌ای اغلب بدون شکاف، بدون برگ سر نیزه‌ای شکل.
ساقه: افراشته، ساده یا با یکی دو انشعاب آشکار، صاف یا با کرک‌های پراکنده، بلندی تا ۵۰ سانتی متر
گل: کوچک، سفید، انتهایی، در آرایش خوشه‌ای
دوره گلدهی: تقریباً در تمام مدت سال
مشخصات دانه: میوه خورجینک قلبی‌شکل، به طول ۹-۴ میلی متر، ریشه‌چه به وسیله یک شیار باریک محدود می‌شود. ریشه چه به انداره لپه‌ها یا کمی بلند تر از لپه هاف به رنگ زرد تا قهوه‌ای، مات، صاف تا کمی زبر
مناطق انتشار در ایران: در تمام نواحی ایران از جمله: تهران، کرج، غرب ایران، کرمانشاه، گیلان، مشهد، نیشابور، کرمان، همدان و دیگر نقاط.[۱]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. مدیریت ترویج و نظام بهره‌برداری استان مرکزی، جمع‌آوری اطلاعات: لیلا فراهانی- کارشناس گیاه‌پزشکی، الهام فراهانی- کارشناس ارشد اصلاح نباتات، بازدید: دسامبر ۲۰۰۸.

Shepherd's purse
Capsella bursa-pastoris.JPG
Capsella bursa-pastoris plants
with flowers and fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Capsella
Species: C. bursa-pastoris
Binomial name
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Synonyms

Many, over 200 known including:

  • Capsella elegans (E.B.Almq.) E.B.Almq.[1][2]

Capsella bursa-pastoris, known by its common name shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits,[3] which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant in the mustard family Brassicaceae that grows up to 0.5 m (1.6 ft) tall. It is native to eastern Europe and Asia minor,[4] but is naturalized and considered a common weed in many parts of the world, especially in colder climates,[5] including British Isles,[6] where it is regarded as an archaeophyte,[7][8] North America[9][10] and China,[11] but also in the Mediterranean and North Africa.[4] C. bursa-pastoris is the second most common weed in the world.[11]

Description

rosette (a), pointed leaves, flowers (c–e), pods (i, k)

C. bursa-pastoris plants grow from a rosette of lobed leaves at the base. From the base emerges a stem about 0.2–0.5 m (0.66–1.64 ft) tall, which bears a few pointed leaves which partly grasp the stem. The flowers, which appear in any month of the year in the British Isles,[12]:56 are white and small, 2.5 mm (0.098 in) in diameter, with four petals and six stamens.[12] They are borne in loose racemes, and produce flattened, two-chambered seed pods known as siliques, which are triangular to heart-shaped, each containing several seeds.[10]

Like a number of other plants in several plant families, its seeds contain a substance known as mucilage, a condition known as myxospermy.[13] The adaptive value of myxospermy is unknown,[13] although the fact that mucilage becomes sticky when wet has led some to propose that C. bursa-pastoris traps insects which then provide nutrients to the seedling, which would make it protocarnivorous.[14]

Capsella bursa-pastoris is closely related to the model organism such as Arabidopsis thaliana and is also used as a model organism, due to the variety of genes expressed throughout its life cycle that can be compared to genes that are well studied in A. thaliana. Unlike most flowering plants, it flowers almost all year round.[10][11] Like other annual ruderals exploiting disturbed ground, C. bursa-pastoris reproduces entirely from seed, has a long soil seed bank,[7] and short generation time,[4] and is capable of producing several generations each year.

