راهنما:الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی ماندارین

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همخوان‌ها
آوا پین‌یین وید-جایلز بوپوموفو مثال چینی مثال دیگر
[[|p]] b p 幫 (帮) پ‍رده
[[|pʰ]] p p' pan
[[|m]] m م‍خزن
[[|f]] f ف‍رسوده
[[|t]] d t ت‍هران
[[|tʰ]] t t' top
[[|n]] n- ن‍ای
-n ㄣ, ㄢ 金, 尖
[[|l]] l 來 (来) ل‍وث
[[|k]] g k ک‍رمانشاه
[[|kʰ]] k k' kin
[[|ŋ]] -ng ㄥ, ㄤ 井, 江 song
[[|x]] h خ‍واهش
[[|tɕ]] j ch like itchy, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[الف]
[[|tɕʰ]] q ch' like cheap, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[الف]
[[|ɕ]] x hs 曉 (晓) like sheep, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[الف]
[[|ʈʂ]] zh ch roughly like jaw, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
[[|ʈʂʰ]] ch ch' like church, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
[[|ʂ]] sh like show, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
[[|ɻ]][ب] r- j like red, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
[[|ts]] z ts roughly like buds
[[|tsʰ]] c ts' انگلیسی:cats hissing
[[|s]] s س‍رد
نیم‌واکه‌ها
[[|j]] y-/-i- ی‍اد
[[|w]] w-/-u- فردوسی
[[|ɥ]] yu-/-ü-[پ] yü-/-ü- فرانسوی: n[[|u]]it
همخوان‌های هجایی
ɻ̩ zhi, chi, shi, ri ih [ت] 之, 吃, 師 (师), 日 تقریباً شبیه glasses[ث]
ɹ̩ zi, ci, si û 子, 次, 私
واکه‌ها
آوا پین‌یین وید-جایلز بوپوموفو مثال چینی مثال دیگر
[[|a]] a ㄚ, ㄢ, ㄤ 阿, 安, 盎 father
er êrh
[[|ɛ]] yan/-ian yen/-ien ㄧㄢ Varies between [e] and [a]
yuan/-üan ㄩㄢ
[[|e]] ye/-ie, yue/-üe eh 也, 月 خان‍ه
[[|ə]] en,[ج] eng ên, êng ㄣ, ㄥ 本, 冷 about
[[|ɤ]] e ê / o[چ]
[[|o]] wo/-uo[ح] o[خ] ت‍و
[[|i]] yi/-i پای‍ی‍ز
[[|ʊ]] -ong -ung ㄨㄥ, ㄩㄥ 冬, 用 Varies between [o] and [u]
[[|u]] wu/-u خ‍وی
[[|y]] yu/-ü[پ] yü/-ü آلمانی: ü؛ فرانسوی: tu
واکه‌های مرکب
ai ai time
au ao out
ei ei[ج] face
ou ou[ج] 歐 (欧) show
واکه ر-گونه
[[|ɚ]] er êrh sir (انگلیسی آمریکایی)[د]
تُن‌ها
آوا پین‌یین وید-جایلز بوپوموفو مثال چینی شماره تُن توضیح
á ā a1 55 tone 1: high: ˥
ǎ á a2 ˊ 35 tone 2: mid rising: ˧˥
à ǎ a3 ˇ 21, 11, 13, 214 tone 3:

medially, low: ˩ initially, mid falling: ˧˩ finally, low rising: ˩˧

in isolation, dipping: ˧˩˧

â à a4 ˋ 51 tone 4: high falling: ˥˩
a a a0 ˙ - "toneless":

low after the high falling tone ˥˩; mid after other tones

Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ [ɕ, tɕ, tɕʰ] are always followed by /i, j/ or /y, ɥ/.
  2. Also transcribed as [[|ʐ]] in older literature.
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ ü (/[[|y]]/) is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since /[[|u]]/ cannot occur after them.
  4. Note that this symbol is rarely used, usually omitted during writing.
  5. Voiced continuants (also transcribed [ɨ, ɯ] or [ʐ̩, z̩]) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ ۶٫۲ wei, you/yu, wen/wên are spelled respectively ui, iu, un in pinyin and Wade-Giles but are pronounced identically when they are preceded by a consonant.
  7. ⟨ê⟩ is spelled as ⟨o⟩ after ⟨k, k', h⟩ in Wade-Giles.
  8. ⟨uo⟩ is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨b, p, m, f⟩ in Pinyin.
  9. ㄨㄛ is spelled as ⟨o⟩, except for ⟨k, k', h, sh⟩ (as ⟨kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo⟩) in Wade-Giles.
  10. The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.