راهنما:الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی عربی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو

جدول زیر توضیح می‌دهد که ویکی‌پدیا چگونه تلفظ‌های عربی استاندارد نوین را با الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی نشان می‌دهد.

آوا برابر انگلیسی حرف عربی لاتین‌نویسی معمول یادداشت
همخوان‌ها
b bee ب b [الف]
d dash د d [ب]
/[[|d]]/ غلیظ، بدون برابر ض [پ][ب]
jam ج j، ǧ، j، g [ت]
ð these ذ dh، ḏ [ث]
ðˤ /[[|ð]]/ غلیظ، بدون برابر ظ [پ][ج]
f father ف f [چ]
h he ه h
ħ jota در مکزیکی، بدون برابر ح [ح]
j yes ي y
k skin ك k [خ]
l lease (انگلیسی فصیح) ل l
ɫ tool [د]
m me م m
n no ن n
q /[[|k]]/ غلیظ، بدون برابر ق q، g، ' [ذ]
r r با لرزش؛
pero در اسپانیایی
ر r [ر]
s see س s
/[[|s]]/ غلیظ، بدون برابر ص [پ]
ʃ she ش sh، š، ch
t stick ت
(گاهاً ة)
t [ب][خ]
/[[|t]]/ غلیظ، بدون برابر ط [پ][ب]
θ think ث th، ṯ [ث]
w we و w
x loch در اسکاتلندی،
jota در اسپانیایی،
Bach در آلمانی
خ kh، ḫ، ḵ [ز]
ɣ fuego در اسپانیایی،
parler در فرانسوی
غ gh، ġ، ḡ [ژ]
z zoo ز z
/[[|z]]/ غلیظ، بدون برابر ظ [پ][ج]
ʔ مکث در uh-oh!;
butter لندنی
ء ʾ ' [س]
ʕ بدون برابر ع ʿ ' ` [ش][ص]
[ˈkiːwi] كيوي 'kiwi' به‌معنی این که هجای دنبال‌شده تکیه دارد: /ˈʕarabiː/.
[kiːs] كيس 'sack' نشان می‌دهد که واکۀ قبلی کشیده شده
[ˈdˤɑħ.ħæː] ضَحّى [he] 'قربانی'
[mʊdærˈrɪsæ] مُدَرِّسَة [female] 'معلم'
واکه‌ها
u put ُ u، o، ou [ض][ط]
rule و ū، oo، ou، u [ظ]
i milk ِ i، e [ع][ط]
machine ي ī، ee، i [غ]
a father، ولی کوتاه‌تر َ a، e [ف][ط]
father ا  ،ى ā، aa a [ق]
واکه‌های مرکب
aj /a/+/[[|j]]/، شبیه به bright ـَي ay، ai، ey، ei [ک]
aw /a/+/[[|w]]/، شبیه به cow ـَو aw، au [گ]

یادداشت‌ها[ویرایش]

  1. The letter ب may represent [p] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written پ) (Kaye 1997, p. 193).
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ ۲٫۲ ۲٫۳ /d dˤ t tˤ/ are realized as either dental, denti-alveolar or alveolar (Al-Ani 2008, p. 597).
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ ۳٫۲ ۳٫۳ ۳٫۴ Emphatic consonants may be either pharyngealized or velarized and are accompanied with labialization (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Kaye 1997, p. 193–194).
  4. The letter ج is pronounced as [ɡ] in Egypt and as [ʒ] in the Levant and the Maghreb (Al-Ani 2008, p. 598; Gairdner 1925, p. 23).
  5. ۵٫۰ ۵٫۱ In nonstandard pronunciations, /θ/ and /ð/ may be pronounced as [s] and [z] (Gairdner 1925, p. 19, 81).
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ The letter ظ is pronounced as [ðˤ] or [] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 601).
  7. The letter ف may represent [v] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written ڤ or ڥ) (Kaye 1997, p. 193).
  8. /ħ/ is pronounced as [ħ] or [ʜ].
  9. ۹٫۰ ۹٫۱ /k/ and /t/ are usually aspirated (Al-Ani 2008, p. 597–598).
  10. [ɫ] occurs only in the word Allah: [ɑɫˈɫɑh] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 600; Kaye 1997, p. 196; Kaye 2009, p. 564).
  11. /q/ may be pronounced as [ʔ] in Egypt and the Levant and as [ɡ] or [ɢ] in other dialects (Gairdner 1925, p. 26–27).
  12. /r/ is a trill [r] or a flap [ɾ]; it may be velarized or pharyngealized as well (Al-Ani 2008, p. 600).
  13. /x/ is pronounced as [x] or [χ].
  14. /ɣ/ is pronounced as [ɣ] or [ʁ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 598; Gairdner 1925, p. 26).
  15. /ʔ/ is usually written above or below أ, إ, آ, ئ or ؤ.
  16. /ʕ/ is pronounced as [ʕ] or [ʔˤ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 51).
  17. /[[|ʢ]]/ is neither pharyngeal nor fricative, but it is more correctly described as a creaky-voiced epiglottal approximant (Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)).
  18. Allophones of /u/ include [ʊ]~[ɤ]~[o] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /u/ completely becomes /o/ in some other particular dialects.
  19. ۱۹٫۰ ۱۹٫۱ ۱۹٫۲ In colloquial pronunciation of Northern Africa (except Egypt), short /a, i, u/ may be reduced to [ə]. This pronunciation is not standard.
  20. Allophones of /uː/ include [ʊː]~[ɤː]~[] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  21. Allophones of /i/ include [ɪ]~[e] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /ɪ/ completely becomes /e/ in some other particular dialects.
  22. Allophones of /iː/ include [ɪː]~[ɨː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  23. Allophones of /a/ include [ɑ] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æ] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  24. Allophones of /aː/ include [ɑː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æː] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  25. In colloquial pronunciation, /aj/ may be realized as []~[ɛː]~[ej] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).
  26. In colloquial pronunciation, /aw/ may be realized as []~[ɔː]~[ow] may occur (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).

منابع[ویرایش]

  • Al-Ani, Salman H. (2008). "Phonetics". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. III. Brill. pp. 593–603.
  • Gairdner, W. H. T. (1925). The Phonetics of Arabic. Oxford University Press.
  • {{cite book|title=Phonologies of Asia and Africa|last1=Kaye|first1=Alan S.|date=1997|volume=I|pages=187–204|chapter=Arabic phonology|ref=harv}}
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
  • Mitchell, T. F. (1990). Pronouncing Arabic. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'adeddin, M. Akram (1999). "Arabic". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 51–54.