فهرست کهکشان‌ها

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اندازه (چپ) و فاصله (راست) شمار اندکی از کهکشان‌های مشهور در مقیاس .

در حدود ۵۱ کهکشان در گروه محلی وجود دارد. در ابرخوشهٔ محلی ما در حدود ۱۰۰٬۰۰۰ کهکشان وجود دارد و در جهان قابل مشاهده برای ما در حدود دو هزار میلیارد کهکشان وجود دارد.

هیچ نامگذاری جهانی مورد توافق همگان برای کهکشان‌ها وجود ندارد، چرا که بیشتر آنها پیش از اینکه مشخص شود آیا یک کهکشان است یا پیکرهای دیگر آسمانی، فهرست بندی شده‌اند. بیشتر آنها با مختصات آسمانی خود همراه با نام پروژه شناسایی می‌شوند، مانند (HUDF, SDSS, 3C, CFHQS, NGC/IC و غیره).

باغ کهکشانی (به انگلیسی: Galaxy Zoo) پروژه‌ای است با هدف به دست آوردن یک فهرست کامل تر: این پروژه در ژوئیه ۲۰۰۷ آغاز شده و تا کنون بیش از یک میلیون تصویر کهکشان را از سرشماری دیجتال آسمان سالون (به انگلیسی: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey)، تلسکوپ فضایی هابل و بررسی ماترک امواج کیهانی نزدیک به زیرقرمز ژرف فضا (به انگلیسی: Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) فهرست نموده‌است.

فهرست کهکشان‌های مشهور[ویرایش]

این فهرستی از کهکشان‌هایی است که بدون مراجعه به جدول‌های مختصات یا فهرست‌های تخصیص سیستمی به خوبی شناخته می‌شوند

تصویر کهکشان صورت فلکی خاستگاه نام کهکشان یادداشت
upright=.۳۲ کهکشان زن برزنجیر زن برزنجیر بیشتر زن برزنجیر نامیده می‌شود، گاهی کهکشان زن برزنجیر، سحابی زن برزنجیر، سحابی بزرگ زن برزنجیر، سحابی مارپیچی زن برزنجیر و مانند این‌ها. به‌طور کلی زن برزنجیر نامیده می‌شود که به دلیل صورت فلکی که در آن قرار گرفته‌است
upright=.۳۲ کهکشان سیه‌چشم گیسو It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of the galaxy's bright nucleus, giving rise to its nicknames of the "Black Eye" or "Evil Eye" galaxy.
Messier 81 HST.jpg کهکشان باد صورت فلکی خرس بزرگ به یادبود یوهان الرت باد ستاره‌شناس آلمانی کاشف این کهکشان در ۱۷۷۴ نام‌گذاری شده‌است
upright=.۳۲ کهکشان چرخ گاری سنگتراش (صورت فلکی) در ظاهر مانند یک چرخ گاری پره دار است. در ایران بیشتر با نام چرخ فلک مشهور شده که ترجمه (Cartwheel of Fortune) است ولی در این‌جا چون تنها (Cartwheel) آمده بود به همان نام ترجمه شد
M82 HST ACS 2006-14-a-large web.jpg کهکشان سیگار یا مسیه ۸۲ خرس بزرگ ظاهری مانند سیگار برگ دارد
upright=.۳۲ کهکشان دنباله‌دار سنگتراش (صورت فلکی) این کهکشان به دلیل ظاهر غیرعادی که مانند یک دنباله‌دار به نظر می‌رسد، کهکشان دنباله‌دار نامیده شده‌است حالت دنباله‌دار به سبب کشش جزر ومدی در خوشه کهکشانی ابل ۲۶۶۷ است.
Eso1524aArtist’s impression of CR7 the brightest galaxy in the early Universe.jpg Cosmos Redshift 7 Sextans The name of this galaxy is based on a redshift (z) measurement of nearly 7 (actually, z = 6.604).[۱] Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7 is reported to be the brightest of distant galaxies (z > 6) and to contain some of the earliest first stars (first generation; Population III) that produced the chemical elements needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.[۱]
upright=.۳۲ پیکر آسمانی هوگ مار (صورت فلکی) این کهکشان به نام آرتور هوگ کاشف آن نامگذاری گردیده‌است این کهکشان یک زیرگونه از گونه‌های کهکشان هوگ بوده و شاید در واقع یک کهکشان حلقه‌ای قطبی باشد که حلقه‌ای از سیاره‌ها گرد شی مرکزی در گردش هستند
Large.mc.arp.750pix.jpg ابر ماژلانی بزرگ ماهی زرین/کوهمیز به نام فردیناند ماژلان نامگذاری گردیده‌است این کهکشان چهارمین کهکشان بزرگ در خوشه کهکشانی محلی است و همراه با ابر ماژلانی کوچک تشکیل یک جفت می‌دهد. در مطالعات اخیر این کهکشان بخشی از سیستم ماهواره‌ای کهکشان راه شیری نیست
Small Magellanic Cloud (Digitized Sky Survey 2).jpg ابر ماژلانی کوچک توکان (صورت فلکی) به نام فردیناند ماژلان نامگذاری گردیده‌است با ابر ماژلانی بزرگ یک جفت را تشکیل می‌دهد. در پژوهش‌های نوین شاید بخشی از سیستم ماهواره‌ای راه شیری را تشکیل ندهد
Hubble Interacting Galaxy Arp 148 (2008-04-24).jpg پیکر آسمانی می‌آل خرس بزرگ این پیکر آسمانی به نام نیکولاس می‌آل نامگذاری شده که در رصدخانه لیک آن را کشف کرد

Smith, Robert T. (1941). "The Radial Velocity of a Peculiar Nebula". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 53 (313): 187. Bibcode:1941PASP...53..187S. doi:10.1086/125301. </ref>[۲][۳]

Also called VV 32 and Arp 148, this is a very peculiar looking object, and is likely to be not one galaxy, but two galaxies undergoing a collision. Event in images is a spindle shape and a ring shape.
ESO-VLT-Laser-phot-33a-07.jpg راه شیری کمان (centre) از زمین مانند یک نوار نورانی به نظر می‌رسد زمین و منظومه خورشیدی ما در آن واقع است
M101 hires STScI-PRC2006-10a.jpg کهکشان فرفره خرس بزرگ با ظاهری مانند فرفره
M104 ngc4594 sombrero galaxy hi-res.jpg کهکشان کلاه‌مکزیکی دوشیزه (صورت فلکی) با ظاهری مانند کلاه مردم مکزیک
Messier 63 GALEX WikiSky.jpg کهکشان آفتاب‌گردان تازی‌ها Similar in appearance to a sunflower.
UGC 10214HST.jpg کهکشان بچه قورباغه اژدها (صورت فلکی) نامگذاری به دلیل شباهت این کهکشان با بچه قورباغه این شکل پیامد واکنش‌های کشندی است که یک دنبالهٔ بزرگ کشندی را ایجاد کرده‌است
Messier51 sRGB.jpg کهکشان گرداب تازی‌ها به دلیل شکل گرداب مانند کهکشان گرداب نامیده شده‌است

کهکشان‌های قابل مشاهده با چشم غیرمسلح[ویرایش]

این فهرستی از کهکشان‌هایی است که با چشم غیرمسلح دیده می‌شود. دست کم چشم تیزبین در شب بسیار تاریک در ارتفاعات و آب وهوای بدون تغییر شدید نیاز است.

<!—این جدول با اساس قدرظاهری مرتب شده‌است-->

کهکشان‌های قابل مشاهده با چشم غیرمسلح
کهکشان قدر ظاهری فاصله صورت فلکی یادداشت
کهکشان راه شیری ۲۶٫۷۴- خورشید ۰ کمان (صورت فلکی) کهکشان راه شیری کهکشانی است که زمین ما در آن قرارگرفته و با چشم غیر مسلح بخشی از آن دیده می‌شود این بخش شامل ناحیه پرهیز (Zone of Avoidance) نیز می‌شود.
ابر ماژلانی بزرگ ۰٫۹ ۱۶۰ هزار سال نوری یا ۵۰ هزار پارسک ماهی زرین/کوهمیز تنها از نیمکره جنوبی زمین قابل دین است. این سحابی هم چنین درخشان‌ترین لکه سحابی آسمان است
ابر ماژلانی کوچک ان‌جی‌سی ۲۹۲ ۲٫۷ ۲۰۰ هزار سال نوری یا ۶۰ هزار پارسک توکان (صورت فلکی) تنها از نیمکره جنوبی قابل مشاهده‌است
زن بر زنجیر، ان‌جی‌سی ۲۲۴، مسیه ۳۱ ۳٫۴ ۲٫۵ میلیون سال نوری یا ۷۸۰ هزار پارسک زن بر زنجیر زمانی ابر بزرگ آندروما نامیده می‌شد. کهکشان زن بر زنجیر در صورت فلکی زن بر زنجیر قرار گرفته‌است
امگا قنطورس ان‌جی‌سی ۵۱۳۹ ۳٫۷ ۱۸ هزار سال نوری یا ۵٫۵ پارسک قنطورس زمانی گمان می‌شد که یک ستاره است و بعدها گمان شد که یک خوشه ستاره‌ای کروی است؛ ولی بعداً تأیید شد که دارای یک سیاه چاله در مرکز خودش است و در آوریل ۲۰۱۰ به عنوان یک کهکشان کوتوله شناخته شد.
کهکشان سه گوش M33, NGC598 ۵٫۷ ۲٫۹ میلیون سال نوری یا ۹۰۰ هزار پارسک سه سو Being a diffuse object, its visibility is strongly affected by even small amounts of light pollution, ranging from easily visible in direct vision in truly dark skies to a difficult averted vision object in rural/suburban skies.[۴]
قنطورس ای (NGC 5128) ۷٫۸ ۱۳٫۷ ± 0.9 Mly (۴٫۲ ± 0.3 Mpc) Centaurus Centaurus A has been spotted with the naked eye by Stephen James O'Meara[۵]
مسیه ۸۱ (M81, NGC3031) ۷٫۸۹ 12 Mly (3.6 Mpc) Ursa Major Highly experienced amateur astronomers may be able to see Messier 81 under exceptional observing conditions.[۶][۷][۸]
کهکشان سنگ‌تراش (NGC 253) ۸٫۰ ۱۱٫۴ ± 0.7 Mly (۳٫۵ ± 0.2 Mpc) Sculptor According to Brian A. Skiff, the naked-eye visibility of this galaxy is discussed in an old Sky & Telescope letter or note from the late 1960s or early 1970s.[۹]
مسیه ۸۳ (NGC 5236) ۸٫۲ 14.7 Mly (4.5 Mpc) Hydra M83 has reportedly been seen with the naked eye.[۱۰]

