نقد ادبی

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نقدِ ادبی یا سخن‌سنجی دانشی برای بررسی ویژگی‌ها و تفسیر نقاط قوت و ضعف یک اثر ادبی و تحلیل و ارزیابی آن در کنار تشریح جوانب پیچیدهٔ آثار ادبی و روشی برای سنجش اعتبار و مقام آن‌ها است. به کسی که نقد ادبی می‌داند، مُنتقد ادبی می‌گویند.

نقد ادبی به معنای مطالعه، بحث، ارزیابی و تفسیر محصولات ادبی است. نقد ادبی می‌تواند به شکل یک گفتمان نظری بر اساس نظریه ادبی باشد یا بحث مفصل تری که حالت گزارش گونه در باب یک اثر ادبی داشته باشد. این نوشته‌های گزارش گونه اغلب در قالب نوشته‌های روزنامه‌نگاری یا یادداشت‌هایی در زمان پدیدار شدن آثار ادبی رخ می‌نماید و در مواردی با قضاوت‌هایی یا اظهار نظرهایی در مورد خوب بودن یا نبودن، ارزش‌مند بودن یا نبودن اثر ادبی همراه است.[نیازمند منبع]

تاریخ کهن نقد[ویرایش]

دیون در مبحث ۵۳ خود می‌گوید ارسطو را باید نقطه آغاز نقد ادبی دانست.[۱] و بر این اساس تاریخ این پدیده دست کم تا سده چهارم پیش از میلاد به عقب می‌نشیند. ارسطو در بوطیقا در مورد بسیاری از آثار هنری دوران صحبت می‌کند و مفاهیم میمسیس و کاتارسیس را مطرح می‌کند که امروزه نیز در نقد اهمیت بسیاری دارند. افلاطون در همان دوران به شعر حمله می‌کند و آن را هنری دست دوم، تقلیدی و نادرست می‌داند. بهاراتا مونی در همین دوران در ناتیاشاسترا در مورد نمایش‌های سانسکریت و ادبیات کهن هند اظهار نظر می‌کند.[۲] فلسین مارسو معتقد است استقبال (پاستیش) بهترین نوع نقد ادبی است و با توجه به اهمیتی که گذشتگان به تقلید می‌دادند این نظر غریبی نیست.

سنت تفسیری مرسوم در ادیان ابراهیمی در سده‌های میانه را می‌توان از عناصر شکل دهنده مطالعات نقد ادبی دانست. از سده نهم میلادی نیز در ادبیات عربی آثاری برای نخستین بار مشخصاً در زمینه نقد نگاشته شده‌است که از این میان می‌توان نخست کتاب الحیوان و دوم کتاب البیان و التبیین نوشته جاحظ و کتاب البدیع نوشته عبدالله ابن المعتز را نام برد.[۳]

نقد ادبی در دوران مدرن بیشتر به سمت نظریه ادبی به معنای بحث و بررسی فلسفی در مورد ادبیات و موضوعات آن پیش رفته‌است. ارتباط این دو یعنی نظریه ادبی و نقد را می‌توان هم‌ارز دانست ولی هرگز همنهشت یا متباین نیستند. این موضوع البته جای مناقشه دارد. از جمله جان هاپکینز اصرار دارد نظریه ادبی و نقد ادبی فرقی با هم ندارند. عده‌ای نیز معتقدند نقد ادبی به معنای کاربرد عملی نظریه ادبی است.[۴]

نقد غربی در دوران متاخر[ویرایش]

در سال‌های باززایی مفاهیمی چون یگانگی فرم و محتوی در ادبیات کلاسیک مطرح شد که از چشمگیرترین دستمایه‌های نقد است. بازیابی و بازخوانی متون قدیمی از جمله ترجمه بوتیقای ارسطو در سال ۱۴۹۸ به زبان لاتین به دست جورجو والا یکی از مهمترین دلایل شکل‌گیری این گفتمان در آن دوران بود. شاید بتوان گفت لودویکو کاستلوترو یکی از اثرگذارترین منتقدین دوران باززایی است که در سال ۱۷۵۰ باب بحث در مورد کتاب ارسطو را باز می‌کند. اندیشه حاکم در این دوران به این ترتیب است که ادبیات را صاحب سهم اصلی در بنای فرهنگ می‌دانند و شاعر و نویسنده حافظ سنت عظیم تاریخی آن جامعه زبانی تلقی می‌شود.[نیازمند منبع]