Taxonomy

It was formally described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in his seminal publication 'Species Plantarum' in 1753, and then published by Friedrich Kasimir Medikus in Pflanzen-Gattungen (Pfl.-Gatt.) on page 85 in 1792.[2][15]

Capsella bursa-pastoris subsp. thracicus (Velen.) Stoj. & Stef. is the only known subspecies.[2]

William Coles (botanist) wrote in his book, 'Adam in Eden' (published in 1657), "It is called Shepherd's purse or Scrip (wallet) from the likeness of the seed hath with that kind of leathearne bag, wherein Shepherds carry their Victualls [food and drink] into the field.""[16] In England and Scotland, it was once commonly called 'mother's heart', which is derived from a child's game/trick of picking the seed pod, which then would burst and the child would be accused of 'breaking his mother's heart'.[16]

Habitat

Common on cultivated ground, waysides and meadows, disturbed land and roadworks.[12]

Uses

C. bursa-pastoris is gathered from the wild,[17] or grown.[18] It has many uses, including for food,[11][18] to supplement animal feed,[17] for cosmetics,[17] and in traditional medicine.[11][17] It is cultivated as a commercial food crop in Asia.[19]

China

In Chinese, this plant is known as jìcài (荠菜; 薺菜).[20] It is commonly used in food in Shanghai and the surrounding Jiangnan region, where it is stir-fried with rice cakes and other ingredients or as part of the filling in wontons.

Japan

It is one of the ingredients of the symbolic dish consumed in the Japanese spring-time festival, Nanakusa-no-sekku.

Korea

In Korea, it is known as naengi (냉이) and used as a root vegetable in the characteristic Korean dish, namul (fresh greens and wild vegetables).[21]

Chemistry

Fumaric acid is one chemical substance that has been isolated from C. bursa-pastoris.[22]

Parasites

See also

References

  1. ^ (E.B. Almq.) E.B. Almq. Acta Horti Berg. 7: 61 1921
  2. ^ a b c "Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. is an accepted name". theplantlist.org. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  3. ^ Parnell, J. Curtis, T. (2012). Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-185918-4783.
  4. ^ a b c Aksoy, A; Dixon, JM; Hale, WH (1998). "Biological flora of the British Isles. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medikus (Thlaspi bursapastoris L., Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Shull, Bursa pastoris (L.) Weber)". Journal of Ecology. 86: 171–186. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00260.x.
  5. ^ "Capsella bursa-pastoris". Flora of Pakistan.
  6. ^ Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. and Warburg, E.F. 1968. Excursion Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-04656-4
  7. ^ a b Preston CD, Pearman DA & Dines TD (2002) New Atlas of the British Flora. Oxford University Press
  8. ^ Preston, CD; Pearman, DA; Hall, AR (2004). "Archaeophytes in Britain". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 145 (3): 257–294. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00284.x.
  9. ^ USDA PLANTS Profile: Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik
  10. ^ a b c Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Capsella bursa-pastoris". Flora of China.
  12. ^ a b c Clapham, A.R.; Tutin, T.G.; Warburg, E.F. (1981). Excursion Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521232906.
  13. ^ a b Tamara L. Western; Debra J. Skinner; George W. Haughn (February 2000). "Differentiation of Mucilage Secretory Cells of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat". Plant Physiology. 122 (2): 345–355. doi:10.1104/pp.122.2.345. PMC 58872. PMID 10677428.
  14. ^ Barber, J.T. (1978). "Capsella bursa-pastoris seeds: Are they "carnivorous"?" (PDF). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter. 7 (2): 39–42.
  15. ^ "Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris Medik". ipni.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  16. ^ a b Reader's Digest Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain. Reader's Digest. 1981. p. 54. ISBN 9780276002175.
  17. ^ a b c d "Capsella bursa-pastoris (Ecocrop code 4164)". ecocrop. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  18. ^ a b "Capsella bursa-pastoris - (L.)Medik". Plants For A Future database report.
  19. ^ Mills, David (March 11, 2014). Nature's Restaurant: Fields, Forests & Wetlands Foods of Eastern North America - A Complete Wild Food Guide.
  20. ^ Samuels, Debra (12 May 2015). "This Chinese grandma forages and cooks". bostonglobe.com. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  21. ^ Pratt, Keith L.; Richard Rutt; James Hoare (1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. Richmond, Surrey.: Curzon Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-7007-0464-4.
  22. ^ Kuroda, K.; Akao, M.; Kanisawa, M.; Miyaki, K. (1976). "Inhibitory effect of Capsella bursa-pastoris extract on growth of Ehrlich solid tumor in mice". Cancer Research. 36 (6): 1900–1903. PMID 1268843.

External links