نخستین‌ها[ویرایش]

Galactic Firsts
First Galaxy صورت فلکی Date یادداشت
نخستین کهکشان کهکشان راه شیری & کهکشان زن برزنجیر Sagittarius (centre) & Andromeda ۱۹۲۳ ادوین هابل determined the فاصله to the Andromeda Nebula, and found that it could not be part of the Milky Way, so defining that Milky Way was not the entire universe, and making the two separate objects, and two galaxies. However, the first galaxies seen would be all of the naked-eye galaxies, but they were not identified as such until the 20th century.
نخستین radio galaxy Cygnus A Cygnus ۱۹۵۲ Of several items, then called radio stars, Cygnus A was identified with a distant galaxy, being the first of many radio stars to become a radio galaxy.[۱۱]
نخستین اختروش ۳سی ۲۷۳
3C48
Virgo
Triangulum
۱۹۶۲
۱۹۶۰
3C273 was the first quasar with its redshift determined, and by some considered the first quasar. 3C48 was the first "radio-star" with an unreadable spectrum, and by others considered the first quasar.
نخستین Seyfert galaxy مسیه ۷۷ (M77) Cetus ۱۹۰۸ The characteristics of Seyfert galaxies were first observed in M77 in 1908, however, Seyferts were defined as a class in 1943.[۱۲]
نخستین low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1 Coma Berenices ۱۹۸۶ Malin 1 was the first verified LSB galaxy. LSB galaxies had been first theorized in 1976.[۱۳]
نخستین radio galaxy Cygnus A Cygnus ۱۹۵۱ [۱۴]
First discovered object, later identified to be a cannibalized galaxy امگا قنطورس Centaurus Omega Centauri is considered the core of a disrupted dwarf spheroidal galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way, and was originally catalogued in 1677 as a nebula. It is currently catalogued as a globular cluster.
First superluminal galactic jet 3C279 Virgo ۱۹۷۱ The jet is emitted by a اختروش
First superluminal jet from a Seyfert III Zw 2 Pisces[۱۵] ۲۰۰۰ [۱۶]
First spiral galaxy کهکشان گرداب Canes Venatici ۱۸۴۵ Lord William Parsons, Earl of Rosse discovered the first spiral nebula from observing the M51 white nebula.[۱۷]

نمونه‌های اصلی[ویرایش]

این فهرست از کهکشان‌های نمونه اصلی دسته‌ای از کهکشان‌های به‌شمار می‌آیند.

Prototype Galaxies
Class Galaxy صورت فلکی Date یادداشت
BL Lac object BL Lacertae (BL Lac) Lacerta This AGN was originally catalogued as a ستاره متغیر، and "stars" of its type are considered BL Lac objects.
Hoag-type Galaxy Hoag's Object Serpens Caput This is the prototype Hoag-type ring galaxy
Giant LSB galaxy Malin 1 Coma Berenices ۱۹۸۶ [۱۸]
FR II radio galaxy
(double-lobed radio galaxy)
Cygnus A Cygnus ۱۹۵۱ [۱۹]

ترین‌ها[ویرایش]

عنوان Galaxy Data صورت فلکی یادداشت
Least separation between binary central black holes 4C ۳۷٫۱۱ 24 ly (7.3 pc) Perseus OJ 287 has an inferred pair with a 12 year orbital period, and thus would be much closer than 4C 37.11's pair.

فواصل[ویرایش]

عنوان Galaxy صورت فلکی فاصله یادداشت
نزدیکترین کهکشان‌ها Canis Major Dwarf Canis Major 0.025 Mly Discovered in 2003, a satellite of the Milky Way, slowly being cannibalized by it.
دروترین کهکشان‌ها UDFj-39546284 Fornax z≃۱۰٫۳ With an estimated فاصله of about 13.2 billion LY, it is announced as the oldest and farthest astronomical object known.[۲۰]
Closest quasar ۳سی ۲۷۳ Virgo z=۰٫۱۵۸ First identified quasar, this is the most commonly accepted nearest quasar.
Most distant quasar CFHQS J2329-0301 Pisces z=۶٫۴۳ Discovered in 2007.
Closest radio galaxy قنطورس ای (قنطورس ای، PKS 1322-427) Centaurus 13.7 Mly [۲۱]
Most distant radio galaxy TN J0924-2201 Hydra z=۵٫۲
Closest Seyfert galaxy Circinus Galaxy Circinus 13 Mly This is also the closest Seyfert 2 galaxy. The closest Seyfert 1 galaxy is NGC 4151.
Most distant Seyfert galaxy z=
Closest blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421, Mkn 421, PKS 1101+384, LEDA 33452) Ursa Major z=۰٫۰۳۰ This is a BL Lac object.[۲۲][۲۳]
Most distant blazar Q0906+6930 Ursa Major z=۵٫۴۷ This is a flat spectrum radio-loud quasar type blazar.[۲۴][۲۵]
Closest BL Lac object Markarian 421 (Mkn 421, Mrk 421, PKS 1101+384, LEDA 33452) Ursa Major z=۰٫۰۳۰ [۲۲][۲۳]
Most distant BL Lac object z=
Closest LINER
Most distant LINER z=
Closest LIRG
Most distant LIRG z=
Closest ULIRG IC 1127 (Arp 220, APG 220) Serpens Caput z=۰٫۰۱۸ [۲۶]
Most distant ULIRG z=
Closest starburst galaxy مسیه ۸۲ (M82, مسیه ۸۲/APG 337, 3C 231, Ursa Major A) Ursa Major 3.2 Mpc [۲۷][۲۸]
Most distant starburst galaxy z=

درخشان‌ترین و نیرومندترین[ویرایش]

عنوان Galaxy Data یادداشت
Apparently brightest galaxy Baby Boom Galaxy [نیازمند بازبینی منبع] کهکشان ستاره‌فشان located in the very distant universe.
Apparently faintest galaxy قدر ظاهری
Intrinsically brightest galaxy قدر مطلق (ستاره‌شناسی) Markarian 231 is the most luminous nearby galaxy (~590 Mly; apmag ۱۳٫۸).
Intrinsically faintest galaxy Boötes Dwarf Galaxy (Boo dSph) قدر مطلق (ستاره‌شناسی) -۶٫۷۵ This does not include dark galaxies.
Highest surface brightness galaxy
Lowest surface brightness galaxy Andromeda IX
Visually brightest galaxy ابر ماژلانی بزرگ قدر ظاهری ۰٫۶ This galaxy has high surface brightness combined with high apparent brightness.
Visually faintest galaxy This galaxy has low surface brightness combined with low apparent brightness.

توده[ویرایش]

عنوان Galaxy Mass یادداشت
Least massive galaxy ویلمن ۱ ~500,000 MSun [۲۹]
Most massive galaxy مسیه ۸۷ (M87, مسیه ۸۷, مسیه ۸۷) ۶×10۱۲ MSun [۳۰][۳۱]
Most massive spiral galaxy ISOHDFS 27 ۱٫۰۴‎×۱۰۱۲ MSun The preceding most massive spiral was UGC 12591[۳۲]
Least massive galaxy with globular cluster(s) Andromeda I [۳۳]

بعد[ویرایش]

عنوان Galaxy Size یادداشت
Most expansive galaxy کهکشان ۱۱۰۱ 5-6 million سال نوری
Least expansive galaxy
Visually largest galaxy ابر ماژلانی بزرگ ۶۵۰ × 550 arcsec The LMC takes up more of the sky than any other galaxy, due to its nearness to us.


NOTE: The Milky Way Galaxy, our galaxy, cannot be measured, as we reside inside it. However, if only counting the Milky Way, that bright path in the sky, it would be by far the largest.

Visually smallest galaxy Many distant galaxies are unresolvable, and cannot have their angular size determined.

نزدیکترین کهکشان‌ها[ویرایش]

5 Closest Galaxies
Rank Galaxy فاصله یادداشت
۱ کهکشان راه شیری ۰ This is our galaxy, we are part of it.
۲ امگا قنطورس 0.0183 Mly
۳ Canis Major Dwarf 0.025 Mly
۴ Virgo Stellar Stream 0.030 Mly
۵ Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy 0.081 Mly
۶ ابر ماژلانی بزرگ 0.163 Mly

  • Mly represents millions of سال نوریs, a measure of فاصله.
  • فواصلare measured from Earth, with Earth being at zero.

Nearest Galaxies by Type
عنوان Galaxy Date فاصله یادداشت
Nearest galaxy کهکشان راه شیری always ۰ This is our galaxy
Nearest galaxy to our own Canis Major Dwarf ۲۰۰۳ 0.025 Mly
Nearest dwarf galaxy Canis Major Dwarf ۲۰۰۳ 0.025 Mly
Nearest large galaxy to our own کهکشان زن برزنجیر always 2.54 Mly First identified as a separate galaxy in 1923
Nearest giant galaxy قنطورس ای 12 Mly
Nearest Neighbouring Galaxy Title-holder
Galaxy Date فاصله یادداشت
Canis Major Dwarf ۲۰۰۳ - 0.025 Mly
Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy ۱۹۹۴ − ۲۰۰۳ 0.081 Mly
ابر ماژلانی بزرگ antiquity − ۱۹۹۴ 0.163 Mly This is the upper bound, as it is nearest galaxy observable with the naked-eye.
ابر ماژلانی کوچک ۱۹۱۳–۱۹۱۴ This was the first intergalactic فاصله measured. In 1913, اینار هرتس‌اشپرونگ measures the فاصله to SMC using متغیر دلتا قیفاووسیs. In 1914, he did it for LMC.
کهکشان زن برزنجیر ۱۹۲۳ This was the first galaxy determined to be not part of the Milky Way.

  • Mly represents millions of سال نوریs, a measure of فاصله.
  • فواصلare measured from Earth, with Earth being at zero.

  • امگا قنطورس does not appear on this list because is not currently considered a galaxy, per se, it is considered a former galaxy, and all that remains of one that was cannibalized by the Milky Way.

