کادمیم اکسید

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کادمیم اکسید
Oxid kademnatý.JPG
NaCl polyhedra.png
شناساگرها
شماره ثبت سی‌ای‌اس 1306-19-0 ✔Y
پاب‌کم 14782
کم‌اسپایدر 14099 ✔Y
شمارهٔ ئی‌سی 215-146-2
شمارهٔ یواِن 2570
شمارهٔ آرتی‌ئی‌سی‌اس EV1925000
جی‌مول-تصاویر سه بعدی Image 1
خصوصیات
فرمول مولکولی CdO
جرم مولی ۱۲۸٫۴۱ g mol−1
شکل ظاهری colorless powder (alpha form)
red-brown crystal (beta form) [۱]
چگالی 8.150 g/cm3(crystalline)
6.95 g/cm3 (amorphous)[۲] solid.
دمای ذوب 900–1000 °C decomposition of amorphous form[۳]
دمای جوش
‎1559 °C تصعید[۳]
انحلال‌پذیری در آب insoluble
انحلال‌پذیری در اسید and alkaline degrades
تحرک‌پذیری 531 cm2/V s
پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی -3‎×10−5 cm3/mol
رسانندگی گرمایی 0.7 W/m-K
ضریب شکست (nD) 2.49
ساختار
ساختار بلوری دستگاه بلوری مکعبی cF8
گروه فضایی Fm3m No. 225
ثابت شبکه a = 4.6958 Å
ترموشیمی
55 J·mol−1·K−1[۴]
−258 kJ·mol−1[۴]
خطرات
MSDS External MSDS
شاخص ئی‌یو 048-002-00-0
طبقه‌بندی ئی‌یو کارسینوژن
Muta. Cat. 3
Repr. Cat. 3
Very toxic (T+)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
کدهای ایمنی R۴۵, R۲۶, R48/23/25, R62, R63, R68, R50/53
شماره‌های نگهداری S53, S45, S60, S61
لوزی آتش
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
4
0
نقطه اشتعال Non-flammable
LD50 72 mg/kg (oral, rat)
ترکیبات مرتبط
دیگر آنیون‌ها کادمیم سولفید
کادمیم سلنید
Cadmium telluride
دیگر کاتیون‌ها روی اکسید
Mercury oxide
به استثنای جایی که اشاره شده‌است در غیر این صورت، داده‌ها برای مواد به وضعیت استانداردشان داده شده‌اند (در 25 °C (۷۷ °F)، ۱۰۰ kPa)
 ✔Y (بررسی) (چیست: ✔Y/N؟)
Infobox references

کادمیم اکسید (به انگلیسی: Cadmium oxide) یک ترکیب شیمیایی با شناسه پاب‌کم ۱۴۷۸۲ است. شکل ظاهری این ترکیب، پودر بی رنگ (فرم آلفا) بلور قرمز-قهوه‌ای (فرم بتا) است.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070494398.
  2. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards". Retrieved 2007-02-16.
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ "INCHEM: Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations". Retrieved 2007-02-16. خطای یادکرد: برچسب <ref> نامعتبر؛ نام «INCHEM_sheet» چندین بار با محتوای متفاوت تعریف شده‌است. (صفحهٔ راهنما را مطالعه کنید.).
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A21. ISBN 061894690X.
  • «IUPAC GOLD BOOK». دریافت‌شده در ۱۸ مارس ۲۰۱۲.
Cadmium oxide
Oxid kademnatý.JPG
NaCl polyhedra.png
Names
IUPAC name
Cadmium oxide
Other names
Cadmium(II) oxide,
Cadmium monoxide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.013.770
EC Number
  • 215-146-2
RTECS number
  • EV1925000
UN number 2570
Properties
CdO
Molar mass 128.413 g·mol−1
Appearance colorless powder (alpha form)
red-brown crystal (beta form) [1]
Odor odorless
Density 8.15 g/cm3(crystalline),
6.95 g/cm3 (amorphous)[2] solid.
Melting point 900–1,000 °C (1,650–1,830 °F; 1,170–1,270 K)
decomposition of amorphous form[3]
Boiling point 1,559 °C (2,838 °F; 1,832 K) sublimation[3]
4.8 mg/L (18 °C)[4]
Solubility soluble in dilute acid
slowly soluble in ammonium salts
insoluble in alkalies
Vapor pressure 0.13 kPa (1000 °C)
2.62 kPa (1200 °C)
61.4 kPa (1500 °C)[5]
Band gap 2.18 eV
Electron mobility 531 cm2/V·s
-3.0·10−5 cm3/mol
Thermal conductivity 0.7 W/m·K
2.49
Structure
cubic, cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
a = 4.6958 Å
Thermochemistry
43.64 J/mol·K[4]
55 J/mol·K[6]
−258 kJ/mol[5][6]
-229.3 kJ/mol[4]
Hazards
Safety data sheet [1]
GHS pictograms GHS06: ToxicGHS08: Health hazardGHS09: Environmental hazard[7]
GHS Signal word Danger
H330, H341, H350, H361, H372, H410[7]
P201, P260, P273, P281, P284, P310[7]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterHealth code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g. VX gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
4
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
72 mg/kg (oral, rat)[9]
72 mg/kg (oral, mouse)[10]
500 mg/m3 (rat, 10 min)
2500 mg/m3 (rabbit, 10 min)
3500 mg/m3 (guinea pig, 10 min)
4000 mg/m3 (dog, 10 min)
780 mg/m3 (rat, 10 min)
340 mg/m3 (mouse, 10 min)
3000 mg/m3 (rabbit, 15 min)
3000 mg/m3 (guinea pig, 15 min)
400 mg/m3 (dog, 10 min)[10]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
[1910.1027] TWA 0.005 mg/m3 (as Cd)[8]
REL (Recommended)
Ca[8]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Ca [9 mg/m3 (as Cd)][8]
Related compounds
Other anions
Cadmium sulfide
Cadmium selenide
Cadmium telluride
Other cations
Zinc oxide
Mercury oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☑Y verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references

