بازداشت به اتهام جاسوسی[ویرایش]
رضاییان به عنوان خبرنگار واشینگتن پست در دفتر تهران این روزنامه مشغول به کار بود. او و همسرش یگانه صالحی که وی نیز روزنامهنگار است توسط مقامات ایرانی از تاریخ ۲۲ ژوئیه ۲۰۱۴ در بازداشت قرار گرفتهاست. او در آمریکا متولد و بزرگ شدهاست و تابعیت دوگانه ایرانی و آمریکایی دارد. غلامحسین اسماعیلی، رئیس دادگستری استان تهران، چند روز پس از بازداشت رضائیان اظهار داشت که او «برای پاسخ به برخی سوالات بازداشت شده» است. وزارت امور خارجه ایالات متحده آمریکا، یک هفته پس از بازداشت رضاییان، خواستار آزادی او شد. سخنگوی این وزارتخانه، جن ساکی، از کشور سوئیس خواستهاست تا «به عنوان حافظ منافع آمریکا در ایران، پیگیری پرونده جیسون رضائیان، خبرنگار روزنامه واشینگتن پست و همسرش را بر عهده بگیرد».
همسر جیسون رضاییان، یگانه صالحی، که عکاس خبری روزنامه انگلیسیزبان «نشنال» بود و در ابوظبی کار میکرد، به قید کفالت آزاد شدهاست. این زوج، به همراه خبرنگار دیگری دستگیر شده بودند که او هم در حال حاضر آزاد شدهاست. دویچهوله فارسی مینویسد که «با وجود گذشت بیش از چهار ماه از بازداشت جیسون رضاییان او هنوز رسماً تفهیم اتهام نشدهاست». این خبرگزاری همچنین مینویسد که «او در بخشی از زندان اوین که زیر کنترل سپاه پاسداران ایران است»، نگهداری میشود. بنا به گفته دیدبان حقوق بشر، به وکیل او اجازهٔ دفاع و ارتباط با موکلش داده نشدهاست. همچنین بنا به گفتهٔ همین منبع، با اینکه رضائیان توانایی خواندن و نوشتن به زبان فارسی را ندارد، مترجمی هم در اختیار وی قرار داده نشدهاست. همچنین دویچهوله مینویسد که خبر بازداشت او در رسانههای ایرانی بازتاب داده نشدهاست، چرا که اطلاعرسانی دربارهٔ زندانیان سیاسی و امنیتی در ایران «ممنوع» است.
سازمان دیدبان حقوق بشر هم در روز سوم دسامبر ۲۰۱۴ اطلاعیهای منتشر کردهاست و در آن اظهار داشته که «نگران است که خانوادههای یگانه صالحی و جیسون رضاییان توسط مقامهای ایران تحت فشار قرار گرفتهاند تا با رسانهها گفتگو نکنند و دربارهٔ شرایط بازداشت ادامهدار جیسون رضاییان اطلاعرسانی نکنند».
مهمترین اتهامات ضدامنیتی رضاییان، نفوذ در اماکن مهم دولتی و افشای برنامههای «ضدتحریمی ایران» از جمله هویت واسطههای تجاری و ماهیت شرکتهای همکار ایران در پروسه دور زدن تحریمها و جاسوسی از برنامه هستهای ایران است.
حمید رسایی نماینده مردم تهران در مجلس معتقد است:
یازده تن از نمایندگان مجلس طی تذکری به مصطفی پورمحمدی وزیر دادگستری، کسب اطلاعات وسیع از جیسون رضائیان را باعث نگرانی از خطر نفوذیها و از طرفی باعث اطمینانخاطر از هوشیاری و بیداری دستگاهها و سازمانهای اطلاعاتی و امنیتی دانسته و خواستار اطلاعرسانی جامع شدهاند.
کیفرخواست جیسون فروردین ماه ۱۳۹۴ از سوی دادستانی تهران صادر شد که وی را به جاسوسی از طریق جمعآوری تصمیمات کشوری در خصوص مسائل سیاست داخلی و خارجی و قراردادن آن در اختیار افراد غیر صالح متهم کردهاست. سردار نقدی رئیس بسیج مستضعفان درخصوص جیسون رضاییان گفتهاست او تا عمق خانه برخی از مسئولان تراز اول نفوذداشت و حتی عکسهای خانوادگی آنها را در اختیار داشت این گفته هنگامی اهمیت بیشتر پیدا میکند که غلامحسین محسنی اژهای، سخنگوی قوه قضاییه ایران، اظهار میدارد؛ آزادی جیسون رضاییان، خبرنگار روزنامه واشینگتن پست، به معنای بسته شدن این پرونده نیست و افزود که «مهم این است بفهمیم طرف در حال چه کاری بوده و پرونده مرتبطین رضائیان بسته نشدهاست.»