دورترین کهکشان‌ها[ویرایش]

Most Remote Galaxies by Type
عنوان Galaxy Date فاصله یادداشت
Most remote galaxy UDFj-39546284 ۲۰۱۱ z=۱۰٫۳ [۲۰]
Most remote normal galaxy یودی‌اف‌وای-۳۸۱۳۵۵۳۹ ۲۰۱۰ z=۸٫۵۵ [۳۴]
Most remote quasar ULAS J1120+0641 ۲۰۱۱ z=۷٫۰۸۵ This is the undisputed most remote quasar of any type, and the first with a انتقال به سرخ beyond 7.
Most distant non-quasar SMG Baby Boom Galaxy (EQ J100054+023435) ۲۰۰۸ z=۴٫۵۴۷ [۳۵]

  • z represents انتقال به سرخ، a measure of recessional velocity and inferred فاصله due to cosmological expansion

Most Remote Galaxy Record-holders
Galaxy Date فاصله یادداشت
UDFj-39546284 ۲۰۱۱ - z=۱۰٫۳ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery.[۲۰]
یودی‌اف‌وای-۳۸۱۳۵۵۳۹ ۲۰۱۰ − ۲۰۱۱ z=۸٫۵۵ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. It exceeded the فاصله of IOK-1 and GRB 090423[۳۴]
IOK-1 ۲۰۰۶ − ۲۰۱۰ z=۶٫۹۶ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. In 2009, gamma ray burst GRB 090423 was discovered at z=8.2, taking the title of most distant object. The next galaxy to hold the title also succeeded GRB 090423, that being UDFy-38135539.[۳۴][۳۶][۳۷]
SDF J132522.3+273520 ۲۰۰۵ − ۲۰۰۶ z=۶٫۵۹۷ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery.[۳۷][۳۸]
SDF J132418.3+271455 ۲۰۰۳ − ۲۰۰۵ z=۶٫۵۷۸ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery.[۳۸][۳۹][۴۰][۴۱]
HCM-6A ۲۰۰۲ − ۲۰۰۳ z=۶٫۵۶ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. The galaxy is lensed by galaxy cluster Abell 370. This was the first galaxy, as opposed to quasar, found to exceed redshift 6. It exceeded the redshift of quasar SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 of z=۶٫۲۸[۳۹][۴۰][۴۲][۴۳][۴۴][۴۵]
SSA22−HCM1 ۱۹۹۹ − ۲۰۰۲ z=۵٫۷۴ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. In 2000, the quasar SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2 was discovered at z=5.82, becoming the most remote object in the universe known. This was followed by another quasar, SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 in 2001, the first object exceeding redshift 6, at z=۶٫۲۸[۴۶][۴۷]
HDF 4-473.0 ۱۹۹۸ − ۱۹۹۹ z=۵٫۶۰ This was the remotest object known at the time of discovery.[۴۷]
RD1 (0140+326 RD1) ۱۹۹۸ z=۵٫۳۴ This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. This was the first object found beyond redshift 5.[۴۷][۴۸][۴۹][۵۰][۵۱]
CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 ۱۹۹۷ − ۱۹۹۸ z=۴٫۹۲ These were the remotest objects known at the time of discovery. The pair of galaxies were found lensed by galaxy cluster CL1358+62 (z=0.33). This was the first time since 1964 that something other than a اختروش held the record for being the most distant object in the universe. It exceeded the mark set by quasar PC 1247-3406 at z=۴٫۸۹۷[۴۷][۴۹][۵۰][۵۲][۵۳][۵۴]

From 1964 to 1997, the title of most distant object in the universe were held by a succession of quasars.[۵۴] That list is available at list of quasars.

8C ۱۴۳۵+۶۳ ۱۹۹۴ − ۱۹۹۷ z=۴٫۲۵ This is a radio galaxy. At the time of its discovery, quasar PC 1247-3406 at z=4.73, discovered in 1991 was the most remote object known. This was the last radio galaxy to hold the title of most distant galaxy. This was the first galaxy, as opposed to quasar, that was found beyond redshift 4.[۴۷][۵۵][۵۶][۵۷]
4C ۴۱٫۱۷ ۱۹۹۰ − ۱۹۹۴ z=۳٫۷۹۲ This is a radio galaxy. At the time of its discovery, quasar PC 1158+4635, discovered in 1989, was the most remote object known, at z=4.73 In 1991, quasar PC 1247-3406, became the most remote object known, at z=۴٫۸۹۷[۴۷][۵۶][۵۷][۵۸][۵۹]
1 Jy 0902+343 (GB6 B0902+3419, B2 ۰۹۰۲+۳۴) ۱۹۸۸ − ۱۹۹۰ z=۳٫۳۹۵ This is a radio galaxy. At the time of discovery, quasar Q0051-279 at z=4.43, discovered in 1987, was the most remote object known. In 1989, quasar PC 1158+4635 was discovered at z=4.73, making it the most remote object known. This was the first galaxy discovered above redshift 3. It was also the first galaxy found above redshift 2.[۴۷][۵۹][۶۰][۶۱][۶۲]
3C ۲۵۶ ۱۹۸۴ − ۱۹۸۸ z=۱٫۸۱۹ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.[۴۷][۶۳]
3C ۲۴۱ ۱۹۸۴ z=۱٫۶۱۷ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.[۶۴][۶۵]
3C ۳۲۴ ۱۹۸۳ − ۱۹۸۴ z=۱٫۲۰۶ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.[۴۷][۶۴][۶۶]
3C ۶۵ ۱۹۸۲ − ۱۹۸۳ z=۱٫۱۷۶ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974. In 1982, quasar PKS 2000-330 at z=3.78 became the most remote object.
3C ۳۶۸ ۱۹۸۲ z=۱٫۱۳۲ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[۴۷]
3C ۲۵۲ ۱۹۸۱ − ۱۹۸۲ z=۱٫۱۰۵ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in ۱۹۷۴.
3C ۶٫۱ ۱۹۷۹ - z=۰٫۸۴۰ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[۴۷][۶۷]
3C ۳۱۸ ۱۹۷۶ - ۰٫۷۵۲ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[۴۷]
3C ۴۱۱ ۱۹۷۵ - ۰٫۴۶۹ This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[۴۷]

From 1964 to 1997, the title of most distant object in the universe were held by a succession of quasars.[۵۴] That list is available at list of quasars.

3C ۲۹۵ ۱۹۶۰ - z=۰٫۴۶۱ This is a radio galaxy. This was the remotest object known at time of discovery of its redshift. This was the last non-quasar to hold the title of most distant object known until 1997. In 1964, quasar 3C 147 became the most distant object in the universe known.[۴۷][۵۴][۶۸][۶۹][۷۰]
LEDA 25177 (MCG+01-23-008) ۱۹۵۱ − ۱۹۶۰ z=۰٫۲
(V=61000 km/s)
This galaxy lies in the Hydra Supercluster. It is located at مبدأ (ستاره‌شناسی) ۰۸h ۵۵m ۴s ‏ ۲۱′ ‎+۰۳° and is the BCG of the fainter Hydra Cluster Cl 0855+0321 (ACO 732).[۴۷][۷۰][۷۱][۷۲][۷۳][۷۴][۷۵][۷۶]
LEDA 51975 (MCG+05-34-069) ۱۹۳۶ - z=۰٫۱۳
(V=39000 km/s)
The brightest cluster galaxy of the Bootes cluster (ACO 1930), an elliptical galaxy at مبدأ (ستاره‌شناسی) ۱۴h ۳۰m ۶s ‏ ۴۶′ ‎+۳۱° قدر ظاهری 17.8, was found by Milton L. Humason in 1936 to have a 40,000 km/s recessional redshift velocity.[۷۴][۷۷][۷۸]
LEDA 20221 (MCG+06-16-021) ۱۹۳۲ - z=۰٫۰۷۵
(V=23000 km/s)
This is the BCG of the Gemini Cluster (ACO 568) and was located at مبدأ (ستاره‌شناسی) ۰۷h ۰۵m ۰s ‏ ۰۴′ ‎+۳۵°[۷۷][۷۹]
BCG of WMH Christie's Leo Cluster ۱۹۳۱ − ۱۹۳۲ z=
(V=19700 km/s)
[۷۹][۸۰][۸۱][۸۲]
BCG of Baede's Ursa Major Cluster ۱۹۳۰ − ۱۹۳۱ z=
(V=11700 km/s)
[۸۲][۸۳]
NGC 4860 ۱۹۲۹ − ۱۹۳۰ z=۰٫۰۲۶
(V=7800 km/s)
[۸۴][۸۵]
NGC 7619 ۱۹۲۹ z=۰٫۰۱۲
(V=3779 km/s)
Using redshift measurements, NGC 7619 was the highest at the time of measurement. At the time of announcement, it was not yet accepted as a general guide to فاصله، however, later in the year, Edwin Hubble described redshift in relation to فاصله، leading to a seachange, and having this being accepted as an inferred فاصله.[۸۴][۸۶][۸۷]
ان‌جی‌سی ۵۸۴ (Dreyer nebula 584) ۱۹۲۱ − ۱۹۲۹ z=۰٫۰۰۶
(V=1800 km/s)
At the time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. However, in 1923, galaxies were generally recognized as external to the Milky Way.[۷۴][۸۴][۸۶][۸۸][۸۹][۹۰][۹۱]
M104 (کهکشان کلاه‌مکزیکی) ۱۹۱۳ − ۱۹۲۱ z=۰٫۰۰۴
(V=1180 km/s)
This was the second galaxy whose redshift was determined; the first being Andromeda - which is approaching us and thus cannot have its redshift used to infer فاصله. Both were measured by وستو اسلیفر. At this time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. NGC 4594 was originally measured as 1000 km/s, then refined to 1100, and then to 1180 in 1916.[۸۴][۸۸][۹۱]
M81 antiquity - 20th century
antiquity - 1913 (based on redshift)
antiquity - 1930 (based on Cepheids)
11.8 Mly (z=-۰٫۱۰) This is the lower bound, as it is remotest galaxy observable with the naked-eye. It is 12 million light-years away. Redshift cannot be used to infer فاصله، because it's moving toward us faster than cosmological expansion.
کهکشان فرفره ۱۹۳۰ - Using the pre-1950s Cepheid measurements, M101 was one of the most distant so measured.
کهکشان سه‌تکه ۱۹۲۴–۱۹۳۰ In 1924, Edwin Hubble announced the فاصله to M33 Triangulum.
کهکشان زن برزنجیر ۱۹۲۳–۱۹۲۴ In 1923, ادوین هابل measured the فاصله to Andromeda, and settled the question whether there were galaxies, or was everything in the Milky Way.
ابر ماژلانی کوچک ۱۹۱۳–۱۹۲۳ This was the first intergalactic فاصله measured. In 1913, اینار هرتس‌اشپرونگ measures the فاصله to SMC using متغیر دلتا قیفاووسیs.

