مسابقات کاندیداتوری شطرنج

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو

مسابقات کاندیداتوری شطرنج مسابقاتی است که از سال ۱۹۵۰ از طرف فیده پایه‌گذاری شده است. طی این رقابت‌ها یک نفر برای انتخاب رویارویی مستقیم با قهرمان شطرنج جهان قبلی انتخاب می‌شود. امروزه این مسابقات هر دو سال یکبار برگزار می‌شود.

نتایج[ویرایش]

مسابقات بین سالهای ۱۹۴۸ تا ۱۹۹۶[ویرایش]


سال Interzonal Format Interzonal Qualifiers Seeded into Candidates Candidates Format Candidates Winner(s) Seeded in Final Championship Final
1948 None In 1946–1947, FIDE decided that six شطرنج‌باز would participate to a tournament.
FIDE selected Keres and Fine as the winners of the AVRO 1938 chess tournament which had been recognized as a Candidates tournament for the championship. رشفسکی was selected as multiple champion of the USA, بتوینیک as Soviet champion, Euwe as former world champion and اسمیسلوف was selected because he was one of the few Soviet grandmasters.
Fine withdrew from the 1948 tournament.
۵ شطرنج‌باز،
بتوینیک، اسمیسلوف، Keres, رشفسکی، Euwe
لاهه/ مسکو ۱۹۴۸
quintuple round robin,
۱. بتوینیک ۱۴ / ۲۰
۲. اسمیسلوف ۱۱
3. -4. Keres, رشفسکی ۱۰½
5. Euwe ۴
1948–51 Saltsjöbaden (استکهلم) 1948
۲۰ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 8 qualified
1. Bronstein, 2. Szabo, 3. Boleslavsky, 4. Kotov, 5. Lilienthal,
6. -9. Najdorf, Ståhlberg, (Bondarevsky[۱]), Flohr
اسمیسلوف، Keres
(Euwe, Fine, رشفسکی)
بوداپست 1950
۱۰ شطرنج‌باز،
double round robin

1. -2. Boleslavsky, Bronstein
۳. اسمیسلوف؛ 4. Keres
Bronstein
(برنده playoff match against Boleslavsky)
بتوینیک (1948 champion) مسکو ۱۹۵۱
24 games match
Drawn 12–12,
بتوینیک retained title
1952–54 Saltsjöbaden (Stockholm) 1952
۲۱ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 8 qualified
1. Kotov, 2. -3. Taimanov, Petrosian, 4. Geller,
5. -8. Averbakh, Ståhlberg, Szabo, Gligorić
Bronstein, Boleslavsky, اسمیسلوف، Keres, رشفسکی، Najdorf,[۲] Euwe[۳] Zürich 1953
۱۵ شطرنج‌باز،
double round robin
۱. اسمیسلوف
2. -4. Bronstein, Keres, رشفسکی
اسمیسلوف بتوینیک (1951 champion) مسکو ۱۹۵۴
24 games match
Drawn 12–12,
بتوینیک retained title
1955–57 یوتبری 1955
۲۱ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 9 qualified
1. Bronstein, ۲. Keres, 3. Panno, 4. Petrosian, 5. -6. Geller, Szabo, 7-9. Filip, Pilnik, Spassky اسمیسلوف Amsterdam 1956
۱۰ شطرنج‌باز،
double round robin
۱. اسمیسلوف
2. Keres
اسمیسلوف بتوینیک (1954 champion) مسکو ۱۹۵۷
اسمیسلوف برنده ۱۲½–۹½
1958 Rematch بتوینیک، اسمیسلوف مسکو ۱۹۵۸
بتوینیک برنده
۱۲½–۱۰½
1958–60 Portorož ۱۹۵۸
۲۱ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 6 qualified
1. Tal, 2. Gligorić,
3. -4. Petrosian, Benko,
5. -6. Olafsson, Fischer
اسمیسلوف، Keres یوگسلاوی[۴] 1959
۸ شطرنج‌باز، quadruple round robin
1. Tal; 2. Keres;
3. Petrosian;
۴. اسمیسلوف
Tal بتوینیک (1958 champion) مسکو ۱۹۶۰
Tal برنده ۱۲½–۸½
1961 Rematch بتوینیک، Tal مسکو ۱۹۶۱
بتوینیک برنده ۱۳–۸
1962–63 استکهلم 1962
۲۳ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 6 qualified
1. Fischer,
2. -3. Geller, Petrosian,
4. -5. Korchnoi, Filip,
6. -8. Stein*, Benko[۵]
Tal, Keres کوراسائو 1962
۸ شطرنج‌باز، quadruple round robin
1. Petrosian;
2. Keres;[۶] 3. Geller; 4. Fischer
Petrosian بتوینیک (1961 champion) مسکو ۱۹۶۳
Petrosian برنده
۱۲½–۹½
1964–66 آمستردام 1964
۲۴ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 6 qualified
۱. -۴. اسمیسلوف، Larsen, Spassky, Tal,
5. Stein*, 6. Bronstein*,
7. Ivkov,
8. -9. Portisch[۷]
Keres, (بتوینیک), Geller ۱۹۶۵:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches

Semi-finals:
Spassky beat Geller
Tal beat Larsen
Spassky
beat Tal in the final
Petrosian (1963 champion) مسکو ۱۹۶۶
Petrosian برنده
۱۲½–۱۱½
1967–69 سوسه 1967
۲۳ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 6 qualified
1. Larsen,
2. -4. Korchnoi, Geller, Gligorić,
5. Portisch,
۶. -۸. رشفسکی[۸]
Spassky, Tal ۱۹۶۸:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches
Semi-finals:
Korchnoi beat Tal
Spassky beat Larsen
Spassky
beat Korchnoi in the final
Petrosian (1966 champion) مسکو ۱۹۶۹
Spassky برنده
۱۲½–۱۰½
1970–72 پالما ده مایورکا 1970
۲۴ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin, 6 qualified
1. Fischer,
2. -4. Larsen, Geller, Hübner, 5. -6. Taimanov, Uhlmann
Petrosian, Korchnoi ۱۹۷۱:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches
Semi-finals: Petrosian beat Korchnoi
Fischer beat Larsen
Fischer
beat Petrosian in the final
Spassky (1969 champion) ریکیاویک 1972
Fischer برنده ۱۲½–۸½
1973–75 ۱۹۷۳:
Two 18 شطرنج‌باز، single round robin Interzonals; 3 qualified from each
سن پترزبورگ 1973:
1. -2. Korchnoi, کارپف،
3. Byrne;
Spassky, Petrosian ۱۹۷۴:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches

Semi-finals: Korchnoi beat Petrosian
کارپف beat Spassky
کارپف
beat Korchnoi in the final
Fischer (1972 champion) ۱۹۷۵:
کارپف برنده on forfeit
Petropolis 1973:
1.Mecking,
2. -4. : Portisch,
Polugaevsky[۹]
1976–78 ۱۹۷۶:
Two 20 شطرنج‌باز، single round robin Interzonals; 3 qualified from each
بیل/بین 1976:
1. Larsen,
2. -4. Petrosian, Portisch[۱۰]
Korchnoi, (Fischer), Spassky ۱۹۷۷–۷۸:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches

Semi-finals: Korchnoi beat Polugaevsky
Spassky beat Portisch
Korchnoi
beat Spassky in the final (1977–78)
کارپف (1975 champion) باگیو 1978
کارپف برنده ۶–۵
پس از ۳۲ بازی
(draws not counting)
مانیل 1976:
1. Mecking,
2. -3. Polugaevsky, Hort
1979–81 ۱۹۷۹:
Two 18 شطرنج‌باز، single round robin Interzonals; 3 qualified from each
ریگا 1979:
1. -2. Tal, Polugaevsky,
3. -4. Adorján;[۱۱]
Korchnoi, Spassky ۱۹۸۰:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches

Semi-finals: Korchnoi beat Polugaevsky
Hübner beat Portisch
Korchnoi
beat Hübner in the final
کارپف (1978 champion) مرانو 1981
کارپف برنده ۶–۲
after 18 games
(draws not counting)
ریو دو ژانیرو 1979:
1. -3. Portisch, Petrosian, Hübner
1982–85 ۱۹۸۲:
Three 14 شطرنج‌باز، single round robin Interzonals; 2 qualified from each
لاس پالماس 1982:
1. Ribli, 2. اسمیسلوف;
Korchnoi, Hübner ۱۹۸۳–۸۴:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches

Semi-finals: Kasparov beat Korchnoi
اسمیسلوف beat Ribli
Kasparov
beat اسمیسلوف in the final (1984)
کارپف (1981 champion) مسکو ۱۹۸۴–۸۵
Unlimited match abandoned after 48 games with کارپف leading 5–3
(draws not counting)
تولوکا 1982:
1. -2. Portisch, Torre
1985 مسکو ۱۹۸۲:
1. Kasparov,
2. Beliavsky;
replay: کارپف، Kasparov مسکو ۱۹۸۵
24 games match
Kasparov برنده replay 13–11
1986 Rematch کارپف