در سده نوزدهم ضمن رمانتیسم انگلیسی ایده‌های تازه‌ای در زیباشناسی مطرح شد که به شکل‌گیری ماده نقد بی ربط نبود. این گروه معتقد بودند موضوعی که در ادبیات پرداخته می‌شود ضرورتاً نباید شرافتمندانه، زیبا و اصیل باشد بلکه صرف پرداختن ادبی به هر موضوعی می‌تواند آن را تا این سطح بالا ببرد. با سرایت رمانتیسم به آلمان ایده ذوق (Witz) مطرح شد که قریحه ادبی هنرمند را برتر از هر عنصر دیگری می‌داند که در شکل‌گیری اثر ادبی مطرح است. کار به جایی رسید که در این دوران شهرت برخی کسان چون متیو آرنولد با این که متون ادبی هم تولید کرده‌اند بیشتر به جهت نظراتی است که در مورد ادبیات داده‌اند.[نیازمند منبع]

در سده بیستم پیدایش فرمالیسم روسی و نقد نوی آمریکایی-انگلیسی باعث تحول عظیمی در موجودیت نقد در جهان شد و آن این که دغدغه اصلی نقد را از دو مسئله کشف نیت نویسنده و پاسخ خواننده به اثر ادبی دور کرد و پالود حال آن که تا پیش از آن این دو مسئله اصلی‌ترین ره آورد بررسی‌های منتقدان ادبی بودند. با وجود این که مدت‌ها از افول این دو مکتب جهانی می‌گذرد، هنوز توجهی که به خوانش دقیق متن داشتند و اهمیتی که به کشف کیفیات خود واژگان می‌دادند در خاطر منتقدان مانده و به نظر نمی‌رسد به مرور زمان کهنه شود.[نیازمند منبع]

فرای[ویرایش]

در سال ۱۹۵۷ نورتروپ فرای در کتابی به نام آناتومی نقد به این مسئله مهم اشاره می‌کند که منتقدین بر اساس ایدئولوژی خود به موضوعات مختلف در آثار ادبی نظر می‌کنند و نظام اعتقادی آنان در این مسیر نقش کلیدی دارد. از کسانی که این اندیشه را بسط داده‌اند می‌توان مایکل جونز را نام برد که در کتاب مدرن‌های فاسد (Degenerate Moderns) می‌گوید استنلی فیش به جهت زندگی فعال جنسی که خود داشته‌است از ادبیات کلاسیک که با آزادی‌های جنسی مخالف است به تندی انتقاد می‌کند.[۵]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. (Pellegrin 2014, p. 2824)
  2. «ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی».
  3. van Gelder, G. J. H. (1982), Beyond the Line: Classical Arabic Literary Critics on the Coherence an Unity of the Poem, Brill Publishers, pp. 1–2, ISBN 90-04-06854-6
  4. Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-8018-8010-6
  5. Jones, E. Michael; Degenerate Moderns: Modernity as Rationalized Sexual Misbehaviour; pp. 79-84; published 1991 by Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-447-2

Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists.

Whether or not literary criticism should be considered a separate field of inquiry from literary theory, or conversely from book reviewing, is a matter of some controversy. For example, the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism[1] draws no distinction between literary theory and literary criticism, and almost always uses the terms together to describe the same concept. Some critics consider literary criticism a practical application of literary theory, because criticism always deals directly with particular literary works, while theory may be more general or abstract.

Literary criticism is often published in essay or book form. Academic literary critics teach in literature departments and publish in academic journals, and more popular critics publish their reviews in broadly circulating periodicals such as The Times Literary Supplement, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Review of Books, the London Review of Books, the Dublin Review of Books, The Nation, Bookforum, and The New Yorker.

History

Classical and medieval criticism

Literary criticism is thought to have existed as long as literature. In the 4th century BC Aristotle wrote the Poetics, a typology and description of literary forms with many specific criticisms of contemporary works of art. Poetics developed for the first time the concepts of mimesis and catharsis, which are still crucial in literary studies. Plato's attacks on poetry as imitative, secondary, and false were formative as well. The Sanskrit Natya Shastra includes literary criticism on ancient Indian literature and Sanskrit drama.

