اکسید برلیوم (به انگلیسی: Beryllium oxide) یک ترکیب شیمیایی با شناسه پابکم ۱۴۷۷۵ است. شکل ظاهری این ترکیب، بلورهای شیشهای بیرنگ است. اکسید برلیوم بالاترینترین آنتالپی تشکیل به ازای جرم (تقریباً ۲۴ مگاژول بر کیلوگرم) را دارد.
Beryllium oxide (BeO), also known as beryllia, is an inorganic compound with the formula BeO. This colourless solid is a notable electrical insulator with a higher thermal conductivity than any other non-metal except diamond, and exceeds that of most metals. As an amorphous solid, beryllium oxide is white. Its high melting point leads to its use as a refractory material. It occurs in nature as the mineral bromellite. Historically and in materials science, beryllium oxide was called glucina or glucinium oxide.
Igniting beryllium in air gives a mixture of BeO and the nitride Be3N2. Unlike the oxides formed by the other group 2 elements (alkaline earth metals), beryllium oxide is amphoteric rather than basic.
BeO crystallizes in the hexagonal wurtzite structure, featuring tetrahedral Be2+ and O2− centres, like lonsdaleite and w-BN (with both of which it is isoelectronic). In contrast, the oxides of the larger group-2 metals, i.e., MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, crystallize in the cubic rock salt motif with octahedral geometry about the dications and dianions. At high temperature the structure transforms to a tetragonal form.
In the vapour phase, beryllium oxide is present as discrete diatomic molecules. In the language of valence bond theory, these molecules can be described as adopting sp orbital hybridisation on both atoms, featuring one σ (between one sp orbital on each atom) and one π bond (between aligned p orbitals on each atom oriented perpendicular to the molecular axis). Molecular orbital theory provides a slightly different picture with no net sigma bonding (because the 2s orbitals of the two atoms combine to form a filled sigma bonding orbital and a filled sigma* anti-bonding orbital) and two pi bonds formed between both pairs of p orbitals oriented perpendicular to the molecular axis. The sigma orbital formed by the p orbitals aligned along the molecular axis is unfilled. The corresponding ground state is ...(2sσ)2(2sσ*)2(2pπ)4 (as in the isoelectronic C2 molecule), where both bonds can be considered as dative bonds from oxygen towards beryllium.
High-quality crystals may be grown hydrothermally, or otherwise by the Verneuil method. For the most part, beryllium oxide is produced as a white amorphous powder, sintered into larger shapes. Impurities, like carbon, can give a variety of colours to the otherwise colourless host crystals.
BeO is carcinogenic in powdered form  and may cause chronic beryllium disease. Once fired into solid form, it is safe to handle if not subjected to machining that generates dust. Beryllium oxide ceramic is not a hazardous waste under federal law in the USA.
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^Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN0-618-94690-X.
^Günter Petzow, Fritz Aldinger, Sigurd Jönsson, Peter Welge, Vera van Kampen, Thomas Mensing, Thomas Brüning "Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_011.pub2