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- In varieties with flapping, /t/ and sometimes also /d/ between a vowel and an unstressed or word-initial vowel may be pronounced with a voiced tap [ɾ], sometimes leading to latter and ladder becoming homophonous. Some dictionaries transcribe /t/ subject to this process as ⟨d⟩, ⟨D⟩, or ⟨t̬⟩, but they are not distinguished in this notation system. In those varieties, the sequence /nt/ in the same environment may also be realized as nasalized tap [ɾ̃], which may sound similar or identical to /n/. This is also not distinguished in this system.
- In dialects with yod dropping, /j/ in /juː/ or /jʊər/ is not pronounced after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/ and /dj/ mostly merge with /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose. In some dialects /sj/ and /zj/ are also affected and frequently merge with /ʃ/ and /ʒ/.
- The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of General American. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labialized velar approximant.
- The IPA value of the letter ⟨j⟩ is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words: Besides hallelujah, there are fjord, Jägermeister and Jarlsberg cheese.
- /l/ in the syllable coda, as in the words all, cold, or bottle, is pronounced as [o], [u], [w] or a similar sound in many dialects through L-vocalization.
- In most varieties of English, /r/ is pronounced as an approximant [ɹ]. Although the IPA symbol ⟨r⟩ represents a trill, ⟨r⟩ is widely used instead of ⟨ɹ⟩ in broad transcriptions of English.
- A number of English words, such as genre and garage, may be pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
- In most dialects, /x/ can also be replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. It is also replaced with /h/ in some words, particularly of Yiddish origin, such as Chanukah.
- /ɒ̃, æ̃/ are only found in French loanwords and often replaced by another vowel and a nasal consonant: bon vivant /ˌbɒn viːˈvɑːnt/, ensemble /ɑːnˈsɑːmbəl/, croissant /ˈkwæsɑːŋ/.[الف]
- /ɜː/ is only found in loanwords in British and Southern Hemisphere accents, and therefore a transcription that includes it must always be prefaced with a label indicating the variety of English. Use this when a reliable source shows that a vowel in a loanword is pronounced as /ɜː/ in these accents and as a different vowel in General American. If a reliable source shows that a vowel is pronounced as the NURSE vowel in General American as well even though spelled without ⟨r⟩, as in Goethe and hors d'oeuvre, use /ɜːr/.
- In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel.
- In dialects with the father–bother merger such as General American, /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ except before /r/. Before /r/, it merges with /ɔː/ except for a handful of words such as borrow, tomorrow and sorry. Such words should have separate General American transcriptions, as is the case with CLOTH words.
- In North America, /æ/ is often pronounced like a diphthong [eə~ɛə], especially before nasal consonants. See /æ/ raising.
- /ær/, /ɛr/ and /ɛər/ are not distinguished in General American and in many other American accents. Some speakers merge only two of the sounds (most typically /ɛər/ with one of the short vowels) and less than a fifth of speakers of American English make a full three-way distinction, like RP and similar accents. In Canada, all three vowels are merged except in Montreal, where Mary and merry are merged but marry has a distinct vowel. See Mary–marry–merry merger for more information.
- In much of North America, /aɪ/ or /aʊ/ may have a slightly different quality when it precedes a voiceless consonant, as in price or mouth, from that in ride/pie or loud/how, a phenomenon known as Canadian raising. Since this occurs in a predictable fashion, it is not distinguished in this transcription system.
- In some dialects, especially in the UK, the second segment in a diphthong followed by /ə/ is often omitted. This process or lack thereof may help choose between /aɪər, aʊər, ɔɪər/ in some words (diary, admirer) and /aɪr, aʊr, ɔɪr/ in others (pirate, siren), a distinction not always clear.
- Some speakers pronounce higher, flower, mayor and coyer ("more coy") with two syllables, and hire, flour, mare and coir with one. Others pronounce them the same.
- /ɛ/ is transcribed as ⟨e⟩ by many dictionaries.[ب] However, /eɪ/ is also sometimes transcribed as ⟨e⟩, especially in American literature, so /ɛ/ is chosen here.
- /ɛər, ɪər, ʊər/ are not distinguished from /ɛr, ɪr, ʊr/ in General American. In addition, /ær/ is pronounced the same as /ɛər/ and /ɛr/, which means that GA exhibits Mary–marry–merry and mirror–nearer mergers. Dictionaries such as Longman Pronunciation Dictionary use ⟨ɛr, ɪr, ʊr⟩ for both sets of sounds. Phonetically, the vowel in /ɛr/ can be closer to /eɪ/, the one in /ɪr/ to /iː/ and the one in /ʊr/ to /uː/, so that merry [ˈmeri] as pronounced by a speaker of General American can sound similar to the Scottish pronunciation of Mary, though this is somewhat variable. This guide transcribes the sounds according to their distribution in Received Pronunciation, so that Mary, nearer and tourist are written with /ɛər, ɪər, ʊər/, whereas merry, mirror and courier are transcribed with /ɛr, ɪr, ʊr/. The choice between the two is problematic only word-internally before vowels; in other positions only /ɛər, ɪər, ʊər/ can appear.
