اقتصاد سوسیالیستی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

اقتصاد سوسیالیستی، اقتصاد جامعه‌خواه، اقتصاد جامعه‌محور یا اقتصاد جامعه‌گرا (به انگلیسی:Socialist economics) شامل نظریه‌های اقتصادی، شیوه‌ها و هنجارهای نظام‌های اقتصادی سوسیالیستی فرضی و موجود است.[۱] یک سیستم اقتصادی سوسیالیستی با مالکیت اجتماعی و بهره‌برداری از ابزار تولید مشخص می‌شود[۲][۳][۴][۵][۶][۷] و ممکن است به شکل تعاونی‌های خودمختار یا مالکیت مستقیم عمومی (دولتی) باشد که در آن تولید متسقیما به هدف استفاده و نه به جای سود (بر خلاف سرمایه‌داری) انجام می‌شود.[۸][۹][۱۰][۱۱] نظام‌های سوسیالیستی که از بازارها برای تخصیص کالاهای سرمایه ای و نهاده‌های تولید در بین واحدهای اقتصادی استفاده می‌کنند، سوسیالیسم بازار نامیده می‌شوند. هنگامی که برنامه‌ریزی اقتصادی مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد، سیستم اقتصادی به عنوان یک اقتصاد برنامه‌ریزی شده سوسیالیستی تعیین می‌شود. اشکال غیر بازاری سوسیالیسم معمولاً شامل یک سیستم حسابداری مبتنی بر محاسبه در نوع (calculation-in-kind) برای ارزش گذاری منابع و کالاها می‌باشد.[۱۲][۱۳]

اقتصاد سوسیالیستی با مکاتب مختلف اقتصادی مرتبط بوده‌است. اقتصاد مارکسی پایه ای برای سوسیالیسم بر اساس تحلیل سرمایه‌داری[۱۴] فراهم کرد در حالی که اقتصاد نئوکلاسیک و اقتصاد فرگشتی مدل‌های جامعی از سوسیالیسم را ارائه کردند.[۱۵] در طول قرن بیستم، طرح‌ها و مدل‌ها برای اقتصادهای برنامه‌ریزی شده و بازار سوسیالیستی به شدت مبتنی بر اقتصاد نئوکلاسیک یا ترکیبی از اقتصاد نئوکلاسیک با اقتصاد مارکسیستی یا نهادی بود.[۱۶][۱۷][۱۸][۱۹][۲۰][۲۱]

به عنوان یک اصطلاح، اقتصاد سوسیالیستی ممکن است برای تحلیل سیستم‌های اقتصادی قبلی و موجود که در دولت‌های سوسیالیستی مانند آثار اقتصاددان مجارستانی یانوس کورنای (János Kornai) اجرا شده‌اند نیز به کار رود.[۲۲] بنجامین تاکر، آنارشیست فردگرای آمریکایی قرن ۱۹، که اقتصاد کلاسیک آدام اسمیت و سوسیالیست‌های ریکاردین (Ricardian socialists) و همچنین پیر-ژوزف پرودون، کارل مارکس و جوزیا وارن را به سوسیالیسم مرتبط کرده بود، معتقد بود که دو مکتب سوسیالیستی وجود دارد: سوسیالیسم آنارشیستی و سوسیالیسم دولتی. او معتقد بودند که وجه مشترک این دو شکل نظریه ارزش کار است.[۲۳] سوسیالیست‌ها در مورد درجه ای که کنترل اجتماعی یا تنظیم قانونی اقتصاد ضروری است، و اینکه تا چه اندازه جامعه باید مداخله کند و اینکه آیا دولت، به ویژه دولت موجود، وسیله صحیحی برای تغییر است یا خیر، اختلاف نظر دارند.[۲۴]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

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  2. Sinclair, Upton (1918). Upton Sinclair's: A Monthly Magazine: for Social Justice, by Peaceful Means If Possible. Socialism, you see, is a bird with two wings. The definition is 'social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production.'
  3. Busky, Donald F. (2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-275-96886-1. Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy. It is this idea that is the common element found in the many forms of socialism.
  4. Rosser, J. Barkley Jr.; Rosser, Mariana V. (2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-262-18234-8. Socialism is an economic system characterized by state or collective ownership of the means of production, land, and capital.
  5. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2008. pp. 1–18. doi:10.1057/978-1-349-95121-5_1718-2. ISBN 978-1-349-95121-5. A society may be defined as socialist if the major part of the means of production of goods and services is in some sense socially owned and operated, by state, socialized or cooperative enterprises. The practical issues of socialism comprise the relationships between management and workforce within the enterprise, the interrelationships between production units (plan versus markets), and, if the state owns and operates any part of the economy, who controls it and how.
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  10. Steele, David Ramsay (1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court. pp. 175–77. ISBN 978-0-87548-449-5. Especially before the 1930s, many socialists and anti-socialists implicitly accepted some form of the following for the incompatibility of state-owned industry and factor markets. A market transaction is an exchange of property titles between two independent transactors. Thus internal market exchanges cease when all of industry is brought into the ownership of a single entity, whether the state or some other organization [...], the discussion applies equally to any form of social or community ownership, where the owning entity is conceived as a single organization or administration.
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  23. Brown, Susan Love (1997). "The Free Market as Salvation from Government". In Carrier, James G. , ed. Meanings of the Market: The Free Market in Western Culture. Berg Publishers. p. 107. شابک ‎۹۷۸−۱۸۵۹۷۳۱۴۹۹.
  24. Docherty, James C. ; Lamb, Peter, eds. (2006). Historical Dictionary of Socialism (2nd ed.). Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements. 73. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. 1–3. شابک ‎۹۷۸۰۸۱۰۸۵۵۶۰۱.

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