در ۲۶ دی ۱۳۹۴ و همزمان با حضور وزرای خارجه ایران و آمریکا در وین به منظور قرائت بیانیهٔ اجرایی شدن برجام، دادستان عمومی و انقلاب تهران اعلام کرد که در راستای مصوبات شورای عالی امنیت ملی ایران و مصالح کلی نظام، چهار زندانی ایرانی دو تابعیتی ظرف روز جاری (شنبه) در چارچوب مبادله زندانیان آزاد شدند. در همین حال، برخی منابع خبری از جمله خبرگزاری فارس وابسته به سپاه پاسداران گزارش دادند که جیسون رضائیان خبرنگار واشینگتن پست و سعید عابدینی در میان آزاد شدگان هستند.
Jason Rezaian (Persian: جیسون رضائیان) is an Iranian-American journalist who served as Tehran bureau chief for The Washington Post. He was convicted of espionage in a closed-door trial in Iran in 2015.
On July 22, 2014, Iranian authorities raided the Tehran residence of Rezaian and his wife, Yeganeh Salehi, and took the couple into custody. While Salehi – also a journalist – was released on October 6, Rezaian remained in custody at Evin Prison, a detention center in Tehran known for housing political prisoners and intellectuals. After nine months, it was made public on April 20, 2015, that Iranian authorities had indicted him on four charges, including espionage and "propaganda against the establishment". His trial began on May 26, 2015. His conviction was announced on October 11, 2015. On Nov. 22, 2015, Iranian officials said he had been sentenced to a prison term, the length of which was not disclosed. On January 16, 2016, it was announced that he had been released.
Rezaian was born March 15, 1976, and raised in Marin County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. He attended Wheaton Central High School in Wheaton, Illinois, in his freshman and sophomore years from 1990 to 1992, before transferring to Marin Academy in San Rafael, California, where he got his high school diploma. He holds both American and Iranian citizenship. His late father, Taghi, emigrated to the U.S. from Iran in 1959; and belonged to a Shia family who were caretakers of the Shia shrine in Mashhad, Iran. His mother, Mary (née Breme), originally from Chicago, moved from the U.S. to Turkey following her husband's death. His mother was an Evangelical Christian and he has one brother.
Rezaian had been based in Iran as a journalist since 2009. Before becoming the Post's Tehran correspondent in 2012, he wrote for other publications such as the San Francisco Chronicle and Monocle. His wife, Yeganeh Salehi, is an Iranian citizen who is a correspondent for The National, a newspaper based in the United Arab Emirates. After Salehi was arrested, her press credentials were revoked.
Rezaian was the 2016 recipient of the McGill Medal for Journalistic Courage from the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication.
Arrest and detention
On the night of July 22, 2014, Iranian government security forces raided Rezaian's Tehran residence and arrested him and his wife. The agents reportedly confiscated laptops, books, and notes. In a separate raid that night, security forces also arrested a female photojournalist and her husband, both American citizens. The Washington Post first reported news of the arrests on July 24. On July 25, Tehran Justice Department head Gholam-Hossein Esmaili confirmed the arrests. Esmaili said, "We are now in the investigation phase. I think we will be able to provide more information after technical investigation and questioning." He did not say why they had been arrested. He added, "The security forces have the whole country under surveillance and control the activities of enemies. They will not permit our country to become a land where our enemies and their agents carry out their activities."
The photojournalist and her husband were released within weeks, while Rezaian's wife, Salehi, was released on bail on October 6. Iranian authorities did not disclose Rezaian's whereabouts or welfare, nor did they reveal the circumstances surrounding the couple's arrest and subsequent detention. Officials from the Iranian judiciary and Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance have reportedly told journalists that the case is "security"-related and investigating it "is dangerous".
On December 7, the U.S. State Department announced Rezaian had been charged by an Iranian court with unspecified offenses. According to State, he was denied bail, he has not been allowed to speak with his attorney, and the Iranian government has repeatedly denied requests by Secretary John Kerry for consular services via the Swiss Embassy, the U.S. protecting power in Iran. In a statement, Kerry reiterated calls to release Rezaian, as well as Amir Hekmati, Saeed Abedini, and Robert Levinson – three other Americans also detained in Iran as of that date.
