رامبرانت

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English


رامبرانت
Rembrandt van rijn-self portrait.jpg
خودنگاره، ۱۶۶۵-۱۶۶۹
نام اصلی رمبراند هارمنزون وان راین
زادهٔ ۱۵ ژوئیهٔ ۱۶۰۶(۱۶۰۶-07-۱۵)
لیدن،
درگذشت ۴ اکتبر ۱۶۶۹ (۶۳ سال)
آمستردام،
ملّیت هلندی
رشته نقاش و چاپگر
جنبش باروک
دوران طلایی نقاشی هلند
سبک باروک
آثار برجسته درس آناتومی دکترتولپ، گشت شبانه، ضیافت بلشصر
امضا


رمبراند هارمنزون وان راین (به هلندی: Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn، تلفظ: رِمبراند هارمِنس‌زؤن فان رَین) (۱۵ ژوئیه ۱۶۰۶ یا ۱۶۰۷ (میلادی) - ۴ اکتبر ۱۶۶۹) نقاش هلندی و از مهره‌های عصر طلایی آن کشور بود.

رمبراند/ نقاش هلندی / ۱۶۰۶-۱۶۶۹[ویرایش]

کار رمبراند در نخستین سالهای فعالیت هنریش در آمستردام، از شیوه کار روبنس و دیگر نقاشان هلندی پیرو کاراوادجو مانند هونتهورست متآثر بود. مثلاً در تابلویی چون شام در امائوس که به حدود ۱۶۳۰ مربوط می‌شود، موضوع را با درام برجسته‌ای - با ایجاد تضادی شدید میان نور و سایه - شبیه سازی می‌کند، و حتی از شیوه مأنوس نقاشان همعصرش استفاده می‌کند و منبع نور را پشت یک شکل مانع قرار می‌دهد، که در اینجا کله مسیح است.

به سبب ژرف نگری در درون آدمی، قدرت تخیل، توانایی فنی و کثرت و تنوع آثارش ، یکی از برجسته ترین هنرمندان اروپایی به شمار می‌آید بعلاوه او چاپگر و رسام نیز بود و در حدود سیصد باسمه از وی به جا مانده‌است نخستین هنرمندی بود که اهمیت پرداختن به رنگ، نور و اسلوب رنگامیزی را برابر با اهمیت انتخاب موضوع دانست هدف او کاوش در دنیای درون آدمی بود، خواه در تکچهره‌هایی که از خودش و دیگران نقاشی می‌کرد، خواه در متون مذهبی که به تصویر کشید کاربست اسلوب تدرج ملایم رنگسایه‌ها - از قهوه یی خاموش تا سفید تابناک - به او امکان داد تا حالت روانی متغیر آدمی را بنمایاند، که آن را روانشناسی نور نامیدند در آثارش، نور و سایه به آرامی و با ظرافت در هم می‌آمی‌زند، شکلها را آشکار و پنهان می‌سازند، و کلیتی بصری سرشار از سکوتی روحانی و تعمقی فیلسوفانه پدید می‌آورد[۱]

زندگی[ویرایش]

رامبراند نقاش معروف هلندی است که به سال ۱۶۰۶ در شهر لیدن به دنیا آمد و به سال ۱۶۶۹ درگذشت. نماینده بارز مکتب و سبک نقاشی هلندی و استاد سایه و روشن در نقاشی است. رامبراند پسر آسیابانی از مردم لیدن بود. مادرش او را به خواندن کتاب مقدس (تورات و انجیل) ترغیب می‌کرد و به این سبب خیال هنرآفرین او هرگاه از مشاهده و تصور زندگی واقعی هلند فراغتی می‌یافت بسوی شهر بیت المقدس پرواز می‌کرد و داستان های مذهبی را مجسم می‌ساخت. هنگامی که به دانشگاه وارد شد ذوقی به آموختن مواد علمی نشان نداد. سرانجام شاگرد یکی از نقاشان محلی شد. پس از مدتی از معلم چشم پوشید و نزد خود به کار پرداخت. بیست ودوساله بود که به آمستردام رفت و در آنجا به عنوان نقاش چهره نگار به کار پرداخت و محبوبیتی به دست آورد. در آمستردام ازدواج کرد اما در سال ۱۶۴۲ زنش درگذشت و بی اعتنایی محیط نسبت به تجدد و تنوعی که او در کار خود به وجود آورده بود موجب شد که رمبراند کم کم از شیوه موردپسند جامعه هلندی روگردان شود. روح نقاشی رمبراند روشنی است. نقاش می‌کوشد ازطریق تضادی که میان سایه روشن پرده خود به وجود می آورد فاجعه زندگی بشری و عشق آسمانی و اسرار روح و حقیقت چهره تصویرشده را نشان دهد. نقاش با محیط خود روابط خوبی نداشت و مردم قدر هنرش را آن چنانکه خود هنرمند متوقع بود نمی‌شناختند. در سال ۱۶۵۷ باآنکه هنوز سفارش هایی برای کشیدن پرده‌های بزرگ به او می‌دادند وضع معاش هنرمند مختل شد، خانه خود را با مجموعه طرح هایی که در عمر خود گرد آورده بود فروخت و در یکی از محله‌های تاریک بیرون شهر آمستردام مسکن گزید. مع‌هذا آثاری که در این دوران به وجود آورده‌است به هیچ وجه حاکی از ضعف روحی و فقر و بیچارگی نقاش نیست. حتی به رغم این عسرت معیشت در پرده‌های نقاشی او جلوه رنگ های شفاف و طلایی و دقت در تحلیل قیافه و نمایش روح اشخاص بسیار بیشتر شده‌است. در چهره‌هایی که رمبراند نقش کرده آنچه بیشتر جالب توجه است برق نگاه اشخاص است. وی در شصت وسه سالگی به سال ۱۶۶۹ درگذشت. [۲]

نخستین نقاشی رمبراند که از آن اطلاع داریم[ویرایش]

