راهنما:الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی فارسی

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آوا همخوان‌ها[۱]
ایران
فارسی
افغانستان
دری
تاجیکستان
تاجیکی
حرف فارسی حرف سیریلیک مثال

(خط‌فارسی)

مثال

(خط‌سیریلیک)

[[|b]] ب б برادر бародар
[[|d]] د д د‫وست‬ дӯст
[[|dʒ]] ج ҷ جوان ҷавон
[[|f]] ف ф فشار фишор
[[|ɡ]] گ г گروه гуруҳ
[[|q]]

[[|ɢ]][۲]

[[|ɣ]] غ
[۳]
ғ باغ боғ
[[|q]] ق қ قلم қалам
[[|h]] ه
ح
ҳ هفت ҳафт
[[|j]] ی й یا ё
[[|k]] ک к کشور кишвар
[[|l]] ل л لب лаб
[[|m]] م м مادر модар
[[|n]] ن н نان нон
[[|p]] ‫پ‬ п ‫پدر‬ пидор
[[|ɾ]] ر р ایران Эрон
[[|r]]
[[|s]] س
ص
ث
с سایه сойа
[[|ʃ]] ‫ش‬ ш ‫شاه‬ шоҳ
[[|t]] ت
ط
т تا то
[[|tʃ]] چ ч چوب чӯб
[[|v]] [[|w]] [[|v]] و в ویژه вижа
[[|x]] خ х خانه хона
[[|z]] ز
ذ
ض
ظ
з آزاد озод
[[|ʒ]] ژ ж ژاله жола
[[|ʔ]] ع
ء
ъ معنا маъно
همخوان‌های حاشیه‌ای
[[|ŋ]] نگ нг رنگ ранг
تکیه
[۴] ایران
[iˈɾɒːn]
Эрон
آوا واکه‌ها
ایران
فارسی
افغانستان
دری
تاجیکستان
تاجیکی
حرف فارسی حرف سیریلیک مثال

(خط‌فارسی)

مثال

(خط‌سیریلیک)

واکه‌های ساده
[[|æ]][۵] َ   ا [۶] а نه на
[[|ɒː]][۷] [[|ɔ]] آ، ا о تا то
[[|e]][۵][۸] [[|i]] ِ   ا [۶] и که ки
[[|iː]] [[|eː]] [[|e]] ی е شیر шер
[[|iː]] [[|i]] ی и شیر шир
[[|o]][۵] [[|u]] ا   ُ   و [۶] у تو ту
[[|uː]] [[|oː]] [[|ɵ]] و ӯ رو рӯ
[[|uː]] [[|u]] و у رو ру
واکه‌های مرکب[۹]
ej[۱۰] æj ی ай کی кай
ow[۱۰][۱۱] æw æw, æv و ав نو нав

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. Persian consonants can be Qqgeminated (doubled), especially in words from زبان عربی. This is represented in IPA by doubling the consonant: [sejjed].
  2. Also an allophone of /[[|x]]/ before voiced consonants.
  3. غ and ق denoted the original Arabic phonemes in Classical Persian, the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] and the voiceless uvular stop [q] (pronounced in Persian as voiced uvular stop [ɢ]), respectively. In the modern Tehrani accent (both colloquial and standard dialects), the phonemes of غ and ق are allophones; when /ɣ/ (spelled either غ or ق) occurs at the beginning or the end of a word, after a consonant and at the end of a syllable, it is realized as a voiced uvular plosive [ɢ]. When /ɢ/ (also spelled either غ or ق) occurs intervocalically, it is realized as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ]. The allophone is probably influenced by Turkic languages like Azeri and Turkmen. The sounds remain distinct in Persian dialects of southern Iran and Eastern Persian dialects (Dari and Tajik).
  4. Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words. For the various exceptions and other clarifications, see Persian phonology § Word accent.
  5. ۵٫۰ ۵٫۱ ۵٫۲ The three short or unstable vowels are actually short only in open, non-final syllables. In other environments, their length is equal to the long vowels (Toosarvandani, Maziar Doustdar (9 November 2004). "Vowel Length in Modern Farsi" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 14 (03): 241–251. doi:10.1017/S1356186304004079.).
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ ۶٫۲ In the modern Persian script, the "short" vowels /æ/, /e/, /o/ are usually not written, like in the Arabic alphabet; only the long vowels /ɒː/, /iː/, /uː/ are represented in the text. That, of course, creates certain ambiguities.
  7. The level of roundedness may vary. Campbell (1995) writes simply /ɔː/, but Majidi & Ternes (1999) describe it as "underrounded" but write /ɒ/ anyway. The vowel may be written as /ɑ/ as well.[۱][۲]
  8. [e] is also a word-final allophone of /æ/ in contemporary Iranian Persian.
  9. The existence and the number of diphthongs in Perisan are disputed (Alamolhoda, Seyyed Morleza (2000). "Phonostatistics and Phonotactics of the Syllable in Modern Persian". Studia Orientalia. 89: 14–15. ISSN 0039-3282.).
  10. ۱۰٫۰ ۱۰٫۱ /aj/ and /aw/ in Dari.
  11. /ou/ becomes [o] in the colloquial Tehrani dialect but is preserved in other Western dialects and standard Eastern Persian.

منابع[ویرایش]