Later classical and medieval criticism often focused on religious texts, and the several long religious traditions of hermeneutics and textual exegesis have had a profound influence on the study of secular texts. This was particularly the case for the literary traditions of the three Abrahamic religions: Jewish literature, Christian literature and Islamic literature.

Literary criticism was also employed in other forms of medieval Arabic literature and Arabic poetry from the 9th century, notably by Al-Jahiz in his al-Bayan wa-'l-tabyin and al-Hayawan, and by Abdullah ibn al-Mu'tazz in his Kitab al-Badi.[2]

Renaissance criticism

The literary criticism of the Renaissance developed classical ideas of unity of form and content into literary neoclassicism, proclaiming literature as central to culture, entrusting the poet and the author with preservation of a long literary tradition. The birth of Renaissance criticism was in 1498, with the recovery of classic texts, most notably, Giorgio Valla's Latin translation of Aristotle's Poetics. The work of Aristotle, especially Poetics, was the most important influence upon literary criticism until the late eighteenth century. Lodovico Castelvetro was one of the most influential Renaissance critics who wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Poetics in 1570.

Enlightenment criticism

In the Enlightenment period (1700s to 1800s), literary criticism became more popular. During this time period literacy rates started to rise in the public; no longer was reading exclusive for the wealthy or scholarly. With the rise of the literate public and swiftness of printing, criticism arose too. Reading was no longer viewed solely as educational or as a sacred source of religion; it was a form of entertainment.[3] Literary criticism was influenced by the values and stylistic writing, including clear, bold, precise writing and the more controversial criteria of the author's religious beliefs.[4] These critical reviews were published in many magazines, newspapers, and journals. Many works of Jonathan Swift were criticized including his book Gulliver's Travels, which one critic described as "the detestable story of the Yahoos".[4]

19th-century Romantic criticism

The British Romantic movement of the early nineteenth century introduced new aesthetic ideas to literary studies, including the idea that the object of literature need not always be beautiful, noble, or perfect, but that literature itself could elevate a common subject to the level of the sublime. German Romanticism, which followed closely after the late development of German classicism, emphasized an aesthetic of fragmentation that can appear startlingly modern to the reader of English literature, and valued Witz – that is, "wit" or "humor" of a certain sort – more highly than the serious Anglophone Romanticism. The late nineteenth century brought renown to authors known more for their literary criticism than for their own literary work, such as Matthew Arnold.

The New Criticism

However important all of these aesthetic movements were as antecedents, current ideas about literary criticism derive almost entirely from the new direction taken in the early twentieth century. Early in the century the school of criticism known as Russian Formalism, and slightly later the New Criticism in Britain and in the United States, came to dominate the study and discussion of literature, in the English-speaking world. Both schools emphasized the close reading of texts, elevating it far above generalizing discussion and speculation about either authorial intention (to say nothing of the author's psychology or biography, which became almost taboo subjects) or reader response. This emphasis on form and precise attention to "the words themselves" has persisted, after the decline of these critical doctrines themselves.

Theory

In 1957 Northrop Frye published the influential Anatomy of Criticism. In his works Frye noted that some critics tend to embrace an ideology, and to judge literary pieces on the basis of their adherence to such ideology. This has been a highly influential viewpoint among modern conservative thinkers. E. Michael Jones, for example, argues in his Degenerate Moderns that Stanley Fish was influenced by his own adulterous affairs to reject classic literature that condemned adultery.[5] Jürgen Habermas in Erkenntnis und Interesse [1968] (Knowledge and Human Interests), described literary critical theory in literary studies as a form of hermeneutics: knowledge via interpretation to understand the meaning of human texts and symbolic expressions—including the interpretation of texts which themselves interpret other texts.

In the British and American literary establishment, the New Criticism was more or less dominant until the late 1960s. Around that time Anglo-American university literature departments began to witness a rise of a more explicitly philosophical literary theory, influenced by structuralism, then post-structuralism, and other kinds of Continental philosophy. It continued until the mid-1980s, when interest in "theory" peaked. Many later critics, though undoubtedly still influenced by theoretical work, have been comfortable simply interpreting literature rather than writing explicitly about methodology and philosophical presumptions.