برای کسانی که رمبراند را از رهگذر آثار دوران کمالش قضاوت می‌کنند و قدر می‌گذارند نخستین تابلو او ناامیدکننده می‌نماید. نخستین تابلو رمبراند که انتسابش به هنرمند کاملاً مورد تأیید قرارگرفته یک نقاشی تاریخ نگارانه‌است شبیه یکی از آثار استادش پیتر لاستمن و با عنوان سنگسارکردن استیون قدیس. این تابلو براساس داستانی درباره نخستین شهادت در تاریخ کلیسای مسیحی ساخته شده‌است. به موجب این داستان ، استیون به کفر متهم می‌شود،اورا به خارج از دیوارهای بیت المقدس می‌برند،و با سنگسارکردن از زندگی محرومش می‌کنند. در تابلو رمبراند، استیون روی زمین زانو زده و دستهایش را به بالای سربرده تا خود را در برابر سنگهایی که تا لحظه‌ای دیگر به سویش پرتاب می‌شود محفوظ نگاه دارد یا آنکه در آن حالت دست دعا و تضرع به سوی خداوند دراز کرده‌است. تکه سنگهایی که قرار است مغز او را داغان کند هر یک به اندازه یک نارنج درشت است. این لحظه بدی است... این تابلو اثر خیلی خوبی نیست؛ همه چهره‌های تابلو به طرف جلو می‌نگرند و در زمینه پیشین تابلو قرار دارند، به همان شیوه‌ای که کاراوادجو در چنین تابلویی عمل می‌کرد، سرارتابلو با نور بسیار درخشانی روشن شده‌است،به همان شیوه‌ای که لاستمن تابلوهای خود را با نور زیادروشن می‌ساخت، البته به استثنای قسمت چپ زمینه پیشین تابلو که در آن یک اسب تنومند و سوارکارآن در سایه پررنگی نشان داده شده‌اند. این شیوه پدیدآوردن تضاد به صورت تاریک نشان دادن قسمتی در یک تابلوی سرار روشن می‌تواند نماینده تأثیر و نفوذ سبک کاراوادجو باشد. در هلند بسیاری از هلندیان پروتستانتیسم را بگرمی پذیرا شدند. هلندی‌ها در آن دوران با اسپانیای کاتولیک در جنگ بودند و همین انگیزه مناسبی بود که به پروتستانتیسم روی آورند. نیمی از هلندی‌ها همچنان کاتولیک باقی‌ماندند و نیمی دیگر به کالونیسم، لوتریانیسم، فرقه آناباپتیست‌ها، فرقه منونیت‌ها، و دیگر فرقه‌های کوچک مذهبی گرویدند، و آنگاه اختلافات مذهبی و به دنبال آن کشمکشها و تعارضهاآغاز شد.... یوهان وان اولدنبارنولت، سیاستمدار برجسته هلندی،به اتهام حمایت از معترضان (کالونیست‌های لیبرال)، سرش را از دست داد. در چنین محیط و فضای اجتماعی بود که رمبراند تابلو سنگسارکردن استیون قدیس را پدید آورد. تابلویی که در واقع نموداراعتراض هنرمند به کشته شدن اولدنبارنولت بود، ودرعین حال، درخواست التماس آمیز هنرمند را برای دعوت مردم به تساهل و مدارای مذهبی مطرح می‌ساخت و فریادی بود که در طرفداری از صلح و آرامش برآورده شد. از این نظرگاه چنین به نظرمی‌رسد که رمبراند، با قراردادن خوددرصف معترضان و مخالفت با شاهزاده‌ای که سر انسانی را به همان سبب از تن جدا کرده بود، شجاعت و شهامتی نمایان از خود نشان داده‌است... ازاوضاع و احوال چنین برمی آید که شخص رمبراند در عین حال که فردی خداپرست و معتقد به حضرت مسیح بوداز هیچ یک از گروه‌های مذهبی فعال در آن دوران طرفداری نمی‌کرد، او از چهره همه گونه اشخاص اعم از کالونیست‌ها،معترضان، منونیت‌ها، و یهودیان تصویرهایی تهیه می‌کرد. حال اگر بخواهیم ترسیم این تابلو را ازنقطه نظرابراز شهامت و بی باکی رمبراند مورد قضاوت قرار دهیم و به این نتیجه برسیم که وی در آن زمان که معترضان مورد آزار قرار می‌گرفتند و به پشتیبانی شخصیتی نیاز داشتند با تهیه این تابلو به یاری آنان شتافت. با همه این احوال، یک نکته مسلم می‌نماید که رمبراند در انتخاب موضوع برای پرده‌های نقاشی خویش دقت کافی معمول می‌داشت تا این موضوع‌ها با معیارهای مشخص سازنده سبک خاص و مکتب مورد علاقه اش هماهنگی داشته باشد، او در سراسرزندگی خود از تورات و انجیل به عنوان منبع اصلی موضوع برای نقاشی‌هایش استفاده کرده‌است. اکنون به این نکته بپردازیم که، ازنظر جنبه‌های کاملاً هنری در تابلو مورد بحث، چه چیزهایی مشخص کننده سبک خاص رمبراند می‌تواند باشد؟ مهمترین و چشمگیرترین نشان خاص رمبراند در این تابلو، احساس نیرومند پددیدآوردن یک درام است. در اغلب تابلوهای لاستمن، نقاش لحظه‌ای را برای نشان دادن اوج درام برگزیده‌است که لحظه‌ای کلیدی و بسیار حساس است و نقاشان تاریخ نگار همیشه مراقب بوده‌اند که در هر یک از تابلوهایشان چنین لحظه اوجگیری درام موجود باشد.لیکن در تابلوی سنگسارکردن استیون قدیس چنین می‌نماید که رمبراند راهی بهتر و مؤثرتر از آنچه بخاطر استادش رسیده بود یافته‌است : این فقط یک لحظه کلیدی محض نیست، بلکه لحظه‌ای کلیدی است که به حد اعلای عمق و تأثیرگذاری خود رسیده‌است و،دراین تابلو، درست موقعی است که لحظه‌ای بعد استیون قدیس در نتیجه اصابت قلوه سنگی پریشان می‌شود. برخلاف لاستمن که غالباً چهره‌های قهرمانان تابلوهایش را در یک چارچوب آرایش یافته با دکورهای لازم مصور می‌سازد،رمبراند چنین دکورهایی را به کنار می‌گذاردو چهره‌های قهرمانان تابلو را کاملاً در پیش زمینه تابلو می‌نشاند و، بدین ترتیب، درسیمای بینده، به محض نگریستن به تابلو، حالت شور و هیجان پدیدار می‌شود. چهره‌ها نیز در تابلوهای رمبراند، برخلاف اغلب تابلوهای لاستمن ،آرام و آسوده نیستند، بلکه سرشاراز احساس و شور تند می‌نمایند. رمبراند با سبک خاص خود از مرزهای نقاشی روایتگرانه بسی فراتررفته و حتی مرزهای چنان نقاشی را که می‌توان روایتگری دراماتیک نامید پشت سرنهاده بود. رمبراند لحظه قاطع درام را نقاشی می‌کرد. بنابراین، رمبراند نه نقاشی تاریخ نگار یا روایتگر، بلکه درام نگاری جوان بود.[۳]

مضامین نقاشی‌های رمبراند[ویرایش]

رمبراند تابلوهای زیادی هم به صورت سفارشی و هم به صورت غیرسفارشی کشید که می‌توان آنها را برحسب تاریخی، اسطوره‌ای، پرتره‌های سفارشی گروهی و نقاشی‌های ژانر طبقه بندی نمود. بعضی ار جالب ترین آثار رمبراند رااین گونه مضامین تشکیل می‌دهند. کلمه ژانر که یک اصطلاح است به نقاشی‌هایی اطلاق می‌شود که صحنه‌های از زندگی عادی و چیزهای محلی و سوژه‌های این دنیایی و معمولی را نشان می‌دهند. در هلند قرن هفده سوژه‌های ژانر بسیار محبوبیت داشت. محبوبیت آنها خیلی هم عجیب نبود، چون خصوصیت مردم هلند را نشان می‌داد.آنها کشور و سرزمین و جامعه‌شان را دوست داشتند و می‌خواستند تصویرشان بهنگام کار یا بازی ترسیم شود. آنها همچنین تابلوهای راجع به فقر را دوست داشتند. به هرحال یکی از سوژه‌های مورد علاقه رمبراند، فیلسوف یا دانشمندی است که در مکانی به حال اندیشیدن دیده می‌شود که او با این سوژه توانست آرامش تفکر و ارتباط با خداوند را در مکانی خلوت به تصویردرآورد. بعضی از نقاشی‌های تاریخی و اسطوره‌ای علی‌رغم عدم تمایل کامل رمبراند در مضامین اسطوره‌ای نیز دارای اهمیت اند. ریشه سوژه‌های اسطوره‌ای در تاریخ هنر در سنت دیرینه کلاسیک یونان و تفکر رومی نهفته‌است و علاقه رمبراند علی‌رغم تحصیلات کلاسیکش در دانشگاه لیدن به واقعیتی بود که بتواند الهام را در خصوصیت قهرمانی اسطوره بیابد. در واقع «دیانای» او با الهه شکار بودن فاصله دارد و Danaë که یکی از تصاویر مهم او از بدن برهنه‌است گرمی و طراوت زنی جوان را تماماً دارد و دارای چنان احساسی از واقعیت است که ژوپیتر بصورت رگباری از طلا به هنگام دیدن او به طورناگفتنی مضحک بنظر می‌رسد.

