فهرست جشنواره‌ها در ایران

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو

در زیر فهرست جشنواره‌ها در ایران است.

جشنواره های ایرانی[ویرایش]

  • نوروز: کلمه نو به معنای جدید و روز به معنای روز ، پس معنی کلمه نوروز به معنای روز جدید می باشد و زمان جشن آن آغاز بهار می باشد . نوروز اولین روز بهار ( هم چنین اولین روز تقویم ایرانی) از 21 مارس شروع می شود ، که در آن 12 روز به نشانه 12 ماه گذشته ، تمام خانواده های ایرانی گرد هم آیند و از یکدیگر بازدید کنند. هم چنین بهترین زمان برای تجدید احساس مهر ( عشق خالص )است. در نوروز تمام خانواده ها بهترین تجارب خود در سال گذشته و درباره آینده ای روشن و رو به جلو در سال آینده صحبت می کنند و همه آن ها دوباره به صلح و آرامش می رسند. ایرانیان برای نوروز کارهای دیگر می کنند از جمله خانه تکانی (تمیز کردن خانه ).در نوروز هر سال فردی وجود دارد به نام حاجی فیروز ، که در آن فرد که چهره اش سیاه و لباس قرمز می پوشد ، پیاده در اطراف خیابان راه می رود و یک آهنگ خاص می خواند :
  • حاجی فیروزه سالی یک روزه همه میدونن منم میدونم عید نوروز

ارباب خودم سلام علیکم ارباب خودم سرتو بالا کن ارباب خودم منو نگا کن ارباب خودم لطفی به ما کن

ارباب خودم بزبز قندی ارباب خودم چرا نمیخندی؟

بشکن بشکنه بشکن من نمی‌شکنم بشکن اینجا بشکنم یار گله داره اونجا بشکنم یار گله داره این سیاه بیچاره چقدر حوصله داره

  • sofreye haft sin: sofre (tablecloth), haft (seven), sin (the letter S [س]). ابوریحان بیرونی said: haftsin came from jamshid because he destroyed the evil that made pars lands weak so in first day of Iranian calendar people called it nowruz (starting of a new day) and they put 7 different beans on their table as a sign of thanking nature for giving humans all they need. Since then every year Iranians put haftsin on their tables, but nowadays they put 7 things that start with letter [س]. Some people also believe that sasanian had a very beautiful plate that was given to them from China and they called it chini plate, and after some years the word chini changed into sini (a beautiful plate) so people would put 7 things in a sini.
  • سیزده‌به‌در: Persian Festival of "Joy and Solidarity". The 13th and last day of Nowruz celebration. Because of the end of twelve days (a sample of twelve month) they celebrate the 13th day as a new beginning of the next twelve month and it has no relations with the number 13 (as an unlucky number). It is celebrated outdoors along with the beauty of nature. Al-Bīrūnī also called this day: tir ruz: blissed day.
  • مهرگان: Festival of Mehr (or Mihr). A day of thanksgiving. It is a day which everyone show the mehr or the love they have for each other and it is one of the most important days in the year.
  • جشن سده: A mid-winter feast to honor fire and to "defeat the forces of darkness, frost and cold" in which people gather around and build a fire so that they can receive good things from the fire and give the fire their incompleteness.
  • شب یلدا: The turning point. End of the longest night (darkness) of the year, and beginning of growing of the days (Lights). A celebration of Good over Evil. Also known as شب یلدا they have special nuts for that night.
  • اسفندگان: Day of Love, Friendship and Earth in ancient Persian culture.
  • چهارشنبه‌سوری: Festival of Fire, last Tuesday night in the Iranian Calendar year. It marks the importance of the light over the darkness, arrival of spring and revival of nature. People do different things in this day: they build a fire and they jump over it, they eat different beans and day do: ghashogh zani: all the girls wear chadors in a way that no one can recognize them and they start tapping on a dish with spoon around midnight in the streets, awaken other people until they are paid or is given something such as candy. It is truly one of the funniest nights of the year.

