کلزا

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
کلزا
کلزا (Brassica napus)
طبقه‌بندی علمی
فرمانرو: گیاهان
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): گیاهان گلدار
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): دولپه‌ای‌های نو
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): رزیدها
راسته: کلم‌سانان
تیره: شب‌بویان
سرده: کلم‌ها
گونه: B. napus
نام علمی
Brassica napus
L.[۱]
28 Brassica napus L.jpg

کلزا (brassica napus) به عنوان یکی از گیاهان دانه روغنی مهم در مناطق معتدله دارای طیف نسبتاً وسیعی از سازگاری اقلیمی است.

دانه کلزا[ویرایش]

دانه کلزا دارای ۲۵ تا ۵۵ درصد روغن، ۱۸ تا ۲۴ درصد پروتئین و ۱۲ تا ۲۰ درصد پوست است[۲]. رقم اصلاح شده کلزا، کانولا خوانده میشود که دارای مقدار کمتری اروسیک اسیدو گلوگوسیانات میباشد[۳] و بدلیل محتوای کمتر مواد ضد تغذیه ای برای مصرف انسان و تک معده ایها نسبت به رقم غیر اصلاح شده یا همان کلزا،مناسب تراست.

روغن کلزا[ویرایش]

روغن کلزا به دلیل حضور اسیدهای چرب اشباع نشده و فاقد کلسترول از کیفیت تغذیه ای بالایی برخوردار است و بین ارقام و در شرایط مختلف تنوع زیادی در ترکیب اسیدهای چرب آن مشاهده می شود[۴] برخی از انواع کلزا که در گروه کانولا قرار دارند دارای کمتر از ۳۰ میکرومول گلوکوزینولات در هر گرم کنجاله بوده و روغن دانه آنها دارای مقدار زیادی اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع و حدود ۲ درصد یا کمتر دارای اسید اروسیک می باشند و روغن آنها به صورت خوراکی مصرف می شود[۵].

تاریخچه[ویرایش]

به علت میزان روغن موجود در دانه های گیاه کلزا، این گیاه برای سده های پی در پی کشت می شود. محل رویش این گیاه در ابتدا در کرانه ی شرقی دریای مدیترانه بوده است گرچه استفاده از آن سابقه ای بسیار طولانی دارد. شواهدی موجود است که این گیاه و روغن آن، در 2000 سال پیش از میلاد مسیح در هند استفاده می شده است. در اروپای میانه این گیاه از قرن چهاردهم کشت میشود. از قرن هفدهم میلادی، این گیاه در مقیاس های بزرگ در اروپا کشت میشود.

کشت کلزا[ویرایش]

کشتزار کلزا در جنوب کمبریج، انگلستان
کشتزار کلزا در کلاله، ایران
گل کلزا

کمبود عناصر کم مصرف در داخل خاک عملکرد عناصر پر مصرف را تحت تاثیر قرار می‌دهد و موجب کاهش عملکرد گیاهان می‌گردد ([۶] بیشترین نیاز به مواد غذایی در کلزا از شروع رشد گیاه در بهار تا زمان گل‌دهی است [۷]


بعضی عناصر غذایی کم مصرف همانند روی وآهن برای رشد گیاه ضروری هستند و در فرایندهای فیزیولوژیکی مانند فتوسنتز، تولید هورمون‌های رشد و تشکیل کلروفیل گیاهی دخالت دارند و کمبود آنها می‌تواند موجب عدم توازن عناصر غذایی در گیاه و نهایتاً کاهش کمیت و کیفیت محصول می شود[۸] در شرایطی که خاک زراعی دارای کمبود عناصر ریز مغذی و سطح خاک خشک باشد، باید از محلول‌پاشی برگی این عناصر در گیاه کلزا در اوایل دوران رشد رویشی گیاه استفاده نمود که سبب افزایش عملکرد دانه و درصد روغن می‌شود [۹]. روی باعث افزایش تعداد خورجین در بوته، عملکرد دانه و درصد روغن می‌گردد.[۱۰] محلول پاشي توام سولفات روي و اسيدبوريک موجب افزايش غلظت اين دو عنصر در دانه کلزا گرديد که از نظر غني سازي کلزا حائز اهميت مي باشد. با عنايت به نقش مثبت بور در افزايش عملکرد دانه و نقش مثبت مصرف توام روي و بور در افزايش کيفيت دانه کلزا و هم چنين بالاتر بودن سطح عملکرد دانه در رقم S.L.M046، استفاده از اين رقم و محلول پاشي توام اسيدبوريک و سولفات روي با غلظت هاي به ترتيب دو در هزار و سه در هزار در مراحل ابتداي ساقه رفتن و ابتداي گلدهي (تيمار Zn1B1) در مناطق با آب و هوا و خاک مشابه محل اجراي طرح توصيه مي گردد.[۱۱]