History of the book

Related to other forms of literary criticism, the history of the book is a field of interdisciplinary inquiry drawing on the methods of bibliography, cultural history, history of literature, and media theory. Principally concerned with the production, circulation, and reception of texts and their material forms, book history seeks to connect forms of textuality with their material aspects.

Among the issues within the history of literature with which book history can be seen to intersect are: the development of authorship as a profession, the formation of reading audiences, the constraints of censorship and copyright, and the economics of literary form.

Current state

Today, approaches based in literary theory and continental philosophy largely coexist in university literature departments, while conventional methods, some informed by the New Critics, also remain active. Disagreements over the goals and methods of literary criticism, which characterized both sides taken by critics during the "rise" of theory, have declined. Many critics feel that they now have a great plurality of methods and approaches from which to choose.[citation needed]

Some critics work largely with theoretical texts, while others read traditional literature; interest in the literary canon is still great, but many critics are also interested in nontraditional texts and women's literature, as elaborated on by certain academic journals such as Contemporary Women's Writing,[6] while some critics influenced by cultural studies read popular texts like comic books or pulp/genre fiction. Ecocritics have drawn connections between literature and the natural sciences. Darwinian literary studies studies literature in the context of evolutionary influences on human nature. And postcritique has sought to develop new ways of reading and responding to literary texts that go beyond the interpretive methods of critique. Many literary critics also work in film criticism or media studies. Some write intellectual history; others bring the results and methods of social history to bear on reading literature.[citation needed]

Value of academic criticism

The value of extensive literary analysis has been questioned by several prominent artists. Vladimir Nabokov once wrote that good readers do not read books, and particularly those which are considered to be literary masterpieces, "for the academic purpose of indulging in generalizations".[7] Terry Eagleton attributes an unsung stature to literary critics and to criticism in academia. He believes that critics are not so well-known and praised, to his disappointment, and that literary criticism is declining in its value because of the manner the general audience is directing it towards that underappreciated state.[8] At a 1986 Copenhagen conference of James Joyce scholars, Stephen J. Joyce (the modernist writer's grandson) said, "If my grandfather was here, he would have died laughing ... Dubliners and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man can be picked up, read, and enjoyed by virtually anybody without scholarly guides, theories, and intricate explanations, as can Ulysses, if you forget about all the hue and cry." He later questioned whether anything has been added to the legacy of Joyce's art by the 261 books of literary criticism stored in the Library of Congress.[9]

Key texts

The Classical and medieval periods

The Renaissance period

The Enlightenment period

The 19th century

The 20th century

See also

References

  1. ^ Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2005. ISBN 0801880106. OCLC 54374476.
  2. ^ van. Gelder, G. J. H. (1982). Beyond the Line: Classical Arabic Literary Critics on the Coherence and Unity of the Poem. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9004068546. OCLC 10350183.
  3. ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse. pp. 132–133. ISBN 9781616084530. OCLC 277203534.
  4. ^ a b Regan, Shaun; Dawson, Books (2013). Reading 1759: Literary Culture in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Britain and France. Lewisburg [Pa.]: Bucknell University Press. pp. 125–130. ISBN 9781611484786.
  5. ^ Jones, E. Michael (1991). Degenerate Moderns: Modernity as Rationalized Sexual Misbehaviour. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. pp. 79–84. ISBN 0898704472. OCLC 28241358.
  6. ^ "Contemporary Women's Writing | Oxford Academic". OUP Academic. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  7. ^ Vladimir Nabokov Lectures on Literature, chap. L'Envoi p. 381
  8. ^ Speirs, Logan (1986). Eagleton, Terry (ed.). "Terry Eagleton and 'The Function of Criticism'". The Cambridge Quarterly. 15 (1): 57–63. ISSN 0008-199X. JSTOR 42966605.
  9. ^ D. T. Max (June 19, 2006). "The Injustice Collector". The New Yorker.
  10. ^ Ussher, J. (1767). Clio Or, a Discourse on Taste: Addressed to a Young Lady. Davies. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-10-10.

External links