  • z represents انتقال به سرخ، a measure of recessional velocity and inferred فاصله due to cosmological expansion
  • اختروش and other AGN are not included on this list, since they are only galactic cores, unless the host galaxy was observed when it was most distant

[۴۷]

  • A1689-zD1, discovered in 2008, with z=7.6, does not appear on this list because it has not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.
  • Abell 68 c1 and Abell 2219 c1, discovered in 2007, with z=9, do not appear on this list because they have not been confirmed.[۹۲]
  • IOK4 and IOK5, discovered in 2007, with z=7, do not appear on this list because they have not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.
  • Abell 1835 IR1916, discovered in 2004, with z=10.0, does not appear on this list because its claimed redshift is disputed. Some follow-up observations have failed to find the object at all.
  • STIS 123627+621755, discovered in 1999, with z=6.68, does not appear on this list because its redshift was based on an erroneous interpretation of an oxygen emission line as a hydrogen emission line.[۹۳][۹۴][۹۵]
  • BR1202-0725 LAE, discovered in 1998 at z=5.64 does not appear on the list because it was not definitively pinned. BR1202-0725 (QSO 1202-07) refers to a quasar that the Lyman alpha emitting galaxy is near. The quasar itself lies at z=۴٫۶۹۴۷[۴۸][۵۱]
  • BR2237-0607 LA1 and BR2237-0607 LA2 were found at z=4.55 while investigating around the quasar BR2237-0607 in 1996. Neither of these appear on the list because they were not definitively pinned down at the time. The quasar itself lies at z=۴٫۵۵۸[۹۶][۹۷]
  • Two absorption dropouts in the spectrum of quasar BR 1202-07 (QSO 1202-0725, BRI 1202-0725, BRI1202-07) were found, one in early 1996, another later in 1996. Neither of these appear on the list because they were not definitively pinned down at the time. The early one was at z=4.38, the later one at z=4.687, the quasar itself lies at z=۴٫۶۹۵[۴۷][۹۸][۹۹][۱۰۰][۱۰۱]
  • In 1986, a gravitationally lensed galaxy forming a blue arc was found lensed by galaxy cluster CL 2224-02 (C12224 in some references). However, its redshift was only determined in 1991, at z=2.237, by which time, it would no longer be the most distant galaxy.[۱۰۲][۱۰۳]
  • An absorption drop was discovered in 1985 in the light spectrum of quasar PKS 1614+051 at z=3.21 This does not appear on the list because it was not definitively fixed down. At the time, it was claimed to be the first non-QSO galaxy found beyond redshift 3. The quasar itself is at z=۳٫۱۹۷[۴۷][۱۰۴]
  • In 1975, 3C 123 was incorrectly determined to lie at z=0.637 (actually z=۰٫۲۱۸)[۱۰۵][۱۰۶]
  • From 1964 to 1997, the title of most distant object in the universe were held by a succession of quasars.[۵۴] That list is available at list of quasars.
  • In 1958, cluster Cl 0024+1654 and Cl 1447+2619 were estimated to have redshifts of z=0.29 and z=0.35 respectively. However, no galaxy was spectroscopically determined.[۷۰]

Field galaxies[ویرایش]

List of field galaxies
Galaxy Data یادداشت
ان‌جی‌سی ۴۵۵۵

Interacting galaxies[ویرایش]

List of galaxies in tidal interaction
Galaxies Data یادداشت
The نوار ماژلانی are being tidally disrupted by the کهکشان راه شیری، resulting in the Magellanic Stream drawing a tidal tail away from the LMC and SMC, and the Magellanic Bridge drawing material from the clouds to our galaxy.
The smaller galaxy NGC 5195 is tidally interacting with the larger Whirlpool Galaxy, creating its grand design spiral galaxy architecture.
These three galaxies interact with each other and draw out tidal tails, which are dense enough to form star clusters. The bridge of gas between these galaxies is known as Arp's Loop.[۱۰۷]
NGC 6872 is a barred spiral galaxy with a grand design spiral nucleus, and distinct well-formed outer barred-spiral architecture, caused by tidal interaction with satellite galaxy IC 4970.
کهکشان بچه قورباغه The Tadpole Galaxy tidally interacted with another galaxy in a close encounter, and remains slightly disrupted, with a long tidal tail.
List of galaxies in non-merger significant collision
Galaxies Data یادداشت
آرپ ۲۹۹ (آرپ ۲۹۹ & آرپ ۲۹۹) These two galaxies have recently collided and are now both barred irregular galaxies.
List of galaxies disrupted post significant non-merger collisions
Galaxies Data یادداشت
Mayall's Object This is a pair of galaxies, one which punched through the other, resulting in a ring galaxy.

Galaxy mergers[ویرایش]

List of galaxies undergoing near-equal merger
Galaxies Data یادداشت
دوشاخک (دوشاخک، دوشاخک & دوشاخک، دوشاخک) 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies currently starting a collision, tidally interacting, and in the process of merger.
Butterfly Galaxies (Siamese Twins Galaxies, NGC 4567 & NGC 4568) 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies in the process of starting to merge.
Mice Galaxies (NGC 4676, NGC 4676A & NGC 4676B, IC 819 & IC 820 , Arp 242) 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies currently tidally interacting and in the process of merger.
NGC 520 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies undergoing collision, in the process of merger.
ان‌جی‌سی ۲۲۰۷ و آی‌سی ۲۱۶۳ (ان‌جی‌سی ۲۲۰۷ و آی‌سی ۲۱۶۳ & ان‌جی‌سی ۲۲۰۷ و آی‌سی ۲۱۶۳) 2 galaxies These are two spiral galaxies starting to collide, in the process of merger.
NGC 5090 and NGC 5091 (NGC 5090 & NGC 5091) 2 galaxies These two galaxies are in the process of colliding and merging.
NGC 7318 (Arp 319 , NGC 7318A & NGC 7318B) 2 galaxies These are two starting to collide
Four galaxies in CL0958+4702 4 galaxies These four near-equals at the core of galaxy cluster CL 0958+4702 are in the process of merging.[۱۰۸]
Galaxy protocluster LBG-2377 z=۳٫۰۳ This was announced as the most distant galaxy merger ever discovered. It is expected that this proto-cluster of galaxies will merge together to form a brightest cluster galaxy, and become the core of a larger galaxy cluster.[۱۰۹][۱۱۰]
List of recently merged galaxies of near-equals
Galaxy Data یادداشت
ان‌جی‌سی ۶۲۴۰ (ان‌جی‌سی ۶۲۴۰, ان‌جی‌سی ۶۲۴۰) This recently coalesced galaxy still has two prominent nuclei.
List of galaxies undergoing disintegration by cannibalization
Disintegrating Galaxy Consuming Galaxy یادداشت
Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy کهکشان راه شیری The Monoceros Ring is thought to be the tidal tail of the disrupted CMa dg.
Virgo Stellar Stream کهکشان راه شیری This is thought to be a completely disrupted dwarf galaxy.
Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy کهکشان راه شیری M54 is thought to the be core of this dwarf galaxy.
List of objects considered destroyed galaxies
Defunct Galaxy Galaxy یادداشت
امگا قنطورس کهکشان راه شیری This is now categorized a خوشه ستاره‌ای کروی of the Milky Way. However, it is considered the core of a dwarf galaxy that the Milky Way cannibalized.[۱۱۱]
Mayall II کهکشان زن برزنجیر This is now categorized a خوشه ستاره‌ای کروی of Andromeda. However, it is considered the core of a dwarf galaxy that Andromeda cannibalized.

فهرست پیکرهای آسمانی که به اشتباه به عنوان کهکشان شناسایی شده[ویرایش]

"Galaxy" Object Data یادداشت
G350.1-0.3 باقی‌مانده ابرنواختر Due to its unusual shape, it was originally misidentified as a galaxy.

فهرست کهکشان‌ها[ویرایش]