آهن نیز یکی دیگر از عناصر ضروری برای رشد گیاهان است که در شرایط کمبود آن، تعداد رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتز کننده و مقدار کلروفیل برگ‌ها کاهش می‌یابد در این صورت کاهش وزن هزار دانه را شاهد خواهیم بود.[۱۲] با افزایش PH غلظت آهن در ریشه افزایش یافته ولی برگ‌ها زردی کمبود آهن را نشان می‌دهند و به این نتیجه رسیدند که نیترات‌ها در خاک‌های آهکی باعث عدم جذب آهن و مس می‌گردند.[۱۳] اهمیت وجود روی در مناطق مریستمی به علت کارایی آن در تولید هورمون اکسین در کلزا باعث افزایش شاخه بندی می‌شود [۱۴]

به دلیل PH قلیایی خاک‌ها مصرف خاکی روی، باعث می‌گردد که روی با مواد آلی خاک ترکیب شده ومجموعه‌هایی از روی را تشکیل دهد که ممکن است برخی از آنها غیرقابل انحلال باشند. ( سالار دینی و همکاران ۱۳۶۷) گیاه کلزا نیاز نسبتاً زیادی به نیتروژن دارد، ولی عکس‌العمل آن به کود بستگی به شرایط محیطی از جمله شرایط آب و هوایی منطقه، نوع خاک، رطوبت خاک و هم‌چنین ژنوتیپ دارد.[۱۵] عملکرد مطلوب کلزا در شرایط مصرف ۲۰۰ کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار حاصل شده است.[۱۶] مصرف سولفات آمونیوم به همراه اوره به دلیل حلال بودن آن در آب از طریق ریختن آن بر روی برگ‌ها تا قبل از گل‌دهی بسیار مناسب است[۱۷]

از آنجائی‌که سولفات آمونیوم در تامین گوگرد مورد نیاز کلزا که یکی از عناصر موثر در عملکرد کلزا است می‌تواند مورد استفاده قرار گیرد[۱۸]. کمبود آب می‌تواند اثری سوء بر عملکرد کلزا بگذارد، ولی این اثر به ژنوتیپ و مرحله نمو گیاه بستگی دارد[۱۹]. اعمال تنش خشکی در مراحل مختلف فنولوژیکی گیاه کلزا اثرات متفاوتی در میزان روغن و پروتئین آن دارد و برخورد مرحله تنش خشکی با مرحله زایشی گیاه موجب کاهش عملکرد می‌گردد [۲۰]. در یک محیط پرباران، آبیاری کلزا، تعداد غلاف را در اثر طولانی کردن دوره گل‌دهی و تعداد دانه در غلاف را در اثر ایجاد سطح برگ بالاتر در زمان گل‌دهی افزایش می دهد که حساس‌ترین زمان برای آبیاری کلزا، مرحله گل‌دهی و اوایل غلاف بندی می‌باشد[۲۱].

آفات و بیماریهای کلزا[ویرایش]

کلزا نیز مانند سایر گیاهان دیگر مورد حمله، خسارت آفات و بیماریهای مختلفی قرار می‌گیرد که شدت و ضعف آن‌ها در مناطق مختلف متفاوت است. [نیازمند منبع]

منابع[ویرایش]

جستجو در ویکی‌انبار در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ کلزا موجود است.
  1. "Brassica napus information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  2. خواجه پور، ۱۳۷۷
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canola
  4. شهیدی، ۱۳۷۶
  5. خواجه پور ۱۳۷۷
  6. ملکوتی ، ۱۳۷۵
  7. حجازی ،۱۳۷۹
  8. خلدبرین ، ۱۳۸۰
  9. تاندن ، ۱۹۹۵
  10. گرنت و همکاران، ۱۹۹۸
  11. خیاوی و همکاران، 1389
  12. مورالس و همکاران ، ۱۹۹۶
  13. سامر، ۱۹۹۹
  14. تاندن ، ۱۹۹۵
  15. اُزِر ، ۲۰۰۳
  16. جکسون ، ۲۰۰۰
  17. حجازی ، ۱۳۷۹
  18. شریعتی و همکاران ، ۱۳۷۹
  19. عزیزی و همکاران ، ۱۳۷۸
  20. ما وهمکاران ، ۲۰۰۰
  21. کلارک وهمکاران ، ۱۹۸۷
Rapeseed
Rapeseed (Brassica napus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. napus
Binomial name
Brassica napus
L.[1]

Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape,[1] oilseed rape,[1] rapa, rappi, rapaseed (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family). The name derives from the Latin for turnip, rāpa or rāpum, and is first recorded in English at the end of the 14th century. Older writers usually distinguished the turnip and rape by the adjectives round and long (-rooted), respectively.[2] Rutabagas, Brassica napobrassica are sometimes considered a variety of Brassica napus. Some botanists also include the closely related Brassica campestris within B. napus.

Brassica napus is cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed, the third largest source of vegetable oil in the world.[3]

Common names

Brassica napus is known by many common names in the English language. Some names have only been applied to certain subspecies (subsp.), forms (f.), or varieties (var.) of B. napus. Note that Brassica napus = Brassica napus subsp. napus = Brassica napus subsp. napus f. napus; they are equivalents.

The following list is from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN),[1] which attributes the names to other sources:

  • Brassica napusrape
    • B. napus subsp. napusArgentine canola, canola, colza, oilseed rape, and rape
      • B. napus subsp. napus f. annuaannual rape and summer rape (treated as B. napus var. annua)
      • B. napus subsp. napus f. napusSwede rape (treated as B. napus var. biennis)
    • B. napus subsp. napus var. pabulariaHanover-salad, rape kale, and Siberian kale
    • B. napus subsp. rapiferarutabaga, swede (treated as B. napus var. napobrassica), Swedish turnip (treated as B. napus Napobrassica Group), and winter rape
  • Brassica napus - Nanohana in Japanese

Cultivation and uses

Field of rapeseeds

Rapeseed oil was produced in the 19th century as a source of a lubricant for steam engines. It was less useful as food for animals or humans because it has a bitter taste due to high levels of glucosinolates. Varieties have now been bred to reduce the content of glucosinolates, yielding a more palatable oil. This has had the side effect that the oil contains much less erucic acid.[citation needed]

Rapeseed is grown for the production of animal feed, vegetable oil for human consumption, and biodiesel; leading producers include the European Union, Canada, the United States, Australia, China and India. In India, it is grown on 13% of cropped land.[citation needed] According to the United States Department of Agriculture, rapeseed was the third leading source of vegetable oil in the world in 2000, after soybean and oil palm, and also the world's second leading source of protein meal, although only one-fifth of the production of the leading soybean meal.[citation needed]

World production is growing rapidly, with FAO reporting 36 million tons of rapeseed were produced in the 2003-2004 season, and estimating 58.4 million tons in the 2010-2011 season.[4] In Europe, rapeseed is primarily cultivated for animal feed,[citation needed] owing to its very high lipid and medium protein content.[citation needed]

Canola seeds

Natural rapeseed oil contains 50% erucic acid. Wild type seeds also contain high levels of glucosinolates (mustard oil glucosindes), chemical compounds that significantly lowered the nutritional value of rapeseed press cakes for animal feed. In North America, the term "canola" — a contraction of Canada and ola, for "oil"[5] — is widely used to refer to rapeseed, and is now a tradename for "double low" (low erucic acid and low glucosinolate) rapeseed.[6] The rapeseed is the valuable, harvested component of the crop. The crop is also grown as a winter-cover crop. It provides good coverage of the soil in winter, and limits nitrogen run-off. The plant is ploughed back in the soil or used as bedding. On some organic operations, livestock such as sheep or cattle are allowed to graze on the plants.

Processing of rapeseed for oil production produces rapeseed meal as a byproduct. The byproduct is a high-protein animal feed, competitive with soya.[citation needed] The feed is mostly employed for cattle feeding, but also for pigs and chickens (though less valuable for these). The meal has a very low content of the glucosinolates responsible for metabolism disruption in cattle and pigs.[7] Neither canola nor soy is recommended as feed for organic animal products, as both are predominantly genetically modified, especially in America (some estimates are now at 90%), which is prohibited by organic standards.[citation needed]

Rapeseed "oil cake" is also used as a fertilizer in China, and may be used for ornamentals, such as bonsai, as well.[citation needed]

Rapeseed leaves and stems are also edible, similar to those of the related bok choy or kale. Some varieties of rapeseed (called 油菜, yóu cài, lit. "oil vegetable" in Chinese; yau choy in Cantonese; cải dầu in Vietnamese; phak kat kan khao [ผักกาดก้านขาว] in Thai; and nanohana [菜の花]/nabana [菜花] in Japanese) are sold as greens, primarily in Asian groceries, including those in California, where it is known as yao choy or tender greens. They are eaten as sag (spinach) in Indian and Nepalese cuisine, usually stir-fried with salt, garlic and spices.