سفارشهای گروهی رمبراند شامل بعضی از مهمترین و سمبولیکی ترین آثار او نیز می‌شود. اولین سفارش بزرگ که مطمئناً در کسب شهرت او مؤثربوده تابلوی درس آناتومی دکترنیکلاتولپ می‌باشد. این اثر به هنگامی نقاشی شد که رمبراند بیست و دو سال داشته و این اولین کوشش او برای در یکجا نشان دادن تعدادی آدم در یک نقاشی پرتره‌است. این تابلو توسط صنف جراحان سفارش داده شد تا در سالن تشریح آویخته شود و اگرچه آن دارای وحدتی کافی نیست- افراد مختلف در تابلو بنظر می‌رسد که در درس شرکت ندارند- ولی با وجود این برای جوانی به سن او کار قابل توجهی به حساب می‌آید. دکتر تولپ با شکل خشک و رسمی خود در حال تشریح بدن برای گروهی از جراحان است ولی دو نفر سمت راست بنظر می‌رسند که از دیگران جدا گشته و جلب این شده‌اند که در بیرون چه می‌گذرد. نحوه تنظیم نور خیلی بازتر و مستقیم تر از آنچه که معمولاً در آثار رمبراند وجود دارد می‌باشد.نور روشن است و افراد کامل کشیده شده و با فواصل مساوی پخش گردیده‌اند. اگرچه این امر به طور تحسین برانگیزی با هدف تناسب دارد ولی با سایر پرتره‌های گروهی زمان خودش متفاوت است زیرا به جای سعی در بیان حالت مجموعه چهره‌ها و اندام‌ها هر یک با اهمیت خاص خود جدا قرارگرفته‌اند، رمبراند در اینجا خواسته سعی کند برصحنه تا اندازه‌ای حالتی دراماتیک واقعی بدهد که تا حدی ولی نه بطور کامل در این امر موفق شده‌است، در تابلوی شبگردان این وحدت به دست آمده و با استفاده از کیاروسکوری قوی در تابلو صحنه را واقعی تر می‌نماید. در آخرین و بزرگترین سفارش خود یعنی «سران صنف پارچه فروش» باز هم نور مسطح است و از سایه‌های عمیق و پرطنینی که در تابلوی شبگردان به وفور دیده می‌شود اثری به چشم نمی‌خورد. گروه پنج نفری صنف پارچه فروش با یک پیش خدمت در زمینه عقب در سرتاسر تابلو بطور مسطح پخش شده‌اند و هر یک از گروه پنج نفری استعلام بیننده را می‌طلبد. رمبراند اغلب سوژه‌هایی را دوست داشت که در آنها کاراکترهای مختلفی بتوانند با یک هدف مشترک وحدت یابند و او احساس کرد که این عمل به او فرصتی خواهد داد تا تفاوت حساس کاراکترها را مطالعه کند. هرگاه بتوان با این راه ساده درباره خصلت مردی صحبت کرد همانا یکی از خصوصیات استعداد رمبراند را آشکار ساخته‌ایم.[۴]

گراوورهای رمبراند[ویرایش]

ذوق هنری رمبراند شیوه‌های گرافیک، از جمله گراوور تیزابی را نیز دربرمی گیرد. در اینجا نیز او در میان سرآمدان قرارمی‌گیرد و شانه به شانه آلبرشت دورر،استاد بزرگ و گراوورساز اصیل می‌ساید. گراوور تیزابی که در نخستین سالهای سده هفدهم تکمیل شده بود سریعاً دنبال گردید، چون در مقایسه با حکاکی، به مراتب سروسامان پذیرتر بود و در کشیدن طرح، آزادی بیشتری به هنرمند می‌داد. در گراوورسازی تیزابی،یک لوح مسین را با لایه‌ای از موم یا روغن شفاف می‌پوشاندند و سپس طرح یا تصویر را با یک سوزن یا قلم گراوورسازی یا هر ابزار نوک تیز دیگر روی آن می‌کشندو لایه روغنی مزبور را در نقاط پیوسته طرح یا تصویر از روی لوح مسین می‌زدایند ولی برشی در سطحش ایجاد نمی‌کنند. این لوح ،آنگاه در ظرفی پراسید فروبرده می‌شود؛ اسید،بخش‌های بی روغن شده فلز را می‌خورد و به بیان دیگر، همان کاری را انجام می‌دهد که قلم کنده کاری در شیوه حکاکی انجام می‌دهد. نرمی لایه روغن ، به هنرمند گراوورساز، در مقایسه با هنرمند حکاک چوب یا فلز که مستقیماً روی سطح مقاوم چوبی یا فلزی کار می‌کند، آزادی بیشتری می‌دهد. بدین ترتیب، پیش از اختراع لیتوگراف ( درسده نوزدهم ) ، گراوورسازی تیزابی، آسان ترین شیوه در هنرهای چاپی و شیوه‌ای بود که طراحی و چاپ ظریف ترین خط و رنگ را میسر می‌ساخت. اگر رمبراند هیچ گاه نقاشی نکرده بود باز به علت باسمه‌هایی که چاپ کرده بود هنرمندی نامدار می‌شد، همچنان که در دوران زندگی خود چنین بود. چاپ و فروش باسمه از منابع اصلی درآمدش بود و او غالباً در لوح‌های فلزیش تجدیدنظر می‌کرد تا بتواند ویرایش یا نسخه تازه‌ای از هر باسمه یا گراوور به بازار هنر برساند.

سه صلیب, ۱۶۵۳.

درتصویر روبرو مرحله یا نسخه چهارم گراوور سه صلیب او را نشان می‌دهد. در نسخه‌های پیشین، او تپه کالواری را به شکلی بسیار زیبا و تاریخی، با انبوه سربازان و تماشاگران، تماماً با شیوه‌ای توصیفی و بسیارپرزحمت، شبیه سازی کرده بود. در این آخرین نسخه، آنچه مطرح می‌شود نه اهمیت تاریخی بلکه اهمیت نمادین تپه مزبور است. رمبراند که گویی حوصله اش از جزئیات پیشین سررفته بود، بیشترین بخش آن را با ضربات سخت و رو به پائین سوزن گراوورسازیش حذف کرد تا آنکه به نظر می‌رسد آنچه به توفانی از خطوط سیاه شباهت دارد از آسمان به زمین می‌بارد، و بخشی از صحنه را برفراز سر مصلوبان روشن نگاه داشته‌است. در اینجا آشکارا اثبات می‌شود که رمبراند می‌خواسته بگوید که «کل داستان کتاب مقدس، برای آن است که آدمی را به سوی صلیب هدایت کند».