کاسپارف

London/لنین‌گراد ۱۹۸۶
Kasparov برنده ۱۲½–۱۱½
1985–87 ۱۹۸۵:
Three 16–18 شطرنج‌باز، single round robin Interzonals; 4 qualified from each
بیل/بین 1985:
1. Vaganian, 2. Seirawan, 3. Sokolov,
4. -6. Short;[۱۲]
Korchnoi, Ribli, اسمیسلوف، Spassky[۱۳] (seeded in tournament)

کارپف (seeded in 1987 final)
مون‌پلیه 1985:
۱۶ شطرنج‌باز،
single round robin tournament,

1. -3. Yusupov, Sokolov, Vaganian,
4. -5. Timman[۱۴]
Linares 1987:
کارپف
beat matches winner (Sokolov) in the final.
Kasparov (1985 champion) سویا (شهر) 1987
24 games match
Drawn 12–12,
Kasparov retained title
Taxco 1985:
1. Timman,
2. Nogueiras,
3. Tal, 4. Spraggett;
تونس (شهر) 1985:
1. Yusupov, 2. Beliavsky, 3. Portisch,
4. -5. Chernin[۱۵]
۱۹۸۶: ۴ شطرنج‌باز played two rounds of matches: Yusupov beat Timman; Sokolov beat Vaganian and Yusupov.
1987–90 ۱۹۸۷:
Three 17–18 شطرنج‌باز، single round robin Interzonals; 3 qualified from each
سوبتیتسا 1987:
1. -3. Sax, Short, Speelman;
Sokolov, Timman, Vaganian, Yusupov,
Spraggett[۱۳]

کارپف (seeded in second round)
۱۹۸۸: ۱۴ شطرنج‌باز played one round of matches,

۱۹۸۹: کارپف joined winners in quarter finals

نیمه‌نهایی(۱۹۸۹):
کارپف beat Yusupov
Timman beat Speelman
کارپف
beat Timman in the final (1990)
Kasparov (1987 champion) New York/لیون 1990
Kasparov برنده
۱۲½–۱۱½
Szirák 1987:
1. -2. Salov, Hjartarson,
3. -4. Portisch;[۱۶]
زاگرب 1987:
1. Korchnoi,
2. -3. Seirawan, Ehlvest
1990–93 مانیل 1990
۶۴ شطرنج‌باز Swiss, 11 qualified
1. -2. Gelfand, Ivanchuk,
3. -4. Anand, Short,
5. -11. Sax, Korchnoi, Hübner, Nikolić, Yudasin, Dolmatov, Dreev
Timman, Yusupov, Speelman

کارپف (seeded in second round)
۱۹۹۱: ۱۴ شطرنج‌باز، played one round of matches,

۱۹۹۱: کارپف joined winners in quarter-finals

نیمه‌نهایی(۱۹۹۲):
Short beat کارپف
Timman beat Yusupov
Short
beat Timman in the final (1993)
Kasparov (1990 champion) London September–October 1993:
Kasparov defeated Short 13–8 under the auspices of the PCA;
Netherlands[۱۷] /جاکارتا[۱۸] September–November 1993: کارپف defeated Timman 12½–۸½ under the auspices of فیده
1993–95 (PCA) Groningen December 1993
۵۴ شطرنج‌باز Swiss, 7 qualified
1. -2. Adams, Anand,
3. -7. Kamsky, Kramnik, Tiviakov, Gulko, Romanishin
Short ۱۹۹۴–۹۵:
۸ شطرنج‌باز، matches
Semi-finals:
Kamsky beat Short
Anand beat Adams
Anand
beat Kamsky in the final (1995)
Kasparov (1993 PCA champion) New York
September–October 1995
20 games match
Kasparov برنده ۱۰½–۷½
1993–96 (FIDE) بیل/بین July 1993
۷۳ شطرنج‌باز Swiss, 10 qualified
1. Gelfand,
2. -9. Van der Sterren, Kamsky, Khalifman, Adams, Yudasin, Salov, Lautier, Kramnik,
10. -15. Anand[۱۹]
Timman, Yusupov ۱۹۹۴: ۱۲ شطرنج‌باز played two rounds of matches. نیمه‌نهایی (فوریه ۱۹۹۵):
کارپف beat Gelfand,
Kamsky beat Salov
الیستا 1996
20 games match
کارپف برنده ۱۰½–۷½
کارپف (seeded in the semi-finals) ۱۹۹۵: کارپف joined winners (Gelfand, Kamsky, Salov) in the semi-finals.