فهرست کهکشانهای

Abell 1835 IR1916 AM 0644-741 کهکشان زن برزنجیر (M31/NGC 224)
Andromeda I دوشاخک (NGC 4038/NGC 4039) Aquarius Dwarf
آرپ ۲۹۹ - pair of colliding galaxies; has six recorded ابرنواختر (در مجموع). This is composed of IC 694 and NGC 3690. کهکشان چشم گربه (M64/NGC 4826) کهکشان بوده (M81/NGC 3031)
Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy کوتوله کارینا کهکشان قنطورس ای
کهکشان سیگار (M82/NGC 3034) کهکشان دوپرگار Comet Galaxy
کوتوله اژدها Dwingeloo 1 Dwingeloo 2
کهکشان‌های چشم‌ها (NGC 4435-4438) Fornax Dwarf Hoag's object (a ring galaxy)
Huchra's Lens HVC 127-41-330 I Zwicky ۱۸
آی‌سی ۱۰ آی‌سی ۳۴۲ آی‌سی ۱۶۱۳
IOK-1 - دورترین کهکشان دیده‌شده (تشکیل شده ۷۵۰ میلیون سال بعد از مهبانگ) ابر ماژلانی بزرگ Leo I (dwarf galaxy)
LGS 3 M32 (NGC 221) M49
M58 M59 M60
M61 M65 M66
M74 (NGC 628) M77 M84
M85 M86 M87
M88 M89 M90
M91 M94 M95
M96 M98 M99
M100 (NGC 4321) M105 M106
M108 M109 مسیه ۱۱۰ (NGC 205)
Maffei I Maffei II Mice Galaxies
کهکشان راه شیری -کهکشانی که در آن قرار داریم ان‌جی‌سی ۱ ان‌جی‌سی ۵۵
ان‌جی‌سی ۱۴۷ ان‌جی‌سی ۱۸۵ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۰۰
ان‌جی‌سی ۴۰۴ ان‌جی‌سی ۸۹۱ ان‌جی‌سی ۱۰۵۵
ان‌جی‌سی ۱۰۸۷ - a short-barred (i.e. it has a short bar) galaxy ان‌جی‌سی ۱۲۶۰ ان‌جی‌سی ۱۲۷۵
ان‌جی‌سی ۱۳۰۰ ان‌جی‌سی ۱۳۱۶ (Fornax A Galaxy) ان‌جی‌سی ۱۳۶۵
ان‌جی‌سی ۱۵۳۲ ان‌جی‌سی ۱۵۶۹ ان‌جی‌سی ۱۶۷۳ - a galaxy similar to NGC 1300
ان‌جی‌سی ۱۷۰۵ ان‌جی‌سی ۲۲۰۷ - pair of colliding galaxies. ان‌جی‌سی ۲۴۰۳
ان‌جی‌سی ۲۷۷۰ 'Supernova Factory' the location of three supernovas since 1999 ان‌جی‌سی ۲۸۱۲ ان‌جی‌سی ۲۹۷۶
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۰۷۷ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۰۷۹ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۱۰۹
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۱۸۴ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۲۲۶ ر
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۳۱۰ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۳۱۴ - a galaxy overlapping another galaxy, thus constituting a galactic pair (i.e. the two are listed as a single object). ان‌جی‌سی ۳۳۷۰
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۳۸۴ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۶۲۸ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۹۴۹ - بخشی از گروه مسیه ۱۰۹
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۹۵۳ -بخشی از گروه مسیه ۱۰۹ ان‌جی‌سی ۳۹۸۲ - بخشی از گروه مسیه ۱۰۹ ان‌جی‌سی ۴۰۱۳
ان‌جی‌سی ۴۳۰۹ ان‌جی‌سی ۴۳۱۴ ان‌جی‌سی ۴۳۹۵
ان‌جی‌سی ۴۴۱۴ ان‌جی‌سی ۴۵۵۵ - an isolated elliptical galaxy. ان‌جی‌سی ۴۵۶۵
NGC 4567 and NGC 4568 - also known as "Siamese Twins" or the Butterfly Galaxies. ان‌جی‌سی ۴۶۱۸/ان‌جی‌سی ۴۶۲۵ - interacting galaxies, with each being asymmetric and having one spiral arm. ان‌جی‌سی ۴۸۸۱
ان‌جی‌سی ۴۹۴۵ ان‌جی‌سی ۵۰۷۸ ان‌جی‌سی ۵۱۹۵
ان‌جی‌سی ۶۲۴۰ ان‌جی‌سی ۶۸۲۲ (Barnards galaxy) ان‌جی‌سی ۷۳۳۱
ان‌جی‌سی ۷۷۴۲ Galaxy 0402+379 کهکشان نامنظم کوتوله اسب بزرگ
کوتوله سیمرغ کهکشان فرفره (M101/NGC 5457) RXJ1242-11
Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy Sculptor Dwarf کهکشان سپر
Sextans A Sextans Dwarf ابر ماژلانی کوچک
کهکشان کلاه‌مکزیکی (M104) مسیه ۸۳ (M83/NGC 5236) Spindle Galaxy
Spindle Galaxy in Draco (NGC 5866, possibly M102) Spindle Galaxy in Sextans (NGC 3115) ای‌اس‌او ۲۶۹-۵۷
مسیه ۶۳ (M63) کهکشان سه‌سو (M33/NGC 598) Tucana Dwarf
Ursa Major I Dwarf Ursa Major II Dwarf Ursa Minor Dwarf
VIRGOHI21 Virgo Stellar Stream کهکشان گرداب (M51/NGC 5194)
ویلمن ۱ Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM) UGC 5675
ZW II 96
کهکشان صورت فلکی یادداشت
مسیه ۸۲ خرس بزرگ هم چنین کهکشان سیگار نیر نامیده می‌شود. این یک نمونه از کهکشان ستاره‌فشان می‌باشد
مسیه ۸۷ صورت فلکی دوشیزه این کهکشان مرکزی خوشه دوشیزه، خوشه مرکزی ابرخوشه سنبله است
مسیه ۱۰۲ اژدها (صورت فلکی خرس بزرگ) این کهکشان تاکنون به درستی رصد نشده‌است. بیشتر به نظر می‌رسد که با ان‌جی‌سی ۵۸۶۶ یا با مسیه ۱۰۱ اشتباه گرفته شده‌است. هم چنین با مواردی دیگری نیز شاید اشتباه شده باشد
ان‌جی‌سی ۲۷۷۰ سیاه‌گوش ان‌جی‌سی ۲۷۷۰ اخیراً به نام به دلیل رخ دادن سه ابرنواختر به کارخانه ابرنواختر معروف شده‌است
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۳۱۴
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۳۱۴ الف
ان‌جی‌سی ۳۳۱۴ ب
مار باریک این یک جفت کهکشان ویژه هستند، که یک به دیگری اضافه شده‌است، در دو دامنه مشخص و مجزا رابطه‌ای با هم ندارند. این حالت یک حالت کمیاب بصری است
ای‌اس‌او ۰۰۱-۱۳۷ مثلث جنوبی با قرار گرفتن در خوشهٔ کهکشانی ابل ۳۶۲۷، این کهکشان گازهای خود را با فشار (Intracluster medium) بر اثر سرعت بالای انتقال در خوشه از دست داده و یک دنباله متراکم بزرگ از شکل‌گیری ستارگان بر جا می‌گذارد. از ویژگی این دنبالهٔ شکل‌گیری ستارگان بیرون از کهکشان است که تاکنون دیده شده‌است. این کهکشان به ظاهر یک دنباله‌دار با سری که کهکشان و دمی که ستارگان و گاز است پدیدار می‌شود.
کهکشان دنباله‌دار سنگتراش (صورت فلکی) در خوشهٔ کهکشانی ابل ۲۶۶۷ قرار گرفته‌است. یک کهکشان مارپیچی و به دلیل سرعت بالای در خوشه به صورت کشندی (جزر ومدی) از گاز و ستارگان خالی می‌شود که به صورت یک دنباله‌دار ظاهر می‌شود
زمینه فراژرف هابل بیش از ۱۰۰۰۰ کهکشان را در تنها ۰٫۰۰۰۰۲۴ درصد آسمان نشان می‌دهد

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

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  83. Humason, M. L. (۱۹۳۰). "The Rayton short-focus spectrographic objective". Astrophys. J. ۷۱: ۳۵۱. Bibcode:1930ApJ....71..351H. doi:۱۰٫۱۰۸۶/۱۴۳۲۵۵ Check |doi= value (help).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  84. ۸۴٫۰ ۸۴٫۱ ۸۴٫۲ ۸۴٫۳ Trimble, Virginia (۱۹۹۶). "H_0: The Incredible Shrinking Constant, 1925-1975". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ۱۰۸: ۱۰۷۳. Bibcode:1996PASP..108.1073T. doi:۱۰٫۱۰۸۶/۱۳۳۸۳۷ Check |doi= value (help).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  85. "The Berkeley Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, June 20–21, 1929". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. ۴۱: ۲۴۴. ۱۹۲۹. Bibcode:1929PASP...41..244.. doi:۱۰٫۱۰۸۶/۱۲۳۹۴۵ Check |doi= value (help).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  86. ۸۶٫۰ ۸۶٫۱ From the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; Volume 15: March 15, 1929: Number 3 ; THE LARGE RADIAL VELOCITY OF N. G. C. 7619 ; January 17, 1929
  87. THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA / JOURNAL DE LA SOCIÉTÉ ROYALE D'ASTRONOMIE DU CANADA; Vol. 83, No.6 December 1989 Whole No. 621 ; EDWIN HUBBLE 1889-1953
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  89. Bailey, S. I. (۱۹۲۰). "Comet Skjellerup". Harvard College Observatory Bulletin No. 739. ۷۳۹: ۱. Bibcode:1920BHarO.739....1B.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  90. New York Times, DREYER NEBULA NO. 584 INCONCEIVABLY DISTANT; Dr. Slipher Says the Celestial Speed Champion Is 'Many Millions of Light Years' Away. ; January 19, 1921, Wednesday
  91. ۹۱٫۰ ۹۱٫۱ New York Times, NEBULA DREYER BREAKS ALL SKY SPEED RECORDS; Portion of the صورت فلکی of Cetus Is Rushing Along at Rate of 1,240 Miles a Second. ; January 18, 1921, Tuesday
  92. New Scientist, Baby galaxies sighted at dawn of universe, 22:34 10 July 2007
  93. آزمایشگاه ملی لارنس لیورمور، Lab scientists revoke status of space object
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  96. Hu; McMahon (۱۹۹۶). "Detection of Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies at Redshift z=۴٫۵۵". Nature. ۳۸۲ (۶۵۸۸): ۲۳۱–۲۳۳. arXiv:astro-ph/9606135Freely accessible. Bibcode:1996Natur.382..231H. doi:10.1038/382231a0.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  97. ۳۱/۰۱/۰۲ ; DAZLE NEAR IR NARROW BAND IMAGERپی‌دی‌اف (570 KB) ; DAZLE-IoA-Doc-0002
  98. ESO Press Release 11/95, ESO Astronomers Detect a Galaxy at the Edge of the Universe, 15 September 1995
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  101. Elston, Richard; Bechtold, Jill; Hill, Gary J.; Ge, Jian (۱۹۹۶). "A Redshift 4.38 MG II Absorber toward BR 1202-0725". Astrophysical Journal Letters v.456. ۴۵۶: L13. Bibcode:1996ApJ...456L..13E. doi:۱۰٫۱۰۸۶/۳۰۹۸۵۳ Check |doi= value (help).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  102. Smail, I.; Ellis, R. S.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Soucail, G.; Mellier, Y.; Giraud, E. (۱۹۹۳). "The Nature of Star Formation in Lensed Galaxies at High Redshift". R.a.s. Monthly Notices V.263. ۲۶۳: ۶۲۸. Bibcode:1993MNRAS.263..628S.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  103. Gravitational Lenses II: Galaxy Clusters as Lenses
  104. Djorgovski, S.; Strauss, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; McCarthy, Patrick; Perley, R. A. (۱۹۸۷). "A galaxy at a redshift of 3.215 - Further studies of the PKS 1614+051 system". Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256). ۹۳: ۱۳۱۸. Bibcode:1987AJ.....93.1318D. doi:۱۰٫۱۰۸۶/۱۱۴۴۱۴ Check |doi= value (help).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  105. NED, Searching NED for object "3C 123"
  106. Spinrad, H. (۱۹۷۵). "3C 123: a distant first-ranked cluster galaxy at z = ۰٫۶۳۷". Astrophys. J. ۱۹۹: L3. Bibcode:1975ApJ...199L...3S. doi:۱۰٫۱۰۸۶/۱۸۱۸۳۵ Check |doi= value (help).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
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مشارکت‌کنندگان ویکی‌پدیا. «List of galaxies». در دانشنامهٔ ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی، بازبینی‌شده در ۱۵ می ۲۰۱۲.

پویند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Size (left) and distance (right) of a few well-known galaxies put to scale.

The following is a list of notable galaxies.

There are about 51 galaxies in the Local Group (see list of nearest galaxies for a complete list), on the order of 100,000 in our Local Supercluster and an estimated number of about one to two trillion in all of the observable universe.

The discovery of the nature of galaxies as distinct from other nebulae (interstellar clouds) was made in the 1920s. The first attempts at systematic catalogues of galaxies were made in the 1960s, with the Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies listing 29,418 galaxies and galaxy clusters, and with the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies, a putatively complete list of galaxies with photographic magnitude above 15, listing 30,642. In the 1980s, the Lyons Groups of Galaxies listed 485 galaxy groups with 3,933 member galaxies. Galaxy Zoo is a project aiming at a more comprehensive list: launched in July 2007, it has classified over one million galaxy images from The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, The Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey.[1]

There is no universal naming convention for galaxies, as they are mostly catalogued before it is established whether the object is or isn't a galaxy. Mostly they are identified by their celestial coordinates together with the name of the observing project (HUDF, SDSS, 3C, CFHQS, NGC/IC, etc.)