Rapeseed produces great quantities of nectar, and honeybees produce a light-colored but peppery honey from it. It must be extracted immediately after processing is finished, as it will otherwise quickly granulate in the honeycomb and will be impossible to extract. The honey is usually blended with milder honeys, if used for table use or sold as bakery grade. Rapeseed growers contract with beekeepers for the pollination of the crop.

"Total loss" chain and bar oil for chainsaws have been developed which are typically 70% or more canola/rapeseed oil. These lubricants are claimed to be less harmful to the environment and less hazardous to users than traditional mineral oil products,[8] although they are currently typically two to five times more expensive, leading some to use inexpensive cooking oil instead. Some countries, such as Austria, have banned the use of petroleum-based chainsaw oil.[9] These "biolubricants" are generally reported to be functionally comparable to traditional mineral oil products, with some reports claiming one or other is superior,[9] but with no consensus yet evident.

Rapeseed has also been researched as means of containing radionuclides that contaminated the soil after the Chernobyl disaster.[10][11][12] It was discovered by researchers at the Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry that rapeseed has a rate of uptake up to three times more than other grains, and only about 3 to 6% of the radionuclides goes into the parts of the plant that could potentially enter the food chain. As oil repels radionuclides, canola oil free from contaminants being concentrated in other parts of the plant could be produced. The rest of the plant (straw, roots, seed pods, etc.) could then be recycled by ploughing back into the soil.[10]

Biodiesel

Field of rapeseeds

Rapeseed oil is used as diesel fuel, either as biodiesel, straight in heated fuel systems, or blended with petroleum distillates for powering motor vehicles. Biodiesel may be used in pure form in newer engines without engine damage and is frequently combined with fossil-fuel diesel in ratios varying from 2% to 20% biodiesel. Owing to the costs of growing, crushing, and refining rapeseed biodiesel, rapeseed-derived biodiesel from new oil costs more to produce than standard diesel fuel, so diesel fuels are commonly made from the used oil. Rapeseed oil is the preferred oil stock for biodiesel production in most of Europe, accounting for about 80% of the feedstock,[13] partly because rapeseed produces more oil per unit of land area compared to other oil sources, such as soybeans, but primarily because canola oil has a significantly lower gel point than most other vegetable oils. 66% of total rapeseed oil supply in the European Union was expected to be used for biodiesel production in the 2010-2011 year.[13]

Rapeseed is currently grown with a high level of nitrogen-containing fertilisers, and the manufacture of these generates N2O. An estimated 3-5% of nitrogen provided as fertilizer for rapeseed is converted to N2O.[14]

Cultivars

Canola was originally a trademark, but is now a generic term in North America for edible varieties of rapeseed oil. In Canada, an official definition of canola is codified in Canadian law.

Rapeseed oil had a distinctive taste and a greenish colour due to the presence of chlorophyll. It also contained a high concentration[specify] of erucic acid.

A variety of rapeseed developed in 1998 is considered to be the most disease- and drought-resistant canola. This and other recent varieties have been produced by using genetic engineering. In 2009, 90% of the rapeseed crops planted in Canada were GM (genetically modified), herbicide-tolerant canola varieties.[15]

Health effects

Rapeseed blossoms

Rapeseed oil is one of the oldest vegetable oils, but historically was used in limited quantities due to high levels of erucic acid, which is damaging to cardiac muscle, and glucosinolates, which made it less nutritious in animal feed.[16] Rapeseed oil can contain up to 54% erucic acid.[17] Food-grade canola oil derived from rapeseed cultivars, also known as rapeseed 00 oil, low erucic acid rapeseed oil, LEAR oil, and rapeseed canola-equivalent oil, has been generally recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[18] Canola oil is limited by government regulation to a maximum of 2% erucic acid by weight in the USA[18] and 5% in the EU,[19] with special regulations for infant food. These low levels of erucic acid are not believed to cause harm in human neonates.[18][19]