هنر رمبراند در آخرین سالهای زندگیش ، عملاً از سوی معاصرانش پذیرفته نمی‌شد، هرچند گاهگاه مأموریتهای مهمی چون کشیدن تابلوی سران صنف پارچه فروش نیز به وی واگذار می‌شد. هنر رمبراند در این سالها بسیار شخصی و بسیار خودمدارانه بود؛ بسیاری از هنرشناسان، مانند بالدینوتچی زندگی نامه نویس ایتالیایی،معتقد بودند که رمبراند نقاش بی ذوقی بودکه به شکلهای زشت توجه داشت و رنگ را از یاد برده بود. این پیشداوری تا سده نوزدهم نیز به اعتبار خود باقی بود، تا آنکه در این دوره نبوغش مورد تأیید و تصدیق قرار گرفت. امروزه او به عنوان یکی از بزرگترین استادان سنت نقاشی و گراوورسازی، نقاشی پرتوان، و مفسر بی مانند مفاهیم پروتستانی کتاب مقدس شناخته می‌شود. در روزگار ما، او الگویی برای هنرمند معاصر، و استادی منزوی و شجاع تلقی می‌شود که راه خویش را بدون ترس از سوء تفاهماتی که احتمالاً فراراهش قرار خواهند گرفت به سوی قله‌های تازه می‌گشاید.[۵]

ارسطو در کنار مجسمه نیم تنه هومر[ویرایش]

یادی از مردان بزرگ[ویرایش]

رمبراند در جوانی با تاریخ روم و شعرهای حماسی یونان آشنا شد و زمانی که توانست از راه فروش تابلوهایش درآمدی کسب کند، سرمایه اندکی را صرف خرید نیم تنه‌های امپراطورهای روم و فیلسوفان یونان کرد. یکی از این مجسمه‌ها نیم تنه هومر، داستان سرا و شاعر یونانی،است و احتمالاً همان نیم تنه‌ای است که در تابلو دیده می‌شود. هرچند درباره زندگی این شاعر بزرگ سؤالات و اسرار گوناگونی وجود دارد و آنچه در دست است تنها گوشه‌ای از حقایق است، اما این نکته که هومر نابینا بوده‌است حقیقتی است ک همه تاریخ نویسان برآن اتفاق نظر دارند.

تعمق ارسطو در مجسمه هومر[ویرایش]

ارسطو حدود پانصد سال پس از هومر می‌زیست. او در هلند پس از شخصیت‌های کتاب مقدس ، مشهورترین فرد از دوران باستان است. به نظر می‌رسد ارسطو پس از بررسی چهره شاعر با حالتی فیلسوفانه به نقطه‌ای در دوردست خیره شده‌است. تمام مطالعات ارسطو در درجه نخست بر اساس مشاهده و تجربه مستقیم بود و شاید به این دلیل در شگفت است که چگونه هومر با وجود نابینایی توانسته‌است زندگی و طبیعت را صادقانه و حقیقی در اشعارش تجسم بخشد. اما مضمون نقاشی یقیناً نابینایی هومر نیست، بلکه نعمت داشتن چشم بصیرت است.

ارتباط سه مرد با یکدیگر[ویرایش]

چهره ارسطو که در فضای تیره‌ای محصور شده‌است، با زنجیری که به گردن دارد همسان با سر مرمرین می‌درخشد. چنین به نظر می‌رسد که جلیقه سیاه فیلسوف مانند پایه مجسمه هومر تکیه گاه سر فیلسوف است. مدالی از زنجیر طلا و نقره به گردن او آویزان است که چهره مشهورترین شاگردش، اسکندرکبیر، برآن حک شده‌است. زنجیر تا دست چپ فیلسوف امتداد یافته و از طریق آستین نگاه را به سوی چهره او بازمیگرداند. آستین دیگر لباس، ارسطو را به هومر ارتباط می‌دهد. با تکرار رنگ کرم نیم تنه در سراسر آستین، رمبراند این دو را بیشتر یه یکدیگر مرتبط می‌سازد و نوری که چهره و آستین ارسطو را روشن می‌کند بر چشمان نابینای هومر نتابیده‌است رمبراند با قرار دادن نیم تنه روی میزی با رومیزی قرمز بر آن تأکید نموده‌است.[۶]

آثار شاخص[ویرایش]

نگارخانه[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. گروه نرم‌افزاری ابتکار
  2. www.dics.ir
  3. سیمای رمبراند، ص ۸۶
  4. آشنایی باآثار رمبراند، ص ۲۶
  5. هلن گاردنر،ترجمه محمدتقی فرامرزی، ص ۵۲۸
  6. رامبرانت چگونه رامبرانت شد

رامبرانت یکی از سه اسطوره نقاشی هلند بوده و سبک کارهای او باروک می‌باشد، دو نقاش دیگر ون گوگ (امپرسیونیست) و موندریان (نیو پلاستی سیسم) هستند.

منابع[ویرایش]

"Rembrandt van Rijn." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 11 Nov. 2006 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9109483>.

  • گامبریچ، ارنست. تاریخ هنر. ترجمهٔ رامین، علی. چاپ سوم. تهران: نشر نی، ۱۳۷۹. 
  • رامبرانت چگونه رامبرانت شد؟نوشته=مولبرگر، ریچارد
  • گاردنر، هلن. تاریخ هنر. ترجمهٔ فرامرزی، محمدتقی. چاپ هشتم. تهران: انتشارات آگاه،انتشارات نگاه، ۱۳۸۶. 

Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt van Rijn - Self-Portrait - Google Art Project.jpg
Birth name Rembrant Harmenszoon van Rijn
Born (1606-07-15)15 July 1606[1]
Leiden, Dutch Republic (now Netherlands)
Died 4 October 1669(1669-10-04) (aged 63)
Amsterdam, Dutch Republic (now Netherlands)
Nationality Dutch
Field Painting, Printmaking
Movement Dutch Golden Age
Baroque
Works

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632
Belshazzar's Feast, 1635
The Night Watch, 1642
Bathsheba at Her Bath, 1654

Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, 1662

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (Dutch: [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə(n)soːn vɑn ˈrɛin] ( ); 15 July 1606[1] – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history.[2] His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative.

Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high,[3] and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters.[4] Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.[2]

In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population.[5] Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization."[6]

Life

Self-portrait with Saskia, c. 1635

Rembrandt[7] Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden,[1] in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck.[8] His family was quite well-to-do; his father was a miller and his mother was a baker's daughter. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest. His mother was Roman Catholic, his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk (Old Church) and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk (Southern Church).[9]

As a boy he attended Latin school and was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting; he was soon apprenticed to a Leiden history painter, Jacob van Swanenburgh, with whom he spent three years.[10] After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and then started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden.[10][11] Rembrandt opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens. In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou.[12]

In 1629 Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, the father of Christiaan Huygens, (the Dutch mathematician and physicist), who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague. As a result of this connection Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646.[13]

At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, then rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, and began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, and in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh.[14][15] Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester (mayor) of Leeuwarden. When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives.[16] In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and a member of the local guild of painters. He also acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck.[17]

Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, ca. 1635

In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat. In 1639 they moved to a prominent newly built house (now the Rembrandt House Museum) in the upscale 'Breestraat' (eng.: 'Broadway'), today known as Jodenbreestraat in what was becoming the Jewish quarter; then a young upcoming neighborhood. The mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a primary cause for later financial difficulties.[17] Rembrandt should easily have been able to pay the house off with his large income, but it appears his spending always kept pace with his income, and he may have made some unsuccessful investments.[18] It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes.[19] Although they were by now affluent, the couple suffered several personal setbacks; their son Rumbartus died two months after his birth in 1635 and their daughter Cornelia died at just three weeks of age in 1638. In 1640, they had a second daughter, also named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month. Only their fourth child, Titus, who was born in 1641, survived into adulthood. Saskia died in 1642 soon after Titus's birth, probably from tuberculosis. Rembrandt's drawings of her on her sick and death bed are among his most moving works.[20]

During Saskia's illness, Geertje Dircx was hired as Titus' caretaker and nurse and also became Rembrandt's lover. She would later charge Rembrandt with breach of promise and was awarded alimony of 200 guilders a year.[17] Rembrandt worked to have her committed for twelve years to an asylum or poorhouse (called a "bridewell") at Gouda, after learning she had pawned jewelry that had once belonged to Saskia and that he had given to her.[21]

In the late 1640s Rembrandt began a relationship with the much younger Hendrickje Stoffels, who had initially been his maid. In 1654 they had a daughter, Cornelia, bringing Hendrickje a summons from the Reformed Church to answer the charge "that she had committed the acts of a whore with Rembrandt the painter". She admitted this and was banned from receiving communion. Rembrandt was not summoned to appear for the Church council because he was not a member of the Reformed Church.[22] The two were considered legally wed under common law, but Rembrandt had not married Hendrickje; had he remarried he would have lost access to a trust set up for Titus in the son's mother's will.[20]

Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660

Rembrandt lived beyond his means, buying art (including bidding up his own work), prints (often used in his paintings), and rarities, which probably caused a court arrangement to avoid his bankruptcy in 1656, by selling most of his paintings and large collection of antiquities. The sale list survives and gives us a good insight into Rembrandt's collections, which apart from Old Master paintings and drawings included busts of the Roman Emperors, suits of Japanese armor among many objects from Asia, and collections of natural history and minerals; the prices realized in the sales in 1657 and 1658 were disappointing.[23] Rembrandt was forced to sell his house and his printing-press and move to more modest accommodation on the Rozengracht in 1660.[24] The authorities and his creditors were generally accommodating to him, except for the Amsterdam painters' guild, who introduced a new rule that no one in Rembrandt's circumstances could trade as a painter. To get around this, Hendrickje and Titus set up a business as art-dealers in 1660, with Rembrandt as an employee.[25]

In 1661 Rembrandt (or rather the new business) was contracted to complete work for the newly built city hall, but only after Govert Flinck, the artist previously commissioned, died without beginning to paint. The resulting work, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis, was rejected and returned to the painter; the surviving fragment is only a fraction of the whole work.[26] It was around this time that Rembrandt took on his last apprentice, Aert de Gelder. In 1662 he was still fulfilling major commissions for portraits and other works.[27] When Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany came to Amsterdam in 1667, he visited Rembrandt at his house.[28]

Rembrandt outlived both Hendrickje, who died in 1663, and Titus, who died in 1668, leaving a baby daughter. He died within a year of his son, on October 4, 1669 in Amsterdam, and was buried in an unmarked grave in the Westerkerk.[29][30]

Works

The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, 1633. The painting is still missing after the robbery from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in 1990.

In a letter to Huygens, Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement, translated from de meeste en de natuurlijkste beweegelijkheid. The word "beweechgelickhijt" is also argued to mean "emotion" or "motive." Whether this refers to objectives, material or otherwise is open to interpretation; either way, critics have drawn particular attention to the way Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual.[31]

Earlier 20th century connoisseurs claimed Rembrandt had produced over 600 paintings, nearly 400 etchings and 2,000 drawings.[32] More recent scholarship, from the 1960s to the present day (led by the Rembrandt Research Project), often controversially, has winnowed his oeuvre to nearer 300 paintings.[33] His prints, traditionally all called etchings, although many are produced in whole or part by engraving and sometimes drypoint, have a much more stable total of slightly under 300.[34] It is likely Rembrandt made many more drawings in his lifetime than 2,000, but those extant are more rare than presumed.[35] Two experts claim that the number of drawings whose autograph status can be regarded as effectively "certain" is no higher than about 75, although this is disputed. The list was to be unveiled at a scholarly meeting in February 2010.[36]

At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, but it is now known that he had his students copy his own self-portraits as part of their training. Modern scholarship has reduced the autograph count to over forty paintings, as well as a few drawings and thirty-one etchings, which include many of the most remarkable images of the group.[37] Some show him posing in quasi-historical fancy dress, or pulling faces at himself. His oil paintings trace the progress from an uncertain young man, through the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630s, to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age. Together they give a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up, as revealed by his richly weathered face.[38]

In his portraits and self-portraits, he angles the sitter's face in such a way that the ridge of the nose nearly always forms the line of demarcation between brightly illuminated and shadowy areas. A Rembrandt face is a face partially eclipsed; and the nose, bright and obvious, thrusting into the riddle of halftones, serves to focus the viewer's attention upon, and to dramatize, the division between a flood of light—an overwhelming clarity—and a brooding duskiness.[39]

In a number of biblical works, including The Raising of the Cross, Joseph Telling His Dreams and The Stoning of Saint Stephen, Rembrandt painted himself as a character in the crowd. Durham suggests that this was because the Bible was for Rembrandt "a kind of diary, an account of moments in his own life."[40]

Among the more prominent characteristics of Rembrandt's work are his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow derived from Caravaggio, or, more likely, from the Dutch Caravaggisti, but adapted for very personal means.[41] Also notable are his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed, and a deeply felt compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth and age. His immediate family—his wife Saskia, his son Titus and his common-law wife Hendrickje—often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical, biblical or historical themes.

Periods, themes and styles

The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work has been described as "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of Baroque painting."[42]

Throughout his career Rembrandt took as his primary subjects the themes of portraiture, landscape and narrative painting. For the last, he was especially praised by his contemporaries, who extolled him as a masterly interpreter of biblical stories for his skill in representing emotions and attention to detail.[43] Stylistically, his paintings progressed from the early "smooth" manner, characterized by fine technique in the portrayal of illusionistic form, to the late "rough" treatment of richly variegated paint surfaces, which allowed for an illusionism of form suggested by the tactile quality of the paint itself.[44]

A parallel development may be seen in Rembrandt's skill as a printmaker. In the etchings of his maturity, particularly from the late 1640s onward, the freedom and breadth of his drawings and paintings found expression in the print medium as well. The works encompass a wide range of subject matter and technique, sometimes leaving large areas of white paper to suggest space, at other times employing complex webs of line to produce rich dark tones.[45]

It was during Rembrandt's Leiden period (1625–1631) that Lastman's influence was most prominent. It is also likely that at this time Lievens had a strong impact on his work as well.[46] Paintings were rather small, but rich in details (for example, in costumes and jewelry). Religious and allegorical themes were favored, as were tronies.[46] In 1626 Rembrandt produced his first etchings, the wide dissemination of which would largely account for his international fame.[46] In 1629 he completed Judas Repentant, Returning the Pieces of Silver and The Artist in His Studio, works that evidence his interest in the handling of light and variety of paint application, and constitute the first major progress in his development as a painter.[47]