۱۹۹۷–۲۰۰۶[ویرایش]

After 1996, interzonals ceased to exist, but FIDE continued to organize qualifying zonal tournaments.

Classical championships (1998–2004)
سال Candidates format Seeded into Candidates Candidates Winner(s) Seeded in Final Championship Final
1998 (Classical) کاسرلا, May–June 1998
10-game match
Kramnik, Shirov
(on rating)[۲۰]
Shirov برنده ۵½–۳½ Kasparov
(1995 champion)
Match never took place
2000 (Classical) None Two شطرنج‌باز seeded in final:

Kasparov (1995 champion); Kramnik (on rating)[۲۱]
London: October-
November 2000
16-game match
Kramnik برنده ۸½–۶½
2002–2004 (Classical) Dortmund July 2002
preliminaries: two four شطرنج‌باز double round robins;
Semi-finals: the first from each group met the second from the other group in mini-matches
Preliminaries:[۲۲]
group 1: 1. Shirov, 2.Topalov, 3.Gelfand, 4.Lutz
group 2: 1.Bareev, 2.Leko, 3.Adams, 4.Morozevich

Semi-finals:
Leko beat Shirov and Topalov beat Bareev.
Leko
(beat Topalov in the final)
Kramnik
(2000 classical champion)
Brissago:
September–October 2004
14-game match
drawn 7–7,
Kramnik retained title
FIDE championships (1997–2005)
سال Candidates format Seeded into Candidates Finalists Championship Final
1997–1998 (FIDE) Groningen
December 1997,
7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament
۱۰۰ شطرنج‌باز،[۲۳]
Quarter-finalists:
Adams, Van Wely, Short, Krasenkov, Gelfand, Dreev, Anand and Shirov.[۲۴]
Anand (beat Adams in candidates final)
کارپف (1996 FIDE champion)
لوزان:
January 1998
6-game match
Drawn 3–3;
کارپف برنده rapid playoff 2–0
1999 (FIDE) Las Vegas
July–August 1999,
7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament
۱۰۰ شطرنج‌باز،[۲۵]
Quarter-finalists:
Kramnik, Adams, Movsesian, Akopian, Shirov, Nisipeanu, Khalifman, J. Polgar[۲۶]
Semi-finals:
Khalifman beat Nisipeanu,
Akopian beat Adams
Las Vegas 1999
6-game match
Khalifman برنده ۳½–۲½
2000 (FIDE) دهلی نو (6 rounds)/final in Tehran
November–December 2000
7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament with final match played in Tehran
۱۰۰ شطرنج‌باز،[۲۷]
Quarter-finalists:
Anand, Khalifman, Adams, Topalov, Tkachiev, Grischuk, Shirov and Bareev[۲۸]
Semi-finals:
Anand beat Adams,
Shirov beat Grischuk
Tehran
December 2000
6-game match
Anand برنده ۳½–½
2001–2002 (FIDE) مسکو
November–December 2001
7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament with relatively quick time controls
۱۲۸ شطرنج‌باز،[۲۹]
Quarter-finalists:
Anand, Shirov, Ivanchuk, Lautier, Svidler, Gelfand, Ponomariov and Bareev
Semi-finals:
Ponomariov beat Svidler,
Ivanchuk beat Anand
مسکو
January 2002
8-game match
Ponomariov برنده ۴½–۲½[۳۰]
2004 (FIDE) طرابلس
June–July 2004
7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament with relatively quick time controls
۱۲۸ شطرنج‌باز،[۳۱]
Quarter-finalists:
Topalov, Kharlov, Kasimdzhanov, Grischuk, Radjabov, Dominguez, Adams, Akopian[۳۲]
Semi-finals:
Adams beat Radjabov,
Kasimdzhanov beat Topalov
طرابلس July 2004
6-game match
drawn 3–3;
Kasimdzhanov برنده rapid playoff 1½–½[۳۰]
2005 (FIDE) None ۸ شطرنج‌باز seeded in final:

Kasimdzhanov (FIDE champion); Adams (as FIDE 2004 finalist);
Anand, Morozevich, Topalov (on rating),
Leko (as classical 2004 finalist),[۳۳]
J. Polgár and Svidler (on rating)
San Luis: 8 شطرنج‌باز،
double round robin,
September–October 2005
1. Topalov: ۱۰/۱۴
2. -3. Anand and Svidler: ۸½/۱۴
4.Morozevich: ۷/۱۴
Reunification
2006 Reunification match Topalov (FIDE champion),
Kramnik (classical champion)
الیستا October 2006
12-game match
drawn 6–6,
Kramnik برنده rapid playoff 2½–۱½

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. Bondarevsky was replaced in Candidates tournament because of illness
  2. from previous Candidates
  3. from 1948 Championship
  4. Bled, Zagreb, Beograd
  5. In the play-off, Stein finished first before Benko, and Gligorić third. Stein was eliminated because only three soviet شطرنج‌باز could qualify from the interzonal to the candidates tournament.
  6. after playoff match against Geller
  7. Portisch beat رشفسکی in play-off.
  8. Hort and Stein were eliminated having a worse Berger tie-break (Neustadtl score), the play-off had ended with all شطرنج‌باز having 4 / 8.
  9. Geller eliminated after play-off
  10. Tal eliminated after play-off
  11. Ribli eliminated after playoff
  12. Van Der Wiel and Torre eliminated after playoff
  13. ۱۳٫۰ ۱۳٫۱ chosen by the organizating federation
  14. Timman eliminated Tal in play-off
  15. Gavrikov eliminated after playoff
  16. Nunn eliminated after Playoff
  17. Zwolle (games 1-3) / Arnhem (games 4-6) / Amsterdam (games 7-12)
  18. (games 13-21)
  19. Epichine, Lputian, Shirov, Ivanchuk and I. Sokolov were eliminated by the tie-break (sum of the opponents Elo ratings).
  20. Anand, as a participant in the FIDE world championship cycle, believed he was contractually obligated to not participate in a rival cycle.
  21. Negotiations for a 1999 match with Shirov or Anand failed, as did negotiations in 2000, with Anand expressing dissatisfaction with the contract.
  22. Kasparov, Anand and other شطرنج‌باز engaged in the FIDE championship declined the invitation
  23. Top seed Kramnik refused to participate on the grounds that 1996 FIDE champion کارپف's direct entry into the final was unacceptable;
    1995 classical champion Kasparov, 1996 finalist Kamsky and 1996 Women champion Z. Polgar refused in advance to participate.
  24. Topalov, Ivanchuk, Beliavsky, Salov, Bareev, Georgiev, J. Polgar, Sadler, Akopian, Lautier were eliminated
  25. 1998 FIDE champion کارپف, 1998 FIDE finalist Anand (Anand was negotiating to play a match against Kasparov for his title) and 1995 classical champion Kasparov refused to participate
  26. 1998 classical championship candidates Shirov and Kramnik were eliminated by Nisipeanu and Adams in quarterfinals.
  27. Classical champions Kasparov, Kramnik and 1998 FIDE champion کارپف didn't participate
  28. Morozevich, Leko, Krasenkov, Kasimdzhanov, Svidler, Gelfand, Short, Smirin, Dreev, Azmaiparashvili, Rublevsky, Almasi, Xu Jun, Gurevich were eliminated
  29. Classical champions Kramnik and Kasparov didn't participate. All other strongest شطرنج‌باز of the world took part, including former winners of the FIDE World Championship Anand, Khalifman (eliminated in third round) and کارپف (eliminated in first round).
  30. ۳۰٫۰ ۳۰٫۱ Reunification Match with Kasparov never took place
  31. Kasparov, Anand, Kramnik, Svidler, Shirov, Ponomariov, Leko, J. Polgár, Gelfand, Bareev, کارپف and Israeli شطرنج‌باز refused to participate, Morozevich was absent before the first round
  32. Ivanchuk, Short, Malakhov, Nisipeanu, Sokolov, Dreev, Akopian, Bacrot, Gurevich, Rublevsky, were eliminated
  33. Kramnik (as classical 2004 finalist) declined the invitation, and Kasparov, who had retired from competition, were replaced by J. Polgar and Svidler on rating

منابع[ویرایش]

  • مشارکت‌کنندگان ویکی‌پدیا، «Candidates Tournament»، ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی، دانشنامهٔ آزاد (بازیابی در ۳۰ نوامبر ۲۰۱۶).