راش یا جوش یا دانه (به انگلیسی: rash) بثورات موقتی بر روی پوست که معمولاً با سرخی یا خارش همراه است. راش به هر تغییری در پوست مانند رنگ، نما و بافت قابل اطلاق است.
این ضایعه در
بیماریهایی مانند سیفلیس، مخملک، حساسیتهای دارویی، حاملگی و بیماریهای قارچی دیده میشود.
جستارهای وابسته [ ویرایش ]
واژههای مصوب فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی
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( January 2008)
rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color,
itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful.
The causes, and therefore treatments for rashes, vary widely. Diagnosis must take into account such things as the appearance of the rash, other symptoms, what the patient may have been exposed to, occupation, and occurrence in family members. The diagnosis may confirm any number of conditions.
The presence of a rash may aid diagnosis; associated signs and symptoms are diagnostic of certain diseases. For example, the rash in measles is an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash that begins a few days after the fever starts. It classically starts at the head, and spreads downwards.
Common causes of rashes include:
Usual area of body
Comedones, papules, pustules and nodules.
Face, chest and back.
Flushed appearance or redness.
Cheeks, chin, forehead or nose.
Painful red bump or a cluster of painful red bumps
Red, tender and swollen areas of skin
Around a cut, scrape or skin breach
itchy bumps on the skin
Anywhere and can be sprinked randomly
Erythema migrans / Lyme disease
Expands over days or weeks to 5-70 cm (median 16 cm), circular or oval, red or bluish, may have an elevated or darker center, may have a central or ring-like clearing, may fell warm, not painful or itchy
 Armpit, groin, back of knee, on the trunk, under clothing straps, or in childrens' hair, ear, or neck 
Irregular, raised or flat red sores that appeared after taking medicine/drugs or eating certain foods
Deep sebum filled cystic condition of apocrine gland overstimulation, caused by many internal and external factors eg, stress, toxic environmental overload and immune impairment.
Bumps formed suddenly
Anywhere but usually first noticed on face
Bumps and swelling
Dry, scaly skin
Scalp of recently born babies
Irritant contact dermatitis
Red, itchy, scaly, or oily rash
Eyebrows, nose, edge of the scalp, point of contact with jewellery, perfume, or clothing.
Allergic Contact Dermatitis caused by poison ivy, poison oak, sumac, or Balsam of Peru
 Red, itchy, scaly or oily rash; can also be weeping or leathery.
Anywhere that came in contact with the irritant either directly or via transfer (e.g. from contaminated clothing.)
Small red dots on the skin, or larger, bruise-like spots that appeared after taking medicine
Started with a single scaly, red and slightly itchy spot, and within a few days, did large numbers of smaller patches of the rash, some red and/or others tan
Chest and abdomen
Intensely itchy rash with red bumps and blisters
Elbows, knees, back or buttocks
Large red bumps that seem to bruise and are tender to touch
White, scaly rash over red, flaky, irritated skin
Elbows and knees
Red, blotchy rash, with "target like" hives or sores.
Red rash that is raised with a fever or sore throat.
Usually starts first on the forehead and face and spreads downward.
Multiple blisters with a fever, cough, aches, tiredness and sore throat.
Usually starts first on the face, chest and back and spreads downward.