A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success

During his early years in Amsterdam (1632–1636), Rembrandt began to paint dramatic biblical and mythological scenes in high contrast and of large format (The Blinding of Samson, 1636, Belshazzar's Feast, c. 1635 Danaë, 1636), seeking to emulate the baroque style of Rubens.[48] With the occasional help of assistants in Uylenburgh's workshop, he painted numerous portrait commissions both small (Jacob de Gheyn III) and large (Portrait of the Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and his Wife, 1633, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632).[49]

By the late 1630s Rembrandt had produced a few paintings and many etchings of landscapes. Often these landscapes highlighted natural drama, featuring uprooted trees and ominous skies (Cottages before a Stormy Sky, c. 1641; The Three Trees, 1643). From 1640 his work became less exuberant and more sober in tone, possibly reflecting personal tragedy. Biblical scenes were now derived more often from the New Testament than the Old Testament, as had been the case before. In 1642 he painted The Night Watch, the most substantial of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period, and through which he sought to find solutions to compositional and narrative problems that had been attempted in previous works.[50]

In the decade following the Night Watch, Rembrandt's paintings varied greatly in size, subject, and style. The previous tendency to create dramatic effects primarily by strong contrasts of light and shadow gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. Simultaneously, figures came to be placed parallel to the picture plane. These changes can be seen as a move toward a classical mode of composition and, considering the more expressive use of brushwork as well, may indicate a familiarity with Venetian art (Susanna and the Elders, 1637–47).[51] At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes.[52] In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.

Self Portrait, 1658, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits"[53]

In the 1650s, Rembrandt's style changed again. Colors became richer and brush strokes more pronounced. With these changes, Rembrandt distanced himself from earlier work and current fashion, which increasingly inclined toward fine, detailed works. His use of light becomes more jagged and harsh, and shine becomes almost nonexistent. His singular approach to paint application may have been suggested in part by familiarity with the work of Titian, and could be seen in the context of the then current discussion of 'finish' and surface quality of paintings. Contemporary accounts sometimes remark disapprovingly of the coarseness of Rembrandt's brushwork, and the artist himself was said to have dissuaded visitors from looking too closely at his paintings.[54] The tactile manipulation of paint may hearken to medieval procedures, when mimetic effects of rendering informed a painting's surface. The end result is a richly varied handling of paint, deeply layered and often apparently haphazard, which suggests form and space in both an illusory and highly individual manner.[55]

In later years biblical themes were still depicted often, but emphasis shifted from dramatic group scenes to intimate portrait-like figures (James the Apostle, 1661). In his last years, Rembrandt painted his most deeply reflective self-portraits (from 1652 to 1669 he painted fifteen), and several moving images of both men and women (The Jewish Bride, c. 1666)—in love, in life, and before God.[56][57]

Etchings

The Hundred Guilder Print, c. 1647–1649, etching

Rembrandt produced etchings for most of his career, from 1626 to 1660, when he was forced to sell his printing-press and virtually abandoned etching. Only the troubled year of 1649 produced no dated work.[58] He took easily to etching and, though he also learned to use a burin and partly engraved many plates, the freedom of etching technique was fundamental to his work. He was very closely involved in the whole process of printmaking, and must have printed at least early examples of his etchings himself. At first he used a style based on drawing, but soon moved to one based on painting, using a mass of lines and numerous bitings with the acid to achieve different strengths of line. Towards the end of the 1630s, he reacted against this manner and moved to a simpler style, with fewer bitings.[59] He worked on the so-called Hundred Guilder Print in stages throughout the 1640s, and it was the "critical work in the middle of his career", from which his final etching style began to emerge.[60] Although the print only survives in two states, the first very rare, evidence of much reworking can be seen underneath the final print and many drawings survive for elements of it.[61]

The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt, 1653, State III of V

In the mature works of the 1650s, Rembrandt was more ready to improvise on the plate and large prints typically survive in several states, up to eleven, often radically changed. He now uses hatching to create his dark areas, which often take up much of the plate. He also experimented with the effects of printing on different kinds of paper, including Japanese paper, which he used frequently, and on vellum. He began to use "surface tone," leaving a thin film of ink on parts of the plate instead of wiping it completely clean to print each impression. He made more use of drypoint, exploiting, especially in landscapes, the rich fuzzy burr that this technique gives to the first few impressions.[62]

His prints have similar subjects to his paintings, although the twenty-seven self-portraits are relatively more common, and portraits of other people less so. There are forty-six landscapes, mostly small, which largely set the course for the graphic treatment of landscape until the end of the 19th century. One third of his etchings are of religious subjects, many treated with a homely simplicity, whilst others are his most monumental prints. A few erotic, or just obscene, compositions have no equivalent in his paintings.[63] He owned, until forced to sell it, a magnificent collection of prints by other artists, and many borrowings and influences in his work can be traced to artists as diverse as Mantegna, Raphael, Hercules Seghers, and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione.

Night Watch

The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Rembrandt painted The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq between 1640 and 1642. This picture was called the Nachtwacht by the Dutch and the Night Watch by Sir Joshua Reynolds because by the 18th century the picture was so dimmed and defaced by time that it was almost indistinguishable and it looked quite like a night scene. After it was cleaned, it was discovered to represent broad day—a party of musketeers stepping from a gloomy courtyard into the blinding sunlight.

The piece was commissioned for the new hall of the Kloveniersdoelen, the musketeer branch of the civic militia. Rembrandt departed from convention, which ordered that such genre pieces should be stately and formal, rather a line-up than an action scene. Instead he showed the militia readying themselves to embark on a mission (what kind of mission, an ordinary patrol or some special event, is a matter of debate).

Contrary to what is often said, the work was hailed as a success from the beginning. Parts of the canvas were cut off (approximately 20% from the left hand side was removed) to make the painting fit its new position when it was moved to Amsterdam town hall in 1715; the Rijksmuseum has a smaller copy of what is thought to be the full original composition; the four figures in the front are at the centre of the canvas. The painting is now in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.[64]

Expert assessments

The Polish Rider – Possibly a Lisowczyk on horseback. The subject is of much discussion. It is possible that the person depicted was Grand Chancellor of Lithuania, Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński (1632–1690).

In 1968 the Rembrandt Research Project began under the sponsorship of the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Scientific Research; it was initially expected to last a highly optimistic ten years. Art historians teamed up with experts from other fields to reassess the authenticity of works attributed to Rembrandt, using all methods available, including state-of-the-art technical diagnostics, and to compile a complete new catalogue raisonné of his paintings. As a result of their findings, many paintings that were previously attributed to Rembrandt have been removed from their list, although others have been added back.[65] Many of those removed are now thought to be the work of his students.

