فرگشتگرایی یا تطورگرایی، نخسیتن نظریه کلاسیک در انسانشناسی دانشگاهی میباشد که در قرن نوزده و تا اوایل قرن بیستم میلادی، نظریه مسلط در علوم انسانی بهطور عام و در انسانشناسی بهطور خاص بهشمار میرفت.
محور اساسی تکاملگرایی بر این اصل استوار است که هر پدیده فرهنگی را باید حاصل زنجیرهای طولانی از تغییرات آن در طول یک خط زمانی و مکانی در نظر گرفت. این تغییرات به باور فرگشتگرایان، عمدتاً به دلیل نیاز به انطباق پدیده با محیط برای بقاء انجام میپذیرد و هر پدیده یا موجودی که بهتر بتواند این انطباق را انجام دهد، از شانس بقای بیشتری برخوردار خواهد بود.
امروزه هر چند فرگشتگرایی در قالب نوفرگشتگرایی و انسانشناسی محیطشناختی حفظ شدهاست اما تغییراتی اساسی در رویکرد آن مشاهده میشود که مهمترین آنها پرهیز از جبرگرایی و داروینیسم اجتماعی، اهمیت دادن هر چه بیشتر به فرایندهای مبادله با محیط، چند خطی دیدن و لحاظ نمودن ساختارهای ژنتیک و بسیار خرد از یک سو و زیست بومها و ساختارهای کلان از دیگر سو میباشد.
Evolutionism is a term used (often derogatorily) to denote the theory of evolution. Its exact meaning has changed over time as the study of evolution has progressed. In the 19th century, it was used to describe the belief that organisms deliberately improved themselves through progressive inherited change (orthogenesis). The teleological belief went on to include cultural evolution and social evolution. In the 1970s the term Neo-Evolutionism was used to describe the idea "that human beings sought to preserve a familiar style of life unless change was forced on them by factors that were beyond their control".
The term is most often used by creationists to describe adherence to the scientific consensus on evolution as equivalent to a secular religion. The term is very seldom used within the scientific community, since the scientific position on evolution is accepted by the overwhelming majority of scientists. Because evolutionary biology is the default scientific position, it is assumed that "scientists" or "biologists" are "evolutionists" unless specifically noted otherwise. In the creation–evolution controversy, creationists often call those who accept the validity of the modern evolutionary synthesis "evolutionists" and the theory itself "evolutionism".
Before its use to describe biological evolution, the term "evolution" was originally used to refer to any orderly sequence of events with the outcome somehow contained at the start. The first five editions of Darwin's in Origin of Species used the word "evolved", but the word "evolution" was only used in its sixth edition in 1872. By then, Herbert Spencer had developed the concept theory that organisms strive to evolve due to an internal "driving force" (orthogenesis) in 1862. Edward B. Tylor and Lewis H Morgan brought the term "evolution" to anthropology though they tended toward the older pre-Spencerian definition helping to form the concept of unilineal (social) evolution used during the later part of what Trigger calls the Antiquarianism-Imperial Synthesis period (c1770-c1900). The term evolutionism subsequently came to be used for the now discredited theory that evolution contained a deliberate component, rather than the selection of beneficial traits from random variation by differential survival.
However, the term has been used by creationists in discussing the creation-evolution controversy. For example, the Institute for Creation Research, in order to imply placement of evolution in the category of 'religions', including atheism, fascism, humanism and occultism, commonly uses the words evolutionism and evolutionist to describe the consensus of mainstream science and the scientists subscribing to it, thus implying through language that the issue is a matter of religious belief. The BioLogos Foundation, an organization that promotes the idea of theistic evolution, uses the term "evolutionism" to describe "the atheistic worldview that so often accompanies the acceptance of biological evolution in public discourse." It views this as a subset of scientism.
^ abAllen, R. T.; Allen, Robert W. (1994). Chambers encyclopedic English dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers. p. 438. ISBN978-0-550-11000-8. a widely held 19c belief that organisms were intrinsically bound to improve themselves, that changes were progressive, and that acquired characters could be transmitted genetically. The belief was also extended to cultures and societies, and to living organisms.
^Carneiro, Robert, L. (2003). Evolutionism in cultural anthropology : a critical history. Cambridge, MA: Westview Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN978-0-8133-3766-1.
^Trigger, Bruce (1986) A History of Archeological Thought Cambridge University Press pg 290
^ abLinke, Steven (August 28, 1992). "A Visit to the ICR Museum". TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved 2008-12-05. In fact, true science supports the Biblical worldview... However, science does not support false religions (e.g. atheism, evolutionism, pantheism, humanism, etc.)
^Ruse, Michael (March 2003). "Perceptions in science: Is Evolution a Secular Religion? -- Ruse". Science: 299 (5612): 1523. Retrieved 2008-12-05. A major complaint of the Creationists, those who are committed to a Genesis-based story of origins, is that evolution--and Darwinism in particular--is more than just a scientific theory. They object that too often evolution operates as a kind of secular religion, pushing norms and proposals for proper (or, in their opinion, improper) action.
^ abCarneiro, Robert L.(Léonard) (2003) Evolutionism in cultural anthropology: a critical history Westview Press pg 1-3
^Darwin, Charles (1986). Burrow, JW (ed.). The Origin of Species (reprint of 1st ed.). Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Classics. p. 460. ISBN978-0-14-043205-3. ...from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved (italics not in original)
^Trigger, Bruce (1986) A History of Archaeological Thought Cambridge University Press pg 102
^"How is BioLogos different from Evolutionism, Intelligent Design, and Creationism". The BioLogos Foundation. Retrieved 2012-01-19. While BioLogos accepts evolution, it emphatically rejects evolutionism, the atheistic worldview that so often accompanies the acceptance of biological evolution in public discourse. Proponents of evolutionism believe every aspect of life will one day be explained with evolutionary theory. In this way it is a subset of scientism, the broader view that the only real truth is that which can be discovered by science. These positions are commonly held by materialists (also called philosophical naturalists) who deny the existence of the supernatural.
Carneiro, Robert, Evolutionism in Cultural Anthropology: A Critical HistoryISBN0-8133-3766-6
Review of Buckland'sBridgewater Treatise, The Times Tuesday, November 15, 1836; pg. 3; Issue 16261; col E. ("annihilates the doctrine of spontaneous and progressive evolution of life, and its impious corollary, chance")
Review of Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and AnimalsThe Times Friday, December 13, 1872; pg. 4; Issue 27559; col A. ("His [Darwin's] thorough-going 'evolutionism' tends to eliminate...")