اکسید قلع (II)

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اکسید قلع (II)
PbO structure.png
Tin(II) oxide.jpg
Tin(II) oxide hydrate (2).JPG
شناساگرها
شماره ثبت سی‌ای‌اس 21651-19-4 ✔Y
شمارهٔ آرتی‌ئی‌سی‌اس XQ3700000
خصوصیات
فرمول مولکولی SnO
جرم مولی 134.71 g/mol
شکل ظاهری black or red powder when anhydrous white when hydrated
چگالی 6.45 g/cm3
دمای ذوب 1080 °C (decomp)[۱]
انحلال‌پذیری در آب insoluble
ساختار
ساختار بلوری tetragonal
ترموشیمی
56 J·mol−1·K−1[۲]
−285 kJ·mol−1[۲]
خطرات
MSDS ICSC 0956
شاخص ئی‌یو Not listed
نقطه اشتعال Non-flammable
ترکیبات مرتبط
دیگر آنیون‌ها سولفید قلع(II)
سلنید قلع
تلورید قلع
دیگر کاتیون‌ها کربن مونوکسید
مونواکسید سیلیسیم
ژرمانیم مونوکسید
اکسید سرب(II)
مرتبط با قلع اکسید دی‌اکسید قلع
به استثنای جایی که اشاره شده‌است در غیر این صورت، داده‌ها برای مواد به وضعیت استانداردشان داده شده‌اند (در 25 °C (۷۷ °F)، ۱۰۰ kPa)
 ✔Y (بررسی) (چیست: ✔Y/N؟)
Infobox references

اکسید قلع(II) (به انگلیسی: Tin(II) oxide) با فرمول شیمیایی SnO یک ترکیب شیمیایی است. که جرم مولی آن ۱۳۴٫۷۱ g/mol می‌باشد. شکل ظاهری این ترکیب، جامد نارنجی و قرمز است.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

کاربرد در شیشه سازی[ویرایش]

زمانی که اکسید قلع در تولید شیشه مصرف شود، کاملاً در آن نفوذ کرده و با مواد شیمیایی موجود در شیشه واکنش می‌دهد تا آن را از حالت شفاف به مات تغییر دهد. محصول بدست آمده با نام شیشهٔ شیری نیز شناخته می‌شود و دارای کاربرد در محیط‌های مسکونی و تجاری است. استفاده از آن برای تولید لعاب سفید رنگ جهت پوشش دهی ظروف چینی هم مرسوم است.

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Tin and Inorganic Tin Compounds: Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 65, (2005), World Health Organization
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 061894690X.
  • «IUPAC GOLD BOOK». دریافت‌شده در ۱۸ مارس ۲۰۱۲.
Tin(II) oxide
PbO structure.png
Tin(II) oxide.jpg
Tin(II) oxide hydrate (2).JPG
Names
IUPAC name
Tin(II) oxide
Other names
Stannous oxide, tin monoxide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.040.439
EC Number 244-499-5
RTECS number XQ3700000
Properties
SnO
Molar mass 134.709 g/mol
Appearance black or red powder when anhydrous, white when hydrated
Density 6.45 g/cm3
Melting point 1,080 °C (1,980 °F; 1,350 K)[1]
insoluble
−19.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
tetragonal
Thermochemistry
56 J·mol−1·K−1[2]
−285 kJ·mol−1[2]
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0956
Flash point Non-flammable
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
none[3]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 2 mg/m3[3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[3]
Related compounds
Other anions
Tin sulfide
Tin selenide
Tin telluride
Other cations
Carbon monoxide
Silicon monoxide
Germanium(II) oxide
Lead(II) oxide
Related tin oxides
Tin dioxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references

Tin(II) oxide (stannous oxide) is a compound with the formula SnO. It is composed of tin and oxygen where tin has the oxidation state of +2. There are two forms, a stable blue-black form and a metastable red form.