- In rhotic dialects that still maintain the distinction between /ɛr, ɪr, ʊr/ and /ɛər, ɪər, ʊər/ the latter vowels cannot be analyzed as phonemes separate from the sequences of /eɪ/, /iː/ and /uː/ followed by /r/, which means that words such as square, near and cure are phonemically /ˈskweɪr/, /ˈniːr/ and /ˈkjuːr/, rather than RP /ˈskwɛə, ˈnɪə, ˈkjʊə/. In RP, near /ˈnɪə/ forms a minimal pair with knee /ˈniː/ as the only difference between them is the vowel.
- /ɛə/, /ɪə/, or /ʊə/ may be separated from /r/ only when a stress follows it. The IPAc-en template supports /ɛəˈr/, /ɪəˈr/, /ʊəˈr/, /ɛəˌr/, /ɪəˌr/, and /ʊəˌr/ as distinct diaphonemes for such occasions.
- Words like idea, real, theatre, and cruel may be pronounced with /ɪə/ or /ʊə/ in non-rhotic accents such as Received Pronunciation, and some dictionaries transcribe them with /ɪə, ʊə/,[پ] but since they do not stem from historical /r/ and are not pronounced with /r/ in rhotic accents, they should be transcribed with /iːə, uːə/, not with /ɪə, ʊə/, in this transcription system.
- In some non-rhotic accents spoken in Northern England /ɪər/ and /ʊər/ are disyllabic sequences /iːə, uːə/. Some other dialects (such as New Zealand English) feature a free variation between the monosyllabic [ɪə, ʊə] (sometimes monophthongized to [ɪː, ʊː]) and disyllabic [iːə, uːə], yet other dialects (such as traditional RP) treat them as categorically monosyllabic. In this system all variants are transcribed simply as /ɪər/ and /ʊər/, no matter the local realization.
- /oʊ/ is transcribed with ⟨əʊ⟩ in Received Pronunciation.
- /oʊ/ and /u/ in unstressed, prevocalic positions are transcribed as /əw/ by Merriam-Webster, but no other dictionary uniformly follows this practice.[ت] Hence a difference between /əw/ in Merriam-Webster and /oʊ/ or /u/ in another source is most likely one in notation, not in pronunciation, so /əw/ in such cases may be better replaced with /oʊ/ or /u/ accordingly, to minimize confusion: /ˌsɪtʃəˈweɪʃən/ → /ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃən/, /ˈfɒləwər/ → /ˈfɒloʊər/.
- /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as many varieties of General American. When the cot–caught merger occurs along with the horse–hoarse one (as is the case in California and Canada), /ɔː/ before /r/ is typically analyzed as /oʊ/, so that north and force can be written /ˈnoʊrθ/ and /ˈfoʊrs/, without postulating a separate /ɔː/ phoneme that occurs only before /r/. In this system, these words are written /ˈnɔːrθ/ and /ˈfɔːrs/.
- Some conservative dialects make a distinction between the vowels in horse and hoarse, but the number of speakers who make this distinction any longer is very small and many dictionaries do not differentiate between them (horse–hoarse merger). The vowel in hoarse was formerly represented as /ɔər/ on Wikipedia, but is now represented as /ɔːr/, identical to horse. In rhotic dialects that still maintain the distinction between horse and hoarse, the latter vowel is not a separate phoneme but a sequence of /oʊ/ and /r/, so that words such as force are best analyzed as /ˈfoʊrs/.
- /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔːr/ in dialects with the cure–force merger, including many younger speakers. In England, the merger may not be fully consistent and may only apply to more common words. In conservative RP and Northern England English /ʊər/ is much more commonly preserved than in modern RP and Southern England English. In Australia and New Zealand, /ʊər/ does not exist as a separate phoneme and is replaced either by the sequence /uːər/ (/uːr/ before vowels within the same word, save for some compounds) or the monophthong /ɔːr/.
- Some, particularly American, dictionaries notate /ʌ/ with the same symbol as /ə/, which is found only in unstressed syllables, and distinguish it from /ə/ by marking the syllable as stressed. Also note that although ⟨ʌ⟩, the IPA symbol for the open-mid back vowel, is used, the typical modern pronunciation is rather close to the near-open central vowel [ɐ] in both Received Pronunciation and General American.