One example of activity is The Polish Rider, in New York's Frick Collection. Rembrandt's authorship had been questioned by at least one scholar, Alfred von Wurzbach, at the beginning of the twentieth century, but for many decades later most scholars, including the foremost authority writing in English, Julius S. Held, agreed that it was indeed by the master. In the 1980s, however, Dr. Josua Bruyn of the Foundation Rembrandt Research Project cautiously and tentatively attributed the painting to one of Rembrandt's closest and most talented pupils, Willem Drost, about whom little is known. But Bruyn's remained a minority opinion, the suggestion of Drost's authorship is now generally rejected, and the Frick itself never changed its own attribution, the label still reading "Rembrandt" and not "attributed to" or "school of". More recent opinion has shifted even more decisively in favor of the Frick, with Simon Schama (in his 1999 book Rembrandt's Eyes) and the Rembrandt Project scholar Ernst van de Wetering (Melbourne Symposium, 1997) both arguing for attribution to the master. Those few scholars who still question Rembrandt's authorship feel that the execution is uneven, and favour different attributions for different parts of the work.[66]

Man in a Golden helmet, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, no longer attributed to the master

A similar issue was raised by Simon Schama in his book Rembrandt's Eyes concerning the verification of titles associated with the subject matter depicted in Rembrandt's works. For example, the exact subject being portrayed in Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (recently retitled by curators at the Metropolitan Museum) has been directly challenged by Schama applying the scholarship of Paul Crenshaw.[67] Schama presents a substantial argument that it was the famous ancient Greek painter Apelles who is depicted in contemplation by Rembrandt and not Aristotle.[68]

Another painting, Pilate Washing His Hands, is also of questionable attribution. Critical opinion of this picture has varied since 1905, when Wilhelm von Bode described it as "a somewhat abnormal work" by Rembrandt. Scholars have since dated the painting to the 1660s and assigned it to an anonymous pupil, possibly Aert de Gelder. The composition bears superficial resemblance to mature works by Rembrandt but lacks the master's command of illumination and modeling.[69]

The attribution and re-attribution work is ongoing. In 2005 four oil paintings previously attributed to Rembrandt's students were reclassified as the work of Rembrandt himself: Study of an Old Man in Profile and Study of an Old Man with a Beard from a US private collection, Study of a Weeping Woman, owned by the Detroit Institute of Arts, and Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet, painted in 1640.[70]

Rembrandt's own studio practice is a major factor in the difficulty of attribution, since, like many masters before him, he encouraged his students to copy his paintings, sometimes finishing or retouching them to be sold as originals, and sometimes selling them as authorized copies. Additionally, his style proved easy enough for his most talented students to emulate. Further complicating matters is the uneven quality of some of Rembrandt's own work, and his frequent stylistic evolutions and experiments.[71] As well, there were later imitations of his work, and restorations which so seriously damaged the original works that they are no longer recognizable.[72] It is highly likely that there will never be universal agreement as to what does and what does not constitute a genuine Rembrandt.

Name and signature

Rembrandt's house in Amsterdam, now the Rembrandt House Museum

"Rembrandt" is a modification of the spelling of the artist's first name that he introduced in 1633. Roughly speaking, his earliest signatures (ca. 1625) consisted of an initial "R", or the monogram "RH" (for Rembrant Harmenszoon; i.e. "Rembrant, the son of Harmen"), and starting in 1629, "RHL" (the "L" stood, presumably, for Leiden). In 1632, he used this monogram early in the year, then added his patronymic to it, "RHL-van Rijn",[clarification needed] but replaced this form in that same year and began using his first name alone with its original spelling, "Rembrant". In 1633 he added a "d", and maintained this form consistently from then on, proving that this minor change had a meaning for him (whatever it might have been). This change is purely visual; it does not change the way his name is pronounced. Curiously enough, despite the large number of paintings and etchings signed with this modified first name, most of their documents that mentioned him during his lifetime retained the original "Rembrant" spelling. (Note: the rough chronology of signature forms above applies to the paintings, and to a lesser degree to the etchings; from 1632, presumably, there is only one etching signed "RHL-v. Rijn," the large-format "Raising of Lazarus," B 73).[73] His practice of signing his work with his first name, later followed by Vincent van Gogh, was probably inspired by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo who, then as now, were referred to by their first names alone.[74]

Workshop

Slaughtered Ox, (1655), Musée du Louvre, Paris

It is known that Rembrandt ran a large workshop and had many pupils. His fame was such that important dignitaries visiting Amsterdam wished to buy pieces, and he was more than willing to comply if he could. The list of Rembrandt pupils from his period in Leiden as well as his time in Amsterdam is quite long, mostly because his influence on painters around him was so great that it is difficult to tell whether someone worked for him in his studio or just copied his style for patrons eager to acquire a Rembrandt. A partial list should include[75] Ferdinand Bol, Adriaen Brouwer, Gerrit Dou, Willem Drost, Heiman Dullaart, Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Carel Fabritius, Govert Flinck, Hendrick Fromantiou, Aert de Gelder, Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Abraham Janssens, Godfrey Kneller, Philip de Koninck, Jacob Levecq, Nicolaes Maes, Jürgen Ovens, Christopher Paudiß, Willem de Poorter, Jan Victors, and Willem van der Vliet.

Museum collections

The most notable collections of Rembrandt's work are at Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum, including De Nachtwacht (The Night Watch) and Het Joodse bruidje (The Jewish Bride), The Hague's Mauritshuis, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, the National Gallery, London, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, Metropolitan Museum of Art and Frick Collection in New York City, National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., The Louvre, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, and Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel.[76] His home, preserved as the Rembrandt House Museum in Amsterdam, displays many examples of his etchings; all major print rooms have the majority of these, although a number exist in only a handful of impressions (copies).

Selected works

The Girl in a Picture Frame, 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw
Rembrandt in 1632, when he was enjoying great success as a fashionable portraitist in this style. Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Glasgow

