↑ ۳٫۰۳٫۱⟨v⟩ is a light fricative, more precisely transcribed [ʋ̝] or [v̞]. However, it does not behave as a fricative, in that it does not devoice to *[f] before a voiceless consonant, and does not cause preceding voiceless consonants to become voiced.
↑Tone marks can also be found on syllabic consonants, such as [ř̩] and [r̩̂ː]. Some articles may use the stress mark, [ˈe], which could correspond to either of the tonic accents, rising or falling, and are therefore not a complete description.
↑Many speakers of Croatian and Serbian pronounce unstressed long vowels as short, with some exceptions.