Preparation and reactions

Tin(II) oxide burning

Blue-black SnO can be produced by heating the tin(II) oxide hydrate, SnO·xH2O (x<1) precipitated when a tin(II) salt is reacted with an alkali hydroxide such as NaOH.[4]
Metastable, red SnO can be prepared by gentle heating of the precipitate produced by the action of aqueous ammonia on a tin(II) salt.[4]
SnO may be prepared as a pure substance in the laboratory, by controlled heating of tin(II) oxalate (stannous oxalate) in the absence of air or under a CO2 atmosphere. This method is also applied to the production of ferrous oxide and manganous oxide.[5][6]

SnC2O4·2H2O → SnO + CO2 + CO + 2 H2O

Tin(II) oxide burns in air with a dim green flame to form SnO2.[4]

2 SnO + O2 → 2 SnO2

When heated in an inert atmosphere initially disproportionation occurs giving Sn metal and Sn3O4 which further reacts to give SnO2 and Sn metal.[4]

4SnO → Sn3O4 + Sn
Sn3O4 → 2SnO2 + Sn

SnO is amphoteric, dissolving in strong acid to give tin(II) salts and in strong base to give stannites containing Sn(OH)3.[4] It can be dissolved in strong acid solutions to give the ionic complexes Sn(OH2)32+ and Sn(OH)(OH2)2+, and in less acid solutions to give Sn3(OH)42+.[4] Note that anhydrous stannites, e.g. K2Sn2O3, K2SnO2 are also known.[7][8][9] SnO is a reducing agent and is thought to reduce copper(I) to metallic clusters in the manufacture of so-called "copper ruby glass".[10]

Structure

Black, α-SnO adopts the tetragonal PbO layer structure containing four coordinate square pyramidal tin atoms.[11] This form is found in nature as the rare mineral romarchite.[12] The asymmetry is usually simply ascribed to a sterically active lone pair; however, electron density calculations show that the asymmetry is caused by an antibonding interaction of the Sn(5s) and the O(2p) orbitals.[13]
Non-stoichiometry has been observed in SnO.[14]

The electronic band gap has been measured between 2.5eV and 3eV.[15]

Uses

The dominant use of stannous oxide is as a precursor in manufacturing of other, typically trivalent, tin compounds or salts. Stannous oxide may also be employed as a reducing agent and in the creation of ruby glass.[16] It has a minor use as an esterification catalyst.

Cerium(III) oxide in ceramic form, together with Tin(II) oxide (SnO) is used for illumination with UV light.[17]

References

  1. ^ Tin and Inorganic Tin Compounds: Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 65, (2005), World Health Organization
  2. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.
  3. ^ a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0615". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  4. ^ a b c d e f Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001) Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier ISBN 0-12-352651-5
  5. ^ Satya Prakash (2000),Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: V. 1, S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0263-0
  6. ^ Arthur Sutcliffe (1930) Practical Chemistry for Advanced Students (1949 Ed.), John Murray - London.
  7. ^ The First Oxostannate(II): K2Sn2O3, M Braun, R. Hoppe, Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, 17, 6, 449 - 450, doi:10.1002/anie.197804491
  8. ^ Über Oxostannate(II). III. K2Sn2O3, Rb2Sn2O3 und Cs2Sn2O3 - ein Vergleich, R. M. Braun, R. Hoppe, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, 485, 1, 15 - 22, doi:10.1002/zaac.19824850103
  9. ^ R M Braun R Hoppe Z. Naturforsch. (1982), 37B, 688-694
  10. ^ Bring, T.; Jonson, B.; Kloo, L.; Rosdahl, J; Wallenberg, R. (2007), "Colour development in copper ruby alkali silicate glasses. Part I: The impact of tin oxide, time and temperature", Glass Technology, Eur. J. Glass Science & Technology, Part A, 48 (2): 101–108, ISSN 1753-3546
  11. ^ Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
  12. ^ On type romarchite and hydroromarchite from Boundary Falls, Ontario, and notes on other occurrences, Robert A. Ramik,, Robert M. Organ, Joseph A. Mandarino, The Canadian Mineralogist; June 2003; v. 41; no. 3;. 649-657; doi:10.2113/gscanmin.41.3.649
  13. ^ Electronic structures of rocksalt, litharge, and herzenbergite SnO by density functional theory, A. Walsh, G.W. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235114 (2004)doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.70.235114
  14. ^ Cation nonstoichiometry in tin-monoxide-phase Sn1−δO with tweed microstructure, Moreno, M. S.; Varela, A.; Otero-Díaz, L. C., Physical Review B (Condensed Matter),56, 9,(1997), 5186-5192, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.56.5186
  15. ^ Science and Technology of Chemiresistor Gas Sensors By Dinesh K. Aswal, Shiv K. Gupta (2006), Nova Publishers, ISBN 1-60021-514-9
  16. ^ "Red Glass Coloration - A Colorimetric and Structural Study" By Torun Bring. Pub. Vaxjo University.
  17. ^ "Spectral Studies of New Luminophors for Dental Porcelain" (PDF). Jdr.iadrjournals.org. doi:10.1177/00220345800590090801. Retrieved 2012-04-05.[permanent dead link]