In 1981, a deadly outbreak of disease in Spain, known as toxic oil syndrome,[20] was caused by the consumption of colza oil (a cousin of rapeseed oil procured from a similar species of rapa) for industrial use that was fraudulently sold as olive oil to be consumed in cooking, salads, & other food related uses. Symptoms appeared as a typical pneumonia with interstitial infiltrates on chest x-ray, complicated by pulmonary hypertension in a significant number of cases.[21]

Rapeseed pollen contains known allergens.[22][23] Whether rape pollen causes hay fever has not been well established, because rape is an insect-pollinated (entomophilous) crop, whereas hay fever is usually caused by wind-pollinated plants. The inhalation of oilseed rape dust may cause asthma in agricultural workers.[24]

Production

Worldwide production of rapeseed (including canola) has increased sixfold between 1975 and 2007. The production of canola and rapeseed since 1975 has opened up the edible oil market for rapeseed oil. Since 2002, production of biodiesel has been steadily increasing in EU and USA to 6 million metric tons in 2006. Rapeseed oil is positioned to supply a good portion of the vegetable oils needed to produce that fuel. World production is thus expected to trend further upward between 2005 and 2015 as biodiesel content requirements in Europe go into effect.[25] Every ton of rapeseed yields about 400 kg of oil.

Top rapeseed producers in millions of tonnes[26]
Country 1965 1975 1985 1995 2000 2005 2007 2009 2011 2012
 European Union 1.5 2.5 5.8 10.5 11.3 15.6 18.4 21.4 19.2 19.2
 Canada 0.5 1.8 3.5 6.4 7.2 9.4 9.6 11.8 14.2 15.4
 China 1.1 1.5 5.6 9.8 11.3 13.0 10.5 13.5 13.4 14.0
 India 1.5 2.3 3.1 5.8 5.8 7.6 7.4 7.2 8.2 6.8
 France 0.3 0.5 1.4 2.8 3.5 4.5 4.7 5.6 5.4 5.5
 Germany 0.3 0.6 1.2 3.1 3.6 5.0 5.3 6.3 3.9 4.8
 Australia <0.007 <0.06 0.1 0.6 1.8 1.4 1.1 1.9 2.4 3.4
 United Kingdom <0.007 0.06 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.8 2.6
 Poland 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.4 2.1 2.5 1.9 1.9
 Ukraine <0.007 <0.06 <0.03 <0.1 0.1 0.3 1.0 1.9 1.4 1.2
 United States <0.007 <0.06 <0.03 0.2 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.1
 Czech Republic 0.07 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1
 Russia N/A N/A N/A 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.0
 Belarus N/A N/A N/A 0.03 0.07 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.7
 Lithuania N/A N/A N/A 0.02 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
 Denmark 0.05 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5
World Total 5.2 8.8 19.2 34.2 39.5 46.4 50.5 61.6 62.5 64.8

Pests and diseases

Model of a rapeseed flower, Botanical Museum Greifswald

Animal pests

Diseases

Genome sequencing and genetics

Bayer Cropscience (in collaboration with BGI-Shenzhen, China, Keygene N.V., the Netherlands and the University of Queensland, Australia) announced it had sequenced the entire genome of Brassica napus and its constituent genomes present in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea in 2009. The "A" genome component of the amphidiploid rapeseed species B. napus is currently being sequenced by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project.[28][dated info]

GMO (genetically modified organism) controversy

The Monsanto Company has genetically engineered new cultivars of rapeseed to be resistant to the effects of its herbicide, Roundup. They have sought compensation from farmers found to have the Roundup Ready gene in canola in their fields without paying a license fee. These farmers have claimed the Roundup Ready gene was blown into their fields and crossed with unaltered canola. Other farmers claim that after spraying Roundup in non-canola fields to kill weeds before planting, Roundup Ready volunteers are left behind, causing extra expense to rid their fields of the weeds.

In a closely followed legal battle, the Supreme Court of Canada found in favor of Monsanto's patent infringement claim for unlicensed growing of Roundup Ready in its 2004 ruling on Monsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser. The case garnered international controversy, as a court-sanctioned legitimation for the global patent protection of genetically modified crops. However, Schmeiser was not required to pay damages, as he did not benefit financially from the GMO crop in his field.[citation needed]