- /ʌ/ is not used in the dialects of the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the /ʊ/ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
- In Received Pronunciation, /ɜːr/ is pronounced as a lengthened schwa, [əː]. In General American, it is phonetically identical to /ər/. Some dictionaries therefore use ⟨əː, ər⟩ instead of the conventional notations ⟨ɜː, ɜr⟩. When ⟨ər⟩ is used for /ɜːr/, it is distinguished from /ər/ by marking the syllable as stressed. The choice between /ɜːr/ and /ər/ is problematic only in unstressed word-internal and -final contexts; in stressed syllables as well as in the word-initial position only /ɜːr/ can occur. In some words (such as virginity), there is a free variation between /ɜːr/ and /ər/ in RP, in which case it is acceptable to transcribe the most common variant (/ər/ in the case of that word).
- /ʌr/ is not distinguished from /ɜːr/ in dialects with the hurry–furry merger such as General American.
- In a number of contexts, /ə/ in /ər/, /əl/, /ən/, or /əm/ is often omitted, resulting in a syllable with no vowel. Some dictionaries show /ə/ in those contexts in parentheses, superscript, or italics to indicate this possibility, or simply omit /ə/. When followed by a weak vowel, the syllable may be lost altogether, with the consonant moving to the next syllable, so that doubling /ˈdʌb.əl.ɪŋ/ may alternatively be pronounced as [ˈdʌb.lɪŋ], and Edinburgh /ˈɛd.ɪn.bər.ə/ as [ˈɛd.ɪn.brə].[ث] When not followed by a vowel, /ər/ merges with /ə/ in non-rhotic accents.
- This is /ə/ in some accents, such as Australian (see weak vowel merger).
- The symbols ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ do not represent phonemes but phonemic neutralization between the unstressed long /iː/ and /uː/ and the unstressed short /ɪ/ and /ʊ/. ⟨i⟩ denotes /iː/ in dialects with the happy tensing (such as Australian English, General American and Modern RP) and /ɪ/ in others, such as conservative RP, Scottish English and some Northern English and Southern American English dialects. Speakers of the former dialects should read transcriptions such as /ˈhæpi/ as equivalent to /ˈhæpiː/, whereas speakers of the latter dialects should consider it to be equivalent to /ˈhæpɪ/. British convention used to transcribe this vowel with ⟨ɪ⟩, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to ⟨i⟩. Before vowels there is a certain amount of free variation among speakers of dialects without the happy tensing, so that the phrase happy again can be pronounced as either [ˈhæpiː əˈɡɛn] or [ˈhæpɪ əˈɡɛn], even though happy in isolation is pronounced [ˈhæpɪ].
- ⟨iə⟩ may denote disyllabic sequences /iːə/ or /ɪ.ə/, a monosyllabic sequence /jə/ or a diphthong [ɪə̯]. Among the disyllabic pronunciations, /iːə/ is used in dialects with the happy tensing, but in dialects without it there is a certain amount of free variation between [iːə] and [ɪ.ə], which means that California can be pronounced as either [ˌkælɪˈfɔːrniːə], [ˌkælɪˈfɔːrnɪ.ə] or one of the monosyllabic possibilities. When pronounced as one syllable in a non-rhotic accent, it may be indistinguishable from, and identified as, the NEAR vowel (/ɪər/), so that speakers of such dialects can identify both vowels in serious as being the same (/ˈsɪərɪəs/).[پ] It should be transcribed as /iə/, not /i.ə/, because the latter would falsely suggest that the disyllabic pronunciation is the only possibility. Disyllabic pronunciation is mandatory across word boundaries, as in happy again, but words are normally separated in IPA (as they are in spelling): /ˈhæpi əˈɡɛn/.[ج]
- ⟨uə⟩ may denote disyllabic sequences /uːə/ or /ʊ.ə/, a monosyllabic sequence /wə/ or a diphthong [ʊə̯]. When pronounced as one syllable in a non-rhotic accent, it may be indistinguishable from, and identified as, the CURE vowel (/ʊər/).[پ] It should be transcribed as /uə/, not /u.ə/, because the latter would falsely suggest that the disyllabic pronunciation is the only possibility.[ج]
- Syllable divisions are not usually marked, but the IPA dot '.' may be used when it is wished to make explicit where a division between syllables is (or may be) made.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
- Getting JAWS 6.1 to recognize "exotic" Unicode symbols—For help on getting the صفحهخوان جاز (صفحهخوان) to read IPA symbols
- IPA TTS (text-to-speech) bookmarklet