Cadmium oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdO. It is one of the main precursors to other cadmium compounds. It crystallizes in a cubic rocksalt lattice like sodium chloride, with octahedral cation and anion centers.[11] It occurs naturally as the rare mineral monteponite. Cadmium oxide can be found as a colorless amorphous powder or as brown or red crystals.[12] Cadmium oxide is an n-type semiconductor[13] with a band gap of 2.18 eV (2.31 eV) at room temperature (298 K).[14]

Production and structure

Since cadmium compounds are often found in association with zinc ores, cadmium oxide is a common by-product of zinc refining.[15] It is produced by burning elemental cadmium in air. Pyrolysis of other cadmium compounds, such as the nitrate or the carbonate, also affords this oxide. When pure, it is red, but CdO is unusual in being available in many differing colours due to its tendency to form defect structures resulting from anion vacancies.[16] Cadmium oxide is prepared commercially by oxidizing cadmium vapor in air.[17]

Uses

Cadmium oxide is used in cadmium plating baths, electrodes for storage batteries, cadmium salts, catalyst, ceramic glazes, phosphors, and nematocide.[12] Major uses for cadmium oxide are as an ingredient for electroplating baths, and in pigments.[18]

Transparent conductor

CdO is used as a transparent conductive material,[19] which was prepared as a transparent conducting film as early as 1907 by Karl Baedeker.[20] Cadmium oxide in the form of thin films has been used in applications such as photodiodes, phototransistors, photovoltaic cells, transparent electrodes, liquid crystal displays, IR detectors, and anti reflection coatings.[21] CdO microparticles undergo bandgap excitation when exposed to UV-A light and is also selective in phenol photodegradation.[22]

Cadmium plating

Most commercial electroplating of cadmium is done by electrodeposition from cyanide baths. These cyanide baths consist of cadmium oxide and sodium cyanide in water, which likely form cadmium cyanide and sodium hydroxide. A typical formula is 32 g/L cadmium oxide and 75 g/L sodium cyanide. The cadmium concentration may vary by as much as 50%. Brighteners are usually added to the bath and the plating is done at room temperature with high purity cadmium anodes.[23]

Reactivity

CdO is a basic oxide and is thus attacked by aqueous acids to give solutions of [Cd(H2O)6]2+. Upon treatment with strong alkaline solutions, [Cd(OH)
4
]2−
forms. A thin coat of cadmium oxide forms on the surface of cadmium in moist air at room temperature.[12] Cadmium will oxidize at room temperatures to form CdO.[23] Cadmium vapor and steam will form CdO and hydrogen in a reversible reaction.[23]

References

  1. ^ Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-049439-8.
  2. ^ "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards". Retrieved 2007-02-16.
  3. ^ a b "INCHEM: Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations". Retrieved 2007-02-16.
  4. ^ a b c http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=500
  5. ^ a b Cadmium oxide in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg (MD), http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-23)
  6. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A21. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.
  7. ^ a b c Sigma-Aldrich Co., Cadmium oxide. Retrieved on 2014-05-23.
  8. ^ a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0087". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  9. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/1306-19-0
  10. ^ a b "Cadmium compounds (as Cd)". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  11. ^ Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
  12. ^ a b c Lewis, Richard J., Sr., Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary, 13th ed., 1997, p. 189
  13. ^ T. L. Chu; Shirley S. Chu (1990). "Degenerate cadmium oxide films for electronic devices". Journal of Electronic Materials. 19 (9): 1003–1005. Bibcode:1990JEMat..19.1003C. doi:10.1007/BF02652928.
  14. ^ S. K. Vasheghani Farahani; et al. (2013). "Temperature dependence of the direct bandgap and transport properties of CdO". Applied Physics Letters. 102 (2): 022102. Bibcode:2013ApPhL.102b2102V. doi:10.1063/1.4775691.
  15. ^ "Cadmium and compounds fact sheet". Archived from the original on 2006-12-10. Retrieved 2007-02-16.
  16. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  17. ^ Hampel, C. A.; Hawley, G. G. (1973). The encyclopedia of Chemistry (3rd ed.). p. 169.
  18. ^ Clifford A. Hampel and Gessner G. Hawley, The encyclopedia of Chemistry, 3rd Ed., 1973, p. 169
  19. ^ Varkey, A (1994). "Transparent conducting cadmium oxide thin films prepared by a solution growth technique". Thin Solid Films. 239 (2): 211. Bibcode:1994TSF...239..211V. doi:10.1016/0040-6090(94)90853-2.
  20. ^ Dou, Y (1998). "N-type doping in CdO ceramics: a study by EELS and photoemission spectroscopy". Surface Science. 398: 241. Bibcode:1998SurSc.398..241D. doi:10.1016/S0039-6028(98)80028-9.
  21. ^ Lokhande, B (2004). "Studies on cadmium oxide sprayed thin films deposited through non-aqueous medium". Materials Chemistry and Physics. 84 (2–3): 238. doi:10.1016/S0254-0584(03)00231-1.
  22. ^ Karunakaran, C; Dhanalakshmi, R (2009). "Selectivity in photocatalysis by particulate semiconductors". Central European Journal of Chemistry. 7 (1): 134. doi:10.2478/s11532-008-0083-7.
  23. ^ a b c Clifford A. Hampel, Rare Metals Handbook, 1954, p. 87-103

External links