راهنما:الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی فرانسوی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو

جدول‌های زیر الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی (IPA) هستند که روش تلفظ‌های فرانسوی را در مقاله‌های ویکی‌پدیا نشان می‌دهند.

شباهت‌های زبان انگلیسی در بعضی موارد خیلی حدسی هستند، و فقط برای یک آگاهی کلی از تلفظ در نظر گرفته شده‌اند. آواشناسی فرانسوی را برای نگاه دقیق‌تر در صداها ببینید.

زبان فرانسوی هیچ میزان تأکید واژه‌ای ندارد، بنابراین نشان‌های تأکید نباید در آوانویسی واژه‌های فرانسوی به کار رود. اینجا را برای شرح ببینید.

همخوان‌ها
  IPA   Examples English approximation
b beau bow
d doux do
f fête; pharmacie festival
ɡ gain; guerre; second gain
k cabas; psychologie; quatre; kelvin sky
l loup loo
m mou; femme moo
n nous; bonne no
ɲ agneaux roughly like canyon
p passé spy
ʁ roue; rhume[۱] roughly like loch (Scottish English), but it's voiced, more uvular/guttural
s sa; hausse; ce; garçon; option; scie sir
ʃ choux; schème; shampooing shoe
t tout; thé; grand-oncle sty
v vous; wagon; neuf heures view
z hasard; zéro; transit zeal
ʒ joue; geai measure
همخوان‌های غیر بومی
Djakarta; jazz; budget jam
ŋ camping; bingo[۲] camping
Datcha; ciao; sandwich China
x jota; khamsin[۳] loch (Scottish English)
نیم‌واکه‌ها
j fief; payer; fille; travail yes
w oui; loi; moyen; web; whisky; wagon[۴] we
ɥ huit; Puy like yet but with rounded lips.
واکه‌ها
  IPA   Examples English approximation
a patte, là between pat and bra
ɑ pâte; glas[۵] bra
e clé; les; chez; aller; pied; journée hey
ɛ crème; est; faite; peine; best
ɛː fête; mtre; mètre; rtre; reine; caisse; presse; Lemaistre; Lévesque[۶] red
ə le; reposer; monsieur; faisons[۷] again (often elided)
i si; île; régie; y bee
œ sœur; jeune roughly like bird (British English)
ø ceux; jner; queue No English equivalent; rounded /e/
o sot; hôtel; haut; bureau go (Scottish accent)
ɔ sort; minimum hot (British accent)
u coup; clown; roue too
y tu; sûr; rue No English equivalent; rounded /i/
واکه‌های خیشومی
ɑ̃ sans; champ; vent; temps; Jean; taon No English equivalent; nasalized [ɒ] in France
ɛ̃ vin; impair; pain; daim; plein; Reims; synthèse; sympa; bien No English equivalent; nasalized [æ] in France
œ̃ un; parfum[۸] No English equivalent; nasalized [œ]
ɔ̃ son; nom No English equivalent; nasalized [o] in France
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Explanation
ˈ moyen [mwaˈjɛ̃][۹] phrasal stress
. pays [pe.i][۱۰] syllable boundary
les agneaux [lez‿aˈɲo] liaison[۱۱]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. The French rhotic varies from region to region, though it is often uvular, especially in Northern France; the more common pronunciations include a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] and a uvular trill [ʀ] and sometimes [χ] (after voiceless consonants). It can also be a social class marker, a guttural "r" being strongly associated with less educated / working class speakers, and a more rounded[نیازمند شفاف‌سازی], less pronounced "r" (similar to the German rhotic when placed at the end of a word) associated with the upper classes.
  2. In European French, /ŋ/ is often pronounced [ŋɡ].
  3. /x/ may be replaced by /ʁ/.
  4. only in Belgian French
  5. In Metropolitan French, /ɑ/ is often replaced by /a/. The distinction is present in Belgian French and in Quebec French.
  6. Less common in France than formerly (except in syllables with coda [ʁ], [v], [vʁ], [z] or [ʒ], where it may be considered a lengthened allophone of /ɛ/), though still present in the speech of some conservative speakers. /ɛː/ as a phoneme was widely recorded in French dictionaries until the 1960s. However, the two vowels are merged, with [ɛ] acquiring the longer quality of [ɛː] before [ʁ], [z] and [ʒ]. The distinction is present in Belgian French and in Quebec French. In Quebec French, the distinction remains before [v] and [vʁ] (with /ɛː/ being subject to possible diphthongization), despite /ɛ/ being lengthened in this context; thus rêve [ʁaɪ̯v] is not a rhyme with lève [lɛv].
  7. In French, /ə/ is pronounced with some lip rounding ([ɵ̞]); for a number of speakers, it is also more front and may even be phonetically identical to the vowel /œ/. In Metropolitan French, /ə/ is rounded and fronted, making it phonetically identical to /ø/.
  8. In Metropolitan French, the south excepted, /œ̃/ is often replaced by /ɛ̃/.
  9. Stress falls on the last full syllable of a phrase, except in emphatic speech.
  10. Used sparingly.
  11. Latent final consonant is pronounced before a following vowel sound.

پیوندهای بیرونی[ویرایش]