Named galaxies

This is a list of galaxies that are well known by something other than an entry in a catalog or list, or a set of coordinates, or a systematic designation.

Image Galaxy Constellation Origin of name Notes
Andromeda Galaxy (with h-alpha).jpg Andromeda Andromeda Andromeda, which is shortened from "Andromeda Galaxy", gets its name from the area of the sky in which it appears, the constellation of Andromeda. Andromeda is the closest big galaxy to the Milky Way and is expected to collide with the Milky Way around 4 billion years from now. The two will eventually merge into a single new galaxy called Milkomeda.
Blackeyegalaxy.jpg Black Eye Galaxy Coma Berenices It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of the galaxy's bright nucleus, giving rise to its nicknames of the "Black Eye" or "Evil Eye" galaxy.
Messier 81 HST.jpg Bode's Galaxy Ursa Major Named for Johann Elert Bode who discovered this galaxy in 1774.
Cartwheel Galaxy.jpg Cartwheel Galaxy Sculptor Its visual appearance is similar to that of a spoked cartwheel.
M82 HST ACS 2006-14-a-large web.jpg Cigar Galaxy Ursa Major Appears similar in shape to a cigar.
CometGalaxy.jpg Comet Galaxy Sculptor This galaxy is named after its unusual appearance, looking like a comet. The comet effect is caused by tidal stripping by its galaxy cluster, Abell 2667.
Eso1524aArtist’s impression of CR7 the brightest galaxy in the early Universe.jpg Cosmos Redshift 7 Sextans The name of this galaxy is based on a redshift (z) measurement of nearly 7 (actually, z = 6.604).[2] Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7 is reported to be the brightest of distant galaxies (z > 6) and to contain some of the earliest first stars (first generation; Population III) that produced the chemical elements needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.[2]
Hoag's object.jpg Hoag's Object Serpens Caput This is named after Art Hoag, who discovered this ring galaxy. It is of the subtype Hoag-type galaxy, and may in fact be a polar-ring galaxy with the ring in the plane of rotation of the central object.
Large.mc.arp.750pix.jpg Large Magellanic Cloud Dorado/Mensa Named after Ferdinand Magellan This is the fourth largest galaxy in the Local Group, and forms a pair with the SMC, and from recent research, may not be part of the Milky Way system of satellites at all.[3]
Small Magellanic Cloud (Digitized Sky Survey 2).jpg Small Magellanic Cloud Tucana Named after Ferdinand Magellan This forms a pair with the LMC, and from recent research, may not be part of the Milky Way system of satellites at all.
Hubble Interacting Galaxy Arp 148 (2008-04-24).jpg Mayall's Object Ursa Major This is named after Nicholas Mayall, of the Lick Observatory, who discovered it.[4][5][6] Also called VV 32 and Arp 148, this is a very peculiar looking object, and is likely to be not one galaxy, but two galaxies undergoing a collision. Event in images is a spindle shape and a ring shape.
ESO-VLT-Laser-phot-33a-07.jpg Milky Way Sagittarius (centre) The appearance from Earth of the galaxy – a band of light. The galaxy containing the Sun and its Solar System, and therefore Earth.
M101 hires STScI-PRC2006-10a.jpg Pinwheel Galaxy Ursa Major Similar in appearance to a pinwheel (toy).
M104 ngc4594 sombrero galaxy hi-res.jpg Sombrero Galaxy Virgo Similar in appearance to a sombrero.
Messier 63 GALEX WikiSky.jpg Sunflower Galaxy Canes Venatici Similar in appearance to a sunflower.
UGC 10214HST.jpg Tadpole Galaxy Draco The name comes from the resemblance of the galaxy to a tadpole. This shape resulted from tidal interaction that drew out a long tidal tail.
Messier51 sRGB.jpg Whirlpool Galaxy Canes Venatici From the whirlpool appearance this gravitationally disturbed galaxy exhibits.

Naked-eye galaxies

This is a list of galaxies that are visible to the naked eye, for at the very least, keen-eyed observers in a very dark-sky environment that is high in altitude, during clear and stable weather.

Naked-eye Galaxies
Galaxy Apparent
Magnitude
Distance Constellation Notes
Milky Way -6.5[a] 0 Sagittarius (centre) This is the galaxy containing the Sun and its Solar System, and therefore Earth.. Most things visible to the naked-eye in the sky are part of it, including the Milky Way composing the Zone of Avoidance.[7]
Large Magellanic Cloud 0.9 160 kly (50 kpc) Dorado/Mensa Visible only from the southern hemisphere. It is also the brightest patch of nebulosity in the sky.[7][8][9]
Small Magellanic Cloud (NGC 292) 2.7 200 kly (60 kpc) Tucana Visible only from the southern hemisphere.[7][10]
Andromeda Galaxy (M31, NGC 224) 3.4 2.5 Mly (780 kpc) Andromeda Once called the Great Andromeda Nebula, it is situated in the Andromeda constellation.[7][11]
Triangulum Galaxy (M33, NGC 598) 5.7 2.9 Mly (900 kpc) Triangulum Being a diffuse object, its visibility is strongly affected by even small amounts of light pollution, ranging from easily visible in direct vision in truly dark skies to a difficult averted vision object in rural/suburban skies.[12]
Centaurus A (NGC 5128) 6.84 13.7 Mly (4.2 Mpc) Centaurus Centaurus A has been spotted with the naked eye by Stephen James O'Meara.[13]
Bode's Galaxy (M81, NGC 3031) 6.94 12 Mly (3.6 Mpc) Ursa Major Highly experienced amateur astronomers may be able to see Messier 81 under exceptional observing conditions.[14][15][16]
Messier 83 (NGC 5236) 8.2 14.7 Mly (4.5 Mpc) Hydra M83 has reportedly been seen with the naked eye.[17]

Observational firsts

First Galaxy Constellation Year Notes
First spiral galaxy Messier 51 Canes Venatici 1845 Lord William Parsons, Earl of Rosse discovered the first spiral nebula from observing M51 (recognition of the spiral shape without the recognition of the object as outside the Milky Way).[18]
Notion of galaxy Milky Way Galaxy
& Messier 31
Sagittarius (centre)
& Andromeda
1923 Recognition of the Milky Way and the Andromeda nebula as two separate galaxies by Edwin Hubble.
First Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 (M77) Cetus 1943
(1908)
The characteristics of Seyfert galaxies were first observed in M77 in 1908, however, Seyferts were defined as a class in 1943.[19]
First radio galaxy Cygnus A Cygnus 1951 Of several items, then called radio stars, Cygnus A was identified with a distant galaxy, being the first of many radio stars to become a radio galaxy.[20][21]
First quasar 3C273 Virgo 1962 3C273 was the first quasar with its redshift determined, and by some considered the first quasar.
3C48 Triangulum 1960 3C48 was the first "radio-star" with an unreadable spectrum, and by others considered the first quasar.
First superluminal galactic jet 3C279 Virgo 1971 The jet is emitted by a quasar
First low-surface-brightness galaxy Malin 1 Coma Berenices 1986 Malin 1 was the first verified LSB galaxy. LSB galaxies had been first theorized in 1976.[22]
First superluminal jet from a Seyfert III Zw 2 Pisces[23] 2000 [24]

Prototypes

This is a list of galaxies that became prototypes for a class of galaxies.

Prototype Galaxies
Class Galaxy Constellation Date Notes
BL Lac object BL Lacertae (BL Lac) Lacerta This AGN was originally catalogued as a variable star, and "stars" of its type are considered BL Lac objects.
Hoag-type Galaxy Hoag's Object Serpens Caput This is the prototype Hoag-type Ring Galaxy
Giant LSB galaxy Malin 1 Coma Berenices 1986 [25]
FR II radio galaxy
(double-lobed radio galaxy)
Cygnus A Cygnus 1951 [26]
starburst galaxy Cigar Galaxy Ursa Major

Closest and most distant known galaxies by type

Title Galaxy Constellation Distance Notes
Closest galaxy Canis Major Dwarf Canis Major 0.025 Mly Discovered in 2003, a satellite of the Milky Way, slowly being cannibalised by it.
Most distant galaxy GN-z11 Ursa Major z=11.09 With an estimated distance of about 32 billion light-years, astronomers announced it as the most distant astronomical galaxy known.[27]
Closest quasar 3C 273 Virgo z=0.158 First identified quasar, this is the most commonly accepted nearest quasar.
Most distant quasar ULAS J1120+0641 Leo z=7.085 Discovered in June 29, 2011 via UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey; first quasar discovered beyond the redshift of 7.
Closest radio galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128, PKS 1322-427) Centaurus 13.7 Mly [28]
Most distant radio galaxy TN J0924-2201 Hydra z=5.2
Closest Seyfert galaxy Circinus Galaxy Circinus 13 Mly This is also the closest Seyfert 2 galaxy. The closest Seyfert 1 galaxy is NGC 4151.
Most distant Seyfert galaxy z=
Closest blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421, Mkn 421, PKS 1101+384, LEDA 33452) Ursa Major z=0.030 This is a BL Lac object.[29][30]
Most distant known blazar Q0906+6930 Ursa Major z=5.47 This is a flat spectrum radio-loud quasar type blazar.[31][32]
Closest BL Lac object Markarian 421 (Mkn 421, Mrk 421, PKS 1101+384, LEDA 33452) Ursa Major z=0.030 [29][30]
Most distant BL Lac object z=
Closest LINER
Most distant LINER z=
Closest LIRG
Most distant LIRG z=
Closest ULIRG IC 1127 (Arp 220/APG 220) Serpens Caput z=0.018 [33]
Most distant ULIRG z=
Closest starburst galaxy Cigar Galaxy (M82, Arp 337/APG 337, 3C 231, Ursa Major A) Ursa Major 3.2 Mpc [34][35]
Most distant starburst galaxy SPT 0243-49 z= 5.698 [36][37]

Closest galaxies

5 Closest Galaxies
Rank Galaxy Distance Notes
1 Milky Way Galaxy 0 This is the galaxy containing the Sun and its Solar System, and therefore Earth.
2 Canis Major Dwarf 0.025 Mly
3 Virgo Stellar Stream 0.030 Mly
4 Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy 0.081 Mly
5 Large Magellanic Cloud 0.163 Mly Largest satellite galaxy of the Milky Way
6 Small Magellanic Cloud 0.197 Mly

  • Mly represents millions of light-years, a measure of distance.
  • Distances are measured from Earth, with Earth being at zero.