Red blisters that are very painful and may crust
Started as a fever and then developed a bright red rash
Soft bumps forming that don't itch and have no other symptoms
Bald spot on the scalp or a ring of itchy red skin
Rash that is red but not itchy
Palms of hands or soles of feet
Jock itch, yeast infection or diaper rash
Red itchy rash
Light coloured patches
Crusted, tan-colored sores
Near nose or lip
Bite-like sores that itch and spread intensely
Usually start on hands or feet and spread everywhere
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
A fine rash with a fever and headache
Usually start on arms and legs including the hands and feet
A butterfly rash with achy joints
Forehead and cheeks
Jaundice or sign of hepatitis
Skin, whites of eyes and mouth
Blue or black area after being hit
Scaly, pink, gray or tan patches or bumps
Face, scalp or on the backs or the hands
Keloid or hypertrophic scar
Scar that has grown larger than expected
Soft or rubbery growth
Lots of white spots
On the face of a baby
Molluscum or contagiosum
Small, firm, round bumps with pits in the center that may sit on tiny stalks
Becomes confluent and forms bright red lines in the skin creases of the neck, armpits and groins (
Face, chest & back, whole body, armpits, inside elbows, groins
Bump with a white dome under the skin
Scalp, nape of the neck or upper back
Soft, fleshy growth, lump or bump
Face, neck, armpits or groin
Yellow area under the skin
Dark bump that may have started within a mole or blemish, or, a spot or mole that has changed in color, size, shape or is painful or itchy
Basal cell carcinoma
Fleshy, growing mass
Areas exposed to the sun
Squamous cell carcinoma
Unusual growth that is red, scaly or crusted
Face, lip or chin
Dark or black raised spots on the skin that keep growing or have appeared recently
Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC)
Pink-red ring or bullseye marks
The causes of a rash are numerous, which may make the evaluation of a rash extremely difficult. An accurate evaluation by a provider may only be made in the context of a thorough history (What medication is the patient taking? What is the patient's occupation? Where has the patient been?) and complete physical examination.
Points to note in the examination include:
e.g., purpuric (typical of vasculitis and meningococcal disease), fine and like sandpaper (typical of scarlet fever); circular lesions with a central depression are typical of molluscum contagiosum (and in the past, small pox); plaques with silver scales are typical of psoriasis. The distribution:
e.g., the rash of scarlet fever becomes confluent and forms bright red lines in the skin creases of the neck, armpits and groins ( Pastia's lines); the vesicles of chicken pox seem to follow the hollows of the body (they are more prominent along the depression of the spine on the back and in the hollows of both shoulder blades); very few rashes affect the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (secondary syphilis, rickettsia or spotted fevers,  guttate psoriasis, hand, foot and mouth disease, keratoderma blennorrhagicum); Symmetry: e.g., herpes zoster usually only affects one side of the body and does not cross the midline.
patch test may be ordered, for diagnostic purposes.
Treatment differs according to which rash a patient has been diagnosed with. Common rashes can be easily remedied using steroid topical creams (such as
hydrocortisone) or non-steroidal treatments. Many of the medications are available over the counter in the United States.
The problem with steroid topical creams i.e. hydrocortisone; is their inability to penetrate the skin through absorption and therefore not be effective in clearing up the affected area, thus rendering the hydrocortisone almost completely ineffective in all except the most mild of cases.
"Eszopiclone" (PDF). F.A. Davis. 2017 . Retrieved . April 15, 2017
"Zolpidem" (PDF). F.A. Davis . Retrieved . April 15, 2017
^ a b
Fisher, Alexander A. Fisher's Contact Dermatitis . Retrieved . 2014-04-24
"Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Retrieved . April 18, 2019
"Lyme disease: erythema migrans". Lyme disease NICE guideline [NG95]. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence . Retrieved . May 8, 2019
Wright WF, Riedel DJ, Talwani R, Gilliam BL (June 2012). "Diagnosis and management of Lyme disease". American Family Physician. 85 (11): 1086–93. PMID 22962880. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.
Shapiro ED (May 2014). "Clinical practice. Lyme disease" (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (18): 1724–1731. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1314325. PMC . 4487875 PMID 24785207. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2016.
Boyd MA, Menon P, Graves S, Gordon DL (2007). "A febrile illness with generalized papular rash involving the palms and soles". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 44 (5): 704, 755–6. doi: 10.1086/511637. PMID 17278064. Scholar search
Rebecca B. Campen M.D. The Comprehensive Guide to Skin Care: From Acne to Wrinkles, What to Do (And Not Do) to Stay Healthy and Look Your Best . Retrieved . 2014-04-24
"Hydrocortisone Topical". webmd.com.
"Hydrocortisone for mild inflammatory skin conditions". patient.info.
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