Zoroastrian[ویرایش]

نوشتار(های) وابسته: Zoroastrian calendar

The basis of nearly all of Iranian national festivals are from its Pre-Islamic Zoroastrian era. However, there are some festivals that are celebrated exclusively by Zoroastrians and some with less extent in other communities too.

  • khordadgan: celebration of the 6th day of Iranian calender. Khoordad is one of the ezadans name which means completeness. In this day people used to go near the river or a sea to thank God for everything and they gave each other flowers as a sign of happiness.
  • بهمنگان: Also maintained by Iranian Muslims until the Mongol invasion. The festival was celebrated on the second day of the month of Bahman. Bahmanjana is a later modified form of Bahmanagān.
  • اسفندگان or Esfandgan- the day of love
  • Farvardingân: Festival of the فروهر ('guardian angels').
  • جشن سده: Festival of Fire. Lit. the 100th day (before Nowruz).
  • مهرگان: Festival of Mihr (or Mehr). A day of thanksgiving dedicated to the highest Angel, Mithra (c.f. متاترون).
  • تیرگان: Festival of Tir. A day dedicated to تیشتر, Angel of the star Sirius and rain. Also celebrated in some Muslims regions up this day including استان مازندران.
  • نوروز: New Year's Day. March (first day of Spring).
  • Xordâd Sâl (زادروز زرتشت): Birthday of the Prophet زرتشت.
  • مرگ زرتشت: Anniversary commemorating the death of the Prophet Zarathushtra.
  • Azargan
  • Abanigan

Islamic[ویرایش]

  • رمضان (Ramazan in Iran): Iranian have special recipes as Zoolbia-Bamieh, Shole Zard, Ferni, Halva and Ash Reshteh in Ramezan.
  • عید فطر or Eid e Fetr: "The Festival of Fast-Breaking" which comes at the end of Ramadan. People give gifts and money to poor people, patients and the handicapped.
  • عاشورا: Shi'a Muslims observe the day in mourning for Hussein and in remembrance of his martyrdom. In Iran, Iranians perform Ta'zieh, the old Iranian dramatic parade (post Islamic era). There exists also a rather special recipe for some special drinks in this festival. Many people cook something and offer it to their neighbors as gifts.
  • حجت بن حسن (مهدی): celebration for the twelfth and final Shi'a Imam. The festival consists of some fireworks and decorating the cities with lights, bulbs and trees.
  • شب قدر: the "Night of Qadr" towards the end of Ramadan, which is when the first verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad. Iranian stay awake the nights and light candles.
  • عید قربان: "The Festival of Sacrifice". In Iran, Iranian sacrifice sheeps and offer the meat to neighbors and also poor people for free. There is also a barbecue in almost every house.
نوشتار(های) وابسته: Islamic calendar

Christian[ویرایش]

Majority of Iranian Christians are ارمنی‌های ایرانs also known as Parska-Hye who follow Oriental Orthodox branch of Christianity. This minority has their very own special festivals and traditions.

Iran has an over-whelmingly Muslim population but the Christian Community has a visible presence. During Christmas times, Christmas Trees can be seen from Windows in Tehran and north-western provinces. Although Christmas has an official recognition in Iran, it is not a national holiday.

Jewish[ویرایش]

  • پوریم
  • Illanout (tree festival) Celebrated in February, it is identical to شب یلدا and is a lot more elaborate, reminiscence of the pre-Islamic celebrations
  • پسح, lit. Night of the Year: The night of the end of Passover, when chametz can once again be eaten. It is usually celebrated with many types of breads and dairy items. This festival is unique to یهودیان ایران, and is not celebrated in this way by most other Jews.

Unofficial[ویرایش]

Bibliography[ویرایش]

  • Shirzad Aghaee, Nouruz - Berliyan-negin-e jashnha-yi irani va digar jashnha va jashn-aiyinha-yi mardomi-yi iran (نوروز and other Iranian National Festivals), Stockholm, Sweden, 2002.
  • Festivals in Encycloapedia Iranica

منابع[ویرایش]