Nearest Galaxies by Type
Title Galaxy Date Distance Notes
Nearest galaxy Milky Way always 0 This is the galaxy containing the Sun and its Solar System, and therefore Earth.
Nearest galaxy to our own Canis Major Dwarf 2003 0.025 Mly The absolute closest galaxy
Nearest dwarf galaxy Canis Major Dwarf 2003 0.025 Mly
Nearest major galaxy to our own Andromeda Galaxy always 2.54 Mly First identified as a separate galaxy in 1923
Nearest giant galaxy Centaurus A 12 Mly
Nearest Neighboring Galaxy Title-holder
Galaxy Date Distance Notes
Canis Major Dwarf 2003 0.025 Mly
Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy 1994 − 2003 0.081 Mly
Large Magellanic Cloud antiquity − 1994 0.163 Mly This is the upper bound, as it is nearest galaxy observable with the naked-eye.
Small Magellanic Cloud 1913–1914 0.197 Mly This was the first intergalactic distance measured. In 1913, Ejnar Hertzsprung measures the distance to SMC using Cepheid variables. In 1914, he did it for LMC.
Andromeda Galaxy 1923 2.5 Mly This was the first galaxy determined to not be part of the Milky Way.

  • Mly represents millions of light-years, a measure of distance.
  • Distances are measured from Earth, with Earth being at zero.

Most distant galaxies

Most Remote Galaxies by Type
Title Galaxy Date Redshift[b] Notes
Candidate most remote galaxy (photometric redshift) UDFj-39546284 2011 z=11.9(?) This was proposed to be the remotest object known at time of discovery. In late 2012, its distance was revised from z=10.3 to 11.9,[38][39]
however, recent re-analyses suggest it is likely to be at much lower redshift.[40]
Most remote galaxy confirmed (spectroscopic redshift) GN-z11 2016 z=11.09 As of March 2016, GN-z11 was the most distant known galaxy.[27]
Most remote quasar ULAS J1120+0641 2011 z=7.085 This is the undisputed most remote quasar of any type, and the first with a redshift beyond 7. Further information: List of quasars
Most distant non-quasar SMG Baby Boom Galaxy (EQ J100054+023435) 2008 z=4.547 [41]
grand-design spiral galaxy Q2343-BX442 2012 z=2.18 [42]
Timeline of Most Remote Galaxy Record-holders[c]
Galaxy Date Distance
(z=Redshift)[b]
Notes
GN-z11 2016 −  z=11.09 Announced March 2016.[27]
EGSY8p7
(EGSY-2008532660)
2015 − 2016 z=8.68 This galaxy's redshift was determined by examining its Lyman-alpha emissions, which were released in August 2015.[43][44][45]
EGS-zs8-1 2015 − 2015 z=7.730 This was the most distant galaxy as of May 2015.[45][46][47]
Z8 GND 5296 2013 − 2015 z=7.51 [48]
SXDF-NB1006-2 2012 − 2013 z=7.215 [49]
GN-108036 2012 − 2012 z=7.213 [50]
BDF-3299 2012 − 2013 z=7.109 [51]
IOK-1 2006 − 2010 z=6.96 This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. In 2009, gamma ray burst GRB 090423 was discovered at z=8.2, taking the title of most distant object. The next galaxy to hold the title also succeeded GRB 090423, that being UDFy-38135539.[52][53][54]
SDF J132522.3+273520 2005 − 2006 z=6.597 This was the remotest object known at time of discovery.[54][55]
SDF J132418.3+271455 2003 − 2005 z=6.578 This was the remotest object known at time of discovery.[55][56][57][58]
HCM-6A 2002 − 2003 z=6.56 This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. The galaxy is lensed by galaxy cluster Abell 370. This was the first galaxy, as opposed to quasar, found to exceed redshift 6. It exceeded the redshift of quasar SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 of z=6.28[56][57][59][60][61][62]
SSA22−HCM1 1999 − 2002 z=5.74 This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. In 2000, the quasar SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2 was discovered at z=5.82, becoming the most remote object in the universe known. This was followed by another quasar, SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 in 2001, the first object exceeding redshift 6, at z=6.28[63][64]
HDF 4-473.0 1998 − 1999 z=5.60 This was the remotest object known at the time of discovery.[64]
RD1 (0140+326 RD1) 1998 z=5.34 This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. This was the first object found beyond redshift 5.[64][65][66][67][68]
CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 1997 − 1998 z=4.92 These were the remotest objects known at the time of discovery. The pair of galaxies were found lensed by galaxy cluster CL1358+62 (z=0.33). This was the first time since 1964 that something other than a quasar held the record for being the most distant object in the universe. It exceeded the mark set by quasar PC 1247-3406 at z=4.897[64][66][67][69][70][71]

From 1964 to 1997, the title of most distant object in the universe were held by a succession of quasars.[71] That list is available at list of quasars.

8C 1435+63 1994 − 1997 z=4.25 This is a radio galaxy. At the time of its discovery, quasar PC 1247-3406 at z=4.73, discovered in 1991 was the most remote object known. This was the last radio galaxy to hold the title of most distant galaxy. This was the first galaxy, as opposed to quasar, that was found beyond redshift 4.[64][72][73][74]
4C 41.17 1990 − 1994 z=3.792 This is a radio galaxy. At the time of its discovery, quasar PC 1158+4635, discovered in 1989, was the most remote object known, at z=4.73 In 1991, quasar PC 1247-3406, became the most remote object known, at z=4.897[64][73][74][75][76]
1 Jy 0902+343 (GB6 B0902+3419, B2 0902+34) 1988 − 1990 z=3.395 This is a radio galaxy. At the time of discovery, quasar Q0051-279 at z=4.43, discovered in 1987, was the most remote object known. In 1989, quasar PC 1158+4635 was discovered at z=4.73, making it the most remote object known. This was the first galaxy discovered above redshift 3. It was also the first galaxy found above redshift 2.[64][76][77][78][79]
3C 256 1984 − 1988 z=1.819 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.[64][80]
3C 241 1984 z=1.617 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.[81][82]
3C 324 1983 − 1984 z=1.206 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.[64][81][83]
3C 65 1982 − 1983 z=1.176 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974. In 1982, quasar PKS 2000-330 at z=3.78 became the most remote object.
3C 368 1982 z=1.132 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[64]
3C 252 1981 − 1982 z=1.105 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.
3C 6.1 1979 - z=0.840 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[64][84]
3C 318 1976 - z=0.752 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[64]
3C 411 1975 - z=0.469 This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.[64]

From 1964 to 1997, the title of most distant object in the universe were held by a succession of quasars.[71] That list is available at list of quasars.

3C 295 1960 - z=0.461 This is a radio galaxy. This was the remotest object known at time of discovery of its redshift. This was the last non-quasar to hold the title of most distant object known until 1997. In 1964, quasar 3C 147 became the most distant object in the universe known.[64][71][85][86][87]
LEDA 25177 (MCG+01-23-008) 1951 − 1960 z=0.2
(V=61000 km/s)
This galaxy lies in the Hydra Supercluster. It is located at B1950.0 08h 55m 4s +03° 21′ and is the BCG of the fainter Hydra Cluster Cl 0855+0321 (ACO 732).[64][87][88][89][90][91][92][93]
LEDA 51975 (MCG+05-34-069) 1936 - z=0.13
(V=39000 km/s)
The brightest cluster galaxy of the Bootes cluster (ACO 1930), an elliptical galaxy at B1950.0 14h 30m 6s +31° 46′ apparent magnitude 17.8, was found by Milton L. Humason in 1936 to have a 40,000 km/s recessional redshift velocity.[91][94][95]
LEDA 20221 (MCG+06-16-021) 1932 - z=0.075
(V=23000 km/s)
This is the BCG of the Gemini Cluster (ACO 568) and was located at B1950.0 07h 05m 0s +35° 04′[94][96]
BCG of WMH Christie's Leo Cluster 1931 − 1932 z=
(V=19700 km/s)
[96][97][98][99]
BCG of Baede's Ursa Major Cluster 1930 − 1931 z=
(V=11700 km/s)
[99][100]
NGC 4860 1929 − 1930 z=0.026
(V=7800 km/s)
[101][102]
NGC 7619 1929 z=0.012
(V=3779 km/s)
Using redshift measurements, NGC 7619 was the highest at the time of measurement. At the time of announcement, it was not yet accepted as a general guide to distance, however, later in the year, Edwin Hubble described redshift in relation to distance, leading to a seachange, and having this being accepted as an inferred distance.[101][103][104]
NGC 584 (Dreyer nebula 584) 1921 − 1929 z=0.006
(V=1800 km/s)
At the time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. However, in 1923, galaxies were generally recognized as external to the Milky Way.[91][101][103][105][106][107][108]
M104 (NGC 4594) 1913 − 1921 z=0.004
(V=1180 km/s)
This was the second galaxy whose redshift was determined; the first being Andromeda - which is approaching us and thus cannot have its redshift used to infer distance. Both were measured by Vesto Melvin Slipher. At this time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. NGC 4594 was originally measured as 1000 km/s, then refined to 1100, and then to 1180 in 1916.[101][105][108]
M81 antiquity –
20th century
[d]
11.8 Mly (z=-0.10) This is the lower bound, as it is remotest galaxy observable with the naked-eye. It is 12 million light-years away. Redshift cannot be used to infer distance, because it is moving toward us faster than cosmological expansion.
Messier 101 1930– Using the pre-1950s Cepheid measurements, M101 was one of the most distant so measured.
Triangulum Galaxy 1924–1930 In 1924, Edwin Hubble announced the distance to M33 Triangulum.
Andromeda Galaxy 1923–1924 In 1923, Edwin Hubble measured the distance to Andromeda, and settled the question of whether or not there were galaxies, or if everything was in the Milky Way.
Small Magellanic Cloud 1913–1923 This was the first intergalactic distance measured. In 1913, Ejnar Hertzsprung measures the distance to SMC using Cepheid variables.