On January 15, 2015, an Iranian prosecutor told state media that Rezaian would stand trial in Iran in a Revolutionary Court on unspecified charges. A few weeks later on February 1, his family announced the case would be heard by Judge Abolghassem Salavati, a controversial figure in the Iranian court system known for handing down harsh sentences (including extensive prison terms, lashings, and death) to political prisoners and those regarded as a threat to national security. On March 1, after more than seven months in detainment, Rezaian was granted permission to hire a court-approved attorney.
On April 20, 2015, The Washington Post reported that Iranian authorities were charging Rezaian with espionage and three other serious crimes, including "collaborating with hostile governments" and "propaganda against the establishment." The statement, issued from Tehran by his attorney Leilah Ahsan, was provided to the Post by the family of the imprisoned reporter.
Rezaian's trial began on May 26, 2015 at Branch 15 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court. The proceedings were not open to the public. According to his brother, Ali Rezaian, the Iranian government rested its accusations on two pieces of evidence: an American visa application for Jason's wife, Yeganeh Salehi, and a form letter sent to Barack Obama's 2008 White House transition team offering assistance in improving Iran-U.S. relations. On October 12, the Washington Post said that Rezaian had been convicted. On Nov. 22, a spokesman for the Iranian judiciary said Jason had been "sentenced" to "prison", but did not provide further details.
Six weeks before their arrests, Rezaian and Salehi were filmed for the CNN docuseries Parts Unknown, where they had discussed Iranian culture and their heritage with host Anthony Bourdain. In writing for The Washington Post, Bourdain expressed shock over the couple's detention, stating: "These are good people, much loved and admired all over the world. I am, unfortunately, growing used to seeing bad things happening to good people. But this I can’t get used to, or ever understand. This wonderful couple is a danger to no one. They are nobody’s enemy. They are without blame or malice."
A column in Vatan-e-Emrooz, a Persian newspaper "close to the security establishment", has accused Rezaian of directing and distributing "Happy Iranians", a tribute video of the Pharrell Williams song "Happy", which was controversial in Iran and led to arrests of the participants. The column also alleged that Rezaian and his wife were American spies and might be acting as a liaison for the U.S.-based National Iranian American Council lobbying group. According to Agence France-Presse, such allegations were unsubstantiated. In writing for The New Yorker, journalist Laura Secor asserted the "recognizably trumped-up charges" were "both patently absurd and entirely run-of-the-mill for Iran."
Some sources believe the timing of the arrest and subsequent announcements of Rezaian's legal status were calculated to influence Iran's president, Hassan Rouhani, in nuclear proliferation talks with the United States. The New York Times noted that Rezaizan "may be serving as a pawn" in an internal Iranian struggle between reformers like Rouhani and hard-liners.
In July 2015, journalist Major Garrett made headlines when he asked President Obama during a press conference why he was "content" with the Iran Nuclear Deal that left four Americans trapped in Iran, referring to Rezaian and three others (Amir Mirza Hekmati, Saeed Abedini, and Robert Levinson). Obama admonished Garrett by responding, "I’ve got to give you credit, Major, for how you craft those questions. The notion that I am 'content' as I celebrate with American citizens languishing in Iranian jails, Major, that’s nonsense, and you should know better. Now, if the question is why we did not tie the negotiations to their release, think about the logic that creates. Suddenly, Iran realizes, 'You know what? Maybe we can get additional concessions out of the Americans by holding these individuals.'"
Reporters Without Borders stated that, "Rezaian is the victim of a power struggle between different government factions. He is being used by a regime which, since 1979, has often exchanged foreign detainees (or those with dual nationality) for Iranian agents held in other countries." RWB also revealed that it found the evidence cited in the written indictment consisted solely of Rezaian's personal and professional emails, from which phrases had been taken out of context.
Campaigns for his release
There were several international campaigns for his release. His case was a centerpiece of the Press Uncuffed campaign by Dana Priest and her students at the Philip Merrill School of Journalism at the University of Maryland in collaboration with the Committee to Protect Journalists. Rezaian's wife and mother wore Press Uncuffed bracelets during a visit to the prison where Rezaian was being held. Ali Rezaian, Jason's brother, led a Change.org petition that more than 530,000 people from around the world signed; he and a group of supporters hand delivered it to the Iranian consulate on December 3, 2015.
United States Senate
(This measure has not been amended since it was introduced. The summary of that version is repeated here.)
States that it is U.S. policy that: (1) the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran should immediately release Saeed Abedini, Amir Hekmati, and Jason Rezaian, and cooperate with the U.S. government to locate and return Robert Levinson; and (2) the U.S. government should undertake every effort using every diplomatic tool at its disposal to secure their release.
On January 16, 2016, it was announced that Rezaian had been released from Iran along with three other United States prisoners. On the same day of his release, America delivered $400 million in frozen accounts to Iran.