In March 2008, an out-of-court settlement between Monsanto and Schmeiser agreed that Monsanto would clean up the entire GMO-canola crop on Schmeiser's farm, at a cost of approximately $660.[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Brassica napus was originally described and published in Species Plantarum 2:666. 1753. GRIN (24 February 2010). "Brassica napus information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "OED Online". Dictionary.oed.com. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  3. ^ "Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade | USDA FAS". Fas.usda.gov. Retrieved 2012-04-28. 
  4. ^ http://www.fas.usda.gov/oilseeds/circular/2011/March/oilseeds.pdf
  5. ^ Canola Council of Canada. "What is Canola?". Retrieved 2013-10-16. 
  6. ^ Canola-quality Brassica juncea, a new oilseed crop for the Canadian prairies. DA Potts, GW Rakow, DR Males — New Horizons for an old crop. Proc 10th Intl Rapeseed Congr, Canberra, Australia, 1999
  7. ^ Soyatech LLC, http://www.soyatech.com/rapeseed_facts.htm, Soyatech is a company established in 1985 and publisher of the Soya and Oilseeds Blue Book
  8. ^ Cristina Gauthier. "Homemade Winter Oil for a Chain Saw Bar". eHow.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  9. ^ a b "Vegetable Oil For Lubricating Chain Saws". Fs.fed.us. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  10. ^ a b Smith, Marilyn (2004-01-29). "Ecological reservation in Belarus fosters new approaches to soil remediation". IAEA. Retrieved 2012-10-2012. 
  11. ^ "Ukraine mulls growing crops in Chernobyl nuke disaster zone". RIA Novosti. 2010-11-12. Retrieved 2012-10-31. 
  12. ^ Walker, Shaun (2010-11-18). "Return to the fields of Chernobyl". The Independent. Retrieved 2012-10-31. 
  13. ^ a b "Mustard Seed Rapeseed Canola, Mustard Seed Oil". Agricommodityprices.com. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  14. ^ Marlo Lewis (2007-11-12). "Biofuel mandates cause global warming, scientists say". Openmarket.org. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  15. ^ Beckie, Hugh et al (Autumn 2011) GM Canola: The Canadian Experience Farm Policy Journal, Volume 8 Number 8, Autumn Quarter 2011, Retrieved 20 August 2012
  16. ^ O'Brien, R (2008). Fats and Oils Formulating and Processing for Applications, Third Edition: Formulating and Processing for Applications. CRC Press. pp. 37–40. ISBN 1420061666. 
  17. ^ Sahasrabudhe, M. R. (1977). "Crismer values and erucic acid contents of rapeseed oils". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 54 (8): 323–324. doi:10.1007/BF02672436.  edit
  18. ^ a b c "CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21". Food and Drug Administration. 2010-04-01. 
  19. ^ a b The Commission of the European Communities (1980). "Commission Directive 80/891/EEC of 25 July 1980 relating to the Community method of analysis for determining the erucic acid content in oils and fats intended to be used as such for human consumption and foodstuffs containing added oils or fats". EurLex Official Journal 254. 
  20. ^ "Spanish toxic oil syndrome" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  21. ^ Humbert, M.; Nunes, H.; Sitbon, O.; Parent, F.; Hervé, P.; Simonneau, G. (2001). "Risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension". Clinics in chest medicine 22 (3): 459–475. doi:10.1016/S0272-5231(05)70284-7. PMID 11590841.  edit
  22. ^ Chardin, H.; Mayer, C.; sÉnÉChal, H.; Tepfer, M.; Desvaux, F. -X.; Peltre, G. (2001). "Characterization of High-Molecular-Mass Allergens in Oilseed Rape Pollen". International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 125 (2): 128–134. doi:10.1159/000053806. PMID 11435729.  edit
  23. ^ Chardin, H.; Mayer, C.; Senechal, H.; Poncet, P.; Clement, G.; Wal, J. M.; Desvaux, F. X.; Peltre, G. (2003). "Polygalacturonase (pectinase), a new oilseed rape allergen". Allergy 58 (5): 407–411. doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.2003.00094.x. PMID 12752327.  edit
  24. ^ Suh, C. H.; Park, H. S.; Nahm, D. H.; Kim, H. Y. (1998). "Oilseed rape allergy presented as occupational asthma in the grain industry". Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology 28 (9): 1159–1163. PMID 9761021.  edit
  25. ^ Canola, Growing Great 2016, The Canola Council of Canada, 2007, page 3, 10
  26. ^ FAOSTAT. UN Food & Agriculture Organisation.
  27. ^ Alford, David (2008). Biocontrol of Oilseed Rape Pests. Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 1405171561. 
  28. ^ "The www.brassica.info website for the Multinational Brassica Genome Project". 
  29. ^ Hartley, Matt (2008-03-20). "Grain Farmer Claims Moral Victory in Seed Battle Against Monsanto". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2011-08-30. 

External links