Timeline notes

  • MACS0647-JD, discovered in 2012, with z=10.7, does not appear on this list because it has not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.[109]
  • UDFy-38135539, discovered in 2009, with z=8.6, does not appear on this list because its claimed redshift is disputed.[110] Follow-up observations have failed to replicate the cited redshift measurement.
  • A1689-zD1, discovered in 2008, with z=7.6, does not appear on this list because it has not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.
  • Abell 68 c1 and Abell 2219 c1, discovered in 2007, with z=9, do not appear on this list because they have not been confirmed.[111]
  • IOK4 and IOK5, discovered in 2007, with z=7, do not appear on this list because they have not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.
  • Abell 1835 IR1916, discovered in 2004, with z=10.0, does not appear on this list because its claimed redshift is disputed. Some follow-up observations have failed to find the object at all.
  • STIS 123627+621755, discovered in 1999, with z=6.68, does not appear on this list because its redshift was based on an erroneous interpretation of an oxygen emission line as a hydrogen emission line.[112][113][114]
  • BR1202-0725 LAE, discovered in 1998 at z=5.64 does not appear on the list because it was not definitively pinned. BR1202-0725 (QSO 1202-07) refers to a quasar that the Lyman alpha emitting galaxy is near. The quasar itself lies at z=4.6947[65][68]
  • BR2237-0607 LA1 and BR2237-0607 LA2 were found at z=4.55 while investigating around the quasar BR2237-0607 in 1996. Neither of these appear on the list because they were not definitively pinned down at the time. The quasar itself lies at z=4.558[115][116]
  • Two absorption dropouts in the spectrum of quasar BR 1202-07 (QSO 1202-0725, BRI 1202-0725, BRI1202-07) were found, one in early 1996, another later in 1996. Neither of these appear on the list because they were not definitively pinned down at the time. The early one was at z=4.38, the later one at z=4.687, the quasar itself lies at z=4.695[64][117][118][119][120]
  • In 1986, a gravitationally lensed galaxy forming a blue arc was found lensed by galaxy cluster CL 2224-02 (C12224 in some references). However, its redshift was only determined in 1991, at z=2.237, by which time, it would no longer be the most distant galaxy known.[121][122]
  • An absorption drop was discovered in 1985 in the light spectrum of quasar PKS 1614+051 at z=3.21 This does not appear on the list because it was not definitively fixed down. At the time, it was claimed to be the first non-QSO galaxy found beyond redshift 3. The quasar itself is at z=3.197[64][123]
  • In 1975, 3C 123 was incorrectly determined to lie at z=0.637 (actually z=0.218)[124][125]
  • From 1964 to 1997, the title of most distant object in the universe was held by a succession of quasars.[71] That list is available at list of quasars.
  • In 1958, cluster Cl 0024+1654 and Cl 1447+2619 were estimated to have redshifts of z=0.29 and z=0.35 respectively. However, no galaxy was spectroscopically determined.[87]

Galaxies by brightness and power

Title Galaxy Data Notes
Intrinsically brightest galaxy Baby Boom Galaxy [verification needed] Starburst galaxy located 12 billion light years away
Brightest galaxy to the naked eye Large Magellanic Cloud Apparent magnitude 0.6 This galaxy has high surface brightness combined with high apparent brightness.
Intrinsically faintest galaxy Boötes Dwarf Galaxy (Boo dSph) Absolute magnitude -6.75 This does not include dark galaxies.
Lowest surface brightness galaxy Andromeda IX
Most luminous galaxy WISE J224607.57-052635.0 As of May 21, 2015, WISE-J224607.57-052635.0-20150521 is the most luminous galaxy discovered and releases 10,000 times more energy than the Milky Way galaxy, although smaller. Nearly 100 percent of the light escaping from this dusty galaxy is infrared radiation.[126][127] (Image)
Brightest distant galaxy (z > 6) Cosmos Redshift 7 Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7 is reported to be the brightest of distant galaxies (z > 6) and to contain some of the earliest first stars (first generation; Population III) that produced the chemical elements needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.[2][128]

Galaxies by mass and density

Title Galaxy Data Notes
Least massive galaxy Segue 2 ~550,000 MSun This is not considered a star cluster, as it is held together by the gravitational effects of dark matter rather than just the mutual attraction of the constituent stars, gas and black holes.[129][130]
Most massive galaxy ESO 146-IG 005 ~30×1012 MSun Central galaxy in Abell 3827, 1.4 Gly distant.[131][132]
Most dense galaxy M85-HCC1 This is an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy [133]
Least dense galaxy
Most massive spiral galaxy ISOHDFS 27 1.04×1012 MSun The preceding most massive spiral was UGC 12591[134]
Least massive galaxy with globular cluster(s) Andromeda I [135]

Field galaxies

List of field galaxies
Galaxy Data Notes
NGC 4555
SDSS J1021+1312 [136]

A field galaxy is a galaxy that does not belong to a larger cluster of galaxies and hence is gravitationally alone.

Interacting galaxies

Galaxies in tidal interaction
Galaxies Data Notes
The Magellanic Clouds are being tidally disrupted by the Milky Way Galaxy, resulting in the Magellanic Stream drawing a tidal tail away from the LMC and SMC, and the Magellanic Bridge drawing material from the clouds to our galaxy.
The smaller galaxy NGC 5195 is tidally interacting with the larger Whirlpool Galaxy, creating its grand design spiral galaxy architecture.
These three galaxies interact with each other and draw out tidal tails, which are dense enough to form star clusters. The bridge of gas between these galaxies is known as Arp's Loop.[137]
NGC 6872 is a barred spiral galaxy with a grand design spiral nucleus, and distinct well-formed outer barred-spiral architecture, caused by tidal interaction with satellite galaxy IC 4970.
Tadpole Galaxy The Tadpole Galaxy tidally interacted with another galaxy in a close encounter, and remains slightly disrupted, with a long tidal tail.
Galaxies in non-merger significant collision
Galaxies Data Notes
Arp 299 (NGC 3690 & IC 694) These two galaxies have recently collided and are now both barred irregular galaxies.
Galaxies disrupted post significant non-merger collisions
Galaxies Data Notes
Mayall's Object This is a pair of galaxies, one which punched through the other, resulting in a ring galaxy.

Galaxy mergers

Galaxies undergoing near-equal merger
Galaxies Data Notes
Antennae Galaxies (Ringtail Galaxy, NGC 4038 & NGC 4039, Arp 244) 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies currently starting a collision, tidally interacting, and in the process of merger.
Butterfly Galaxies (Siamese Twins Galaxies, NGC 4567 & NGC 4568) 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies in the process of starting to merge.
Mice Galaxies (NGC 4676, NGC 4676A & NGC 4676B, IC 819 & IC 820, Arp 242) 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies currently tidally interacting and in the process of merger.
NGC 520 2 galaxies Two spiral galaxies undergoing collision, in the process of merger.
NGC 2207 and IC 2163 (NGC 2207 & IC 2163) 2 galaxies These are two spiral galaxies starting to collide, in the process of merger.
NGC 5090 and NGC 5091 (NGC 5090 & NGC 5091) 2 galaxies These two galaxies are in the process of colliding and merging.
NGC 7318 (Arp 319, NGC 7318A & NGC 7318B) 2 galaxies These are two starting to collide
Four galaxies in CL0958+4702 4 galaxies These four near-equals at the core of galaxy cluster CL 0958+4702 are in the process of merging.[138]
Galaxy protocluster LBG-2377 z=3.03 This was announced as the most distant galaxy merger ever discovered. It is expected that this proto-cluster of galaxies will merge to form a brightest cluster galaxy, and become the core of a larger galaxy cluster.[139][140]
Recently merged galaxies of near-equals
Galaxy Data Notes
Starfish Galaxy (NGC 6240, IC 4625) This recently coalesced galaxy still has two prominent nuclei.
Galaxies undergoing disintegration by cannibalization
Disintegrating Galaxy Consuming Galaxy Notes
Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy Milky Way Galaxy The Monoceros Ring is thought to be the tidal tail of the disrupted CMa dg.
Virgo Stellar Stream Milky Way Galaxy This is thought to be a completely disrupted dwarf galaxy.
Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy Milky Way Galaxy M54 is thought to be the core of this dwarf galaxy.
Objects considered destroyed galaxies
Defunct Galaxy Destroyer Notes
Omega Centauri Milky Way Galaxy This is now categorized a globular cluster of the Milky Way. However, it is considered the core of a dwarf galaxy that the Milky Way cannibalized.[141]
Mayall II Andromeda Galaxy This is now categorized a globular cluster of Andromeda. However, it is considered the core of a dwarf galaxy that Andromeda cannibalized.

Galaxies with some other notable feature

Galaxy name Distance Constellation Property Notes
M87 Virgo This is the central galaxy of the Virgo Cluster, the central cluster of the Local Supercluster[142]
M102 Draco (Ursa Major) [clarification needed] This galaxy cannot be definitively identified, with the most likely candidate being NGC 5866, and a good chance of it being a misidentification of M101. Other candidates have also been suggested.
NGC 2770 Lynx "Supernova Factory" NGC 2770 is referred to as the "Supernova Factory" due to three recent supernovae occurring within it.
NGC 3314 (NGC 3314a and NGC 3314b) Hydra exact visual alignment This is a pair of spiral galaxies, one superimposed on another, at two separate and distinct ranges, and unrelated to each other. It is a rare chance visual alignment.
ESO 137-001 Triangulum Australe "tail" feature Lying in the galaxy cluster Abell 3627, this galaxy is being stripped of its gas by the pressure of the intracluster medium (ICM), due to its high speed traversal through the cluster, and is leaving a high density tail with large amounts of star formation. The tail features the largest amount of star formation outside of a galaxy seen so far. The galaxy has the appearance of a comet, with the head being the galaxy, and a tail of gas and stars.[143][144][145][146]
Comet Galaxy Sculptor interacting with a galaxy cluster Lying in galaxy cluster Abell 2667, this spiral galaxy is being tidally stripped of stars and gas through its high speed traversal through the cluster, having the appearance of a comet.
4C 37.11 230 Mpc Perseus Least separation between binary central black holes, at 24 ly (7.3 pc) OJ 287 has an inferred pair with a 12-year orbital period, and thus would be much closer than 4C 37.11's pair.
SDSS J150636.30+540220.9
15h 06m 36.30s+54° 02′ 20.9″
("SDSS J1506+54")
z = 0.608 Boötes Most efficient star production Most extreme example in the list of moderate-redshift galaxies with the highest density starbursts yet observed found in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data (Diamond-Stanic et al. 2012).[147]
Cosmos Redshift 7 z = 6.604 Sextans Brightest distant galaxy (z > 6, 12.9 billion light-years) Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7 is reported to be the brightest of distant galaxies (z > 6) and to contain some of the earliest first stars (first generation; Population III) that produced the chemical elements needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.[2][128]

Lists of galaxies

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excluding the Sun. Using the formula for addition of apparent magnitudes, the added magnitudes of all stars in the Milky Way but our Sun (-6.50) and our Sun (-26.74) differs from the apparent magnitude of just our sun by less than 10^-8.[148]
  2. ^ a b z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion.
  3. ^ quasars and other AGN are not included on this list, since they are only galactic cores, unless the host galaxy was observed when it was most distant.
  4. ^ antiquity – 1913 (based on redshift); antiquity – 1930 (based on Cepheids)

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