جان پلامناتز

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
جان پلامناتز
زادهJovan Petrov Plamenac
۱۶ مهٔ ۱۹۱۲
ستینیه، پادشاهی مونته‌نگرو
درگذشته۱۹ فوریهٔ ۱۹۷۵ (۶۲ سال)
Hook Norton، بریتانیا
مهمترین علایقعلم سیاست
سازماندانشگاه آکسفورد
دانشگاهOriel College, Oxford

جان پلامناتز با نام کامل جان پتروف پلامناتز (سرلیک صربی: Јован Петров Пламенац؛ ۱۶ مهٔ ۱۹۱۲ – ۱۹ فوریه ۱۹۷۵(1975-02-19)) فیلسوف سیاسی، استاد دانشگاه اهل بریتانیا و دانشگاه آکسفورد بود. وی برای تحلیل‌هایی که در زمینه تعهد سیاسی و نظریه دموکراسی داشته اشت شهرت دارد.

زندگی[ویرایش]

پلامناتز در یک خانواده از طبقه بالا در مونته نگرو به دنیا آمد. خانواده وی در سال 1916 پس از اشغال اتریش-مجارستان توسط آلمان به انگلستان مهاجرت کرده و جان در آنجا بزرگ شد. پدر وی وزیر امورخارجه مونته نگرو بود و مادر وی نیز دارای پیش زمینه خانوادگی اشرافی بود.

جان پلامناتز در دانشگاه آکسفورد در رشته تاریخ تحصیل کرد. تخصص وی در حوزه نظریه سیاسی بود و بخش مهمی از زندگی آکادمیک خود را در دانشگاه آکسفورد به تدریس در این زمینه گذراند. وی از سال 1936 تا 1951 پژوهشگر و استاد کالج آل سولز آکسفورد و بین سال‌های1951تا 1967 پژوهشگر کالج نافیلد آکسفورد بوده‌است. در سال 1967 وی بار دیگر به عنوان پژوهشگر حرفه‌ای به کالج آل سولز بازگشت.

وی در دوران جنگ جهانی دوم یکی از اعضای دولت در تبعید پادشاهی یوگسلاوی بود و در این دوره کتاب «درباره ژنرال میهایلوویچ» را نوشت.

در سال 1943 وی با یکی از شاگردانش بنام ماریوری هانتر ازدواج کرد. تفریح و سرگرمی اصلی وی پیاده‌روی بود.[۱]

کتابشناسی[ویرایش]

ترجمه به فارسی[ویرایش]

انسان و جامعه: نظریه سیاسی و اجتماعی از ماکیاولی تا مارکس، ترجمه کاظم فیروزمند، تهران: روزنه، 1387.

ای‍ده‌ئ‍ول‍وژی، ترجمه عزت الله فولادوند، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی، 1373.

شرح و نقدی بر فلسفه اجتماعی و سیاسی هگل، ترجمه حسین بشیریه، تهران: نشر نی، 1367.

مجموعه آثار[ویرایش]

  • Consent, Freedom and Political Obligation (1938)
  • What is Communism? (1947) with Stephen King-Hall
  • The English Utilitarians, with a reprint of Mill's Utilitarianism (1949) and later editions
  • The Revolutionary Movement in France 1815 to 1871 (1952)
  • From Marx to Stalin (1953)
  • German Marxism and Russian Communism (1954)
  • On Alien Rule and Self-Government (1960)
  • Man & Society. A Critical Examination of Some Important Social & Political Theories from Machiavelli to Marx (2 vols, 1963) and later editions
  • Readings from Liberal Writers, English and French (1965) editor
  • Leviathan, edited & abridged by John Plamenatz. Thomas Hobbes (Author). Publisher: London: Fontana (1969)
  • Ideology (1970)
  • Democracy and Illusion: An Examination of Certain Aspects of Modern Democratic Theory (1973)
  • Karl Marx's Philosophy of Man (1975)
  • Machiavelli, Hobbes, and Rousseau (2012)

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. «"John Plamenatz"».
John Plamenatz
Born
Jovan Petrov Plamenac

(1912-05-16)May 16, 1912
DiedFebruary 19, 1975(1975-02-19) (aged 62)
Alma materOriel College, Oxford
EraContemporary philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolContinental philosophy
InstitutionsUniversity of Oxford
Main interests
Political philosophy

John Petrov Plamenatz (born as Jovan Petrov Plamenac; Serbian Cyrillic: Јован Петров Пламенац; 16 May 1912 – 19 February 1975) was a Montenegrin political philosopher, who spent most of his academic life at the University of Oxford. He is best known for his analysis of political obligation and his theory of democracy.

Biography

Born to an upper-class family that had to flee Montenegro after the German and Austro-Hungarian occupation in 1916, Plamenatz came to England as a boy and was raised there. His father Peter was a politician active in True People's Party and served for one term as a Foreign Minister for Montenegro, while his mother was of aristocratic background. Peter Plamenatz was forced to leave Montenegro in 1917, and John was sent to England.

He was educated at Clayesmore School, whose head master and founder, Alexander Devine, was an activist for the Montenegrin cause, and at Oriel College, Oxford, where he read history. Plamenatz's speciality was political theory, which he spent most of his academic life teaching at the University of Oxford. When World War II broke out, he joined an anti-aircraft battery, and he was naturalized in 1941. At the end of the war, he returned to All Souls, and he spent the rest of his life at Oxford. From 1951 to 1967 he was a research fellow at Nuffield College, before returning to All Souls as Chichele Professor. He was a Fellow of All Souls College, 1936–51, and from 1951 to 1967 a Fellow of Nuffield College. He returned to All Souls as a professorial Fellow in 1967 when he succeeded Isaiah Berlin as Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory.

He was a member of the government in exile of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in London during the Second World War. During this period he wrote "The Case of General Mihailovic".

In 1943 he married Marjorie Hunter, one of his students; there were no children. He lived at All Souls and at Scotland Mount, Hook Norton, Banbury, Oxfordshire. His principal recreation was walking.

Works

  • Consent, Freedom and Political Obligation (1938)
  • What is Communism? (1947) with Stephen King-Hall
  • The English Utilitarians, with a reprint of Mill's Utilitarianism (1949) and later editions
  • The Revolutionary Movement in France 1815 to 1871 (1952)
  • From Marx to Stalin (1953)
  • German Marxism and Russian Communism (1954)
  • On Alien Rule and Self-Government (1960)
  • Man & Society. A Critical Examination of Some Important Social & Political Theories from Machiavelli to Marx (2 vols, 1963) and later editions
  • Readings from Liberal Writers, English and French (1965) editor
  • Leviathan, edited & abridged by John Plamenatz. Thomas Hobbes (Author). Publisher: London: Fontana (1969)
  • Ideology (1970)
  • Democracy and Illusion: An Examination of Certain Aspects of Modern Democratic Theory (1973)
  • Karl Marx's Philosophy of Man (1975)
  • Machiavelli, Hobbes, and Rousseau (2012)

References

  • Berlin, Isaiah. "Plamenatz, John Petrov". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31552.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Lecture referencing Plamenatz from the BBC
  • Who was Who, 1971-80, London : A. & C. Black, 1981
  • various (1985). 'The Nature of Political Theory'. ISBN 978-0198274735., a collection of essays by and about Plamenatz.
  • Pierre Birnbaum, Geography of Hope: Exile, the Enlightenment, Disassimilation, pp. 248–249.

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir Isaiah Berlin
Chichele Professor of
Social and Political Theory

1967–1975
Succeeded by
Charles Taylor