Gallery

Self-portraits


Other works


Drawings and etchings

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Or possibly 1607 as on 10 June 1634 he himself claimed to be 26 years old. See Is the Rembrandt Year being celebrated one year too soon? One year too late? and (Dutch) J. de Jong, Rembrandts geboortejaar een jaar te vroeg gevierd for sources concerning Rembrandts birth year, especially supporting 1607. However most sources continue to use 1606.
  2. ^ a b Gombrich, p. 420.
  3. ^ Gombrich, p. 427.
  4. ^ Clark 1969, pp. 203
  5. ^ Clark 1969, pp. 203–204
  6. ^ Clark 1969, pp. 205
  7. ^ This version of his first name, "Rembrandt" with a "d," first appeared in his signatures in 1633. Until then, he had signed with a combination of initials or monograms. In late 1632, he began signing solely with his first name, "Rembrant." He added the "d" in the following year and stuck to this spelling for the rest of his life. Although we can only speculate, this change must have had a meaning for Rembrandt, which is generally interpreted as his wanting to be known by his first name like the great figures of the Italian Renaissance: Leonardo, Raphael etc., (who did not sign with their first names, if at all). Rembrandt-signature-file.com
  8. ^ Bull, et al., p. 28.
  9. ^ "Doopregisters, Zoek" (in (Dutch)). Stadsarchief.amsterdam.nl. 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2014-04-07. 
  10. ^ a b (Dutch) Rembrandt biography in De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen (1718) by Arnold Houbraken, courtesy of the Digital library for Dutch literature
  11. ^ Joris van Schooten as teacher of Rembrandt and Lievens in Simon van Leeuwen's Korte besgryving van het Lugdunum Batavorum nu Leyden, Leiden, 1672
  12. ^ Slive has a comprehensive biography, p.55 ff.
  13. ^ Slive, pp. 60, 65
  14. ^ Slive, pp. 60–61
  15. ^ "Netherlands, Noord-Holland Province, Church Records, 1553-1909 Image Netherlands, Noord-Holland Province, Church Records, 1553-1909; pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-31164-16374-68 —". Familysearch.org. Retrieved 2014-04-07. 
  16. ^ Registration of the banns of Rembrandt and Saskia, kept at the Amsterdam City Archives
  17. ^ a b c Bull, et al., p. 28
  18. ^ Clark, 1978, pp. 26–7, 76, 102
  19. ^ Adams, p. 660
  20. ^ a b Slive, p. 71
  21. ^ Driessen, p. 151-157
  22. ^ Slive, p.82
  23. ^ Slive, p. 84
  24. ^ Schwarz, p. 12. The sale was in 1658, but was agreed with two years for him to vacate.
  25. ^ Clark, 1974 p. 105
  26. ^ Clark 1974, pp. 60–61
  27. ^ Bull, et al., page 29.
  28. ^ Clark 1978, p. 34
  29. ^ Slive, p. 83
  30. ^ Burial register of the Westerkerk with record of Rembrandt's burial, kept at the Amsterdam City Archives
  31. ^ Hughes, p. 6
  32. ^ Art of Northern Europe, Institute for the Study of Western Civilization.[dead link]
  33. ^ Useful totals of the figures from various different oeuvre catalogues, often divided into classes along the lines of: "very likely authentic", "possibly authentic" and "unlikely to be authentic" are given at the Online Rembrandt catalogue
  34. ^ Two hundred years ago Bartsch listed 375. More recent catalogues have added three (two in unique impressions) and excluded enough to reach totals as follows: Schwartz, pp. 6, 289; Münz 1952, p. 279, Boon 1963, pp. 287 Print Council of America[dead link] – but Schwarz total quoted does not tally with the book.
  35. ^ It is not possible to give a total, as a new wave of scholarship on Rembrandt drawings is still in progress — analysis of the Berlin collection for an exhibition in 2006/7 has produced a probable drop from 130 sheets there to about 60. Codart.nl The British Museum is due to publish a new catalogue after a similar exercise.
  36. ^ "Schwarzlist 301 – Blog entry by the Rembrandt scholar Gary Schwarz". Garyschwartzarthistorian.nl. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
  37. ^ White and Buvelot 1999, p. 10.
  38. ^ While the popular interpretation is that these paintings represent a personal and introspective journey, it is possible that they were painted to satisfy a market for self-portraits by prominent artists. Van de Wetering, p. 290.
  39. ^ Taylor, Michael (2007).Rembrandt's Nose: Of Flesh & Spirit in the Master's Portraits p. 21, D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., New York ISBN 9781933045443'
  40. ^ Durham, p. 60.
  41. ^ Bull, et al., pp. 11–13.
  42. ^ Clough, p. 23
  43. ^ van der Wetering, p. 268.
  44. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 160, 190.
  45. ^ Ackley, p. 14.
  46. ^ a b c van de Wetering, p. 284.
  47. ^ van de Wetering, page 285.
  48. ^ van de Wetering, p. 287.
  49. ^ van de Wetering, p. 286.
  50. ^ van de Wetering, p. 288.
  51. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 163–5.
  52. ^ van de Wetering, p. 289.
  53. ^ Clark 1978, p. 28
  54. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 155–165.
  55. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 157–8, 190.
  56. ^ "In Rembrandt's (late) great portraits we feel face to face with real people, we sense their warmth, their need for sympathy and also their loneliness and suffering. Those keen and steady eyes that we know so well from Rembrandt's self-portraits must have been able to look straight into the human heart." Gombrich, p. 423.
  57. ^ "It (The Jewish Bride) is a picture of grown-up love, a marvelous amalgam of richness, tenderness, and trust... the heads which, in their truth, have a spiritual glow that painters influenced by the classical tradition could never achieve." Clark, p. 206.
  58. ^ Schwartz, 1994, pp. 8–12
  59. ^ White 1969, pp. 5–6
  60. ^ White 1969, p. 6
  61. ^ White 1969, pp. 6, 9–10
  62. ^ White, 1969 pp. 6–7
  63. ^ See Strauss, where the works are divided by subject, following Bartsch.
  64. ^ From October 2007, the main galleries were closed for renovations, planned to be finished in 2010[dated info], but the Rembrandts are being shown in a nearby adjacent part of the building according to the Rijksmuseum website.
  65. ^ See the pdf Preface on the Project website[dead link]
  66. ^ See "Further Battles for the 'Lisowczyk' (Polish Rider) by Rembrandt" Zdzislaw Zygulski, Jr., Artibus et Historiae, Vol. 21, No. 41 (2000), pp. 197–205. Also New York Times story. There is a book on the subject:Responses to Rembrandt; Who painted the Polish Rider? by Anthony Bailey (New York, 1993)
  67. ^ Schama, Simon (1999). Rembrandt's Eyes. Knopf, p. 720.
  68. ^ Schama, pp 582-591.
  69. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art: European Paintings[dead link]
  70. ^ "Entertainment | Lost Rembrandt works discovered". BBC News. 23 September 2005. Retrieved 7 October 2009. 
  71. ^ "...Rembrandt was not always the perfectly consistent, logical Dutchman he was originally anticipated to be." Ackley, p. 13.
  72. ^ van de Wetering, p. x.
  73. ^ Chronology of his signatures (pdf) with examples. Source: www.rembrandt-signature-file.com
  74. ^ Slive, p. 60
  75. ^ Rembrandt pupils (under Leraar van) in the RKD
  76. ^ Clark 1974, pp. 147–50. See the catalogue in Further reading for the location of all accepted Rembrandts
  77. ^ White, 200

References

  • Ackley, Clifford, et al., Rembrandt's Journey, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2004. ISBN 0-87846-677-0
  • Adams, Laurie Schneider (1999). Art Across Time. Volume II. McGraw-Hill College, New York, NY. 
  • Bull, Duncan, et al., Rembrandt-Caravaggio, Rijksmuseum, 2006.
  • Clark, Kenneth (1969). Civilisation: a personal view. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 9780060108014. 
  • Clark, Kenneth, An Introduction to Rembrandt, 1978, London, John Murray/Readers Union, 1978
  • Clough, Shepard B. (1975). European History in a World Perspective. D.C. Heath and Company, Los Lexington, MA. ISBN 0-669-85555-3. 
  • Driessen, Christoph, Rembrandts vrouwen, Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2012. ISBN 9789035136908
  • Durham, John I. (2004). Biblical Rembrandt: Human Painter In A Landscape Of Faith. Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-886-2. 
  • Gombrich, E.H., The Story of Art, Phaidon, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3355-X
  • Hughes, Robert (2006), "The God of Realism", The New York Review of Books (Rea S. Hederman) 53 (6) 
  • The Complete Etchings of Rembrandt Reproduced in Original Size, Gary Schwartz (editor). New York: Dover, 1988. ISBN 0-486-28181-7
  • Slive, Seymour, Dutch Painting, 1600–1800, Yale UP, 1995, ISBN 0-300-07451-4
  • van de Wetering, Ernst, Rembrandt: The Painter at Work, Amsterdam University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-520-22668-2
  • Rembrandt by himself (Christopher White — Editor, Quentin Buvelot — Editor) National Gallery Co Ltd [1999]
  • Roberto Manescalchi, Rembrandt: la madre ritrovata, M.C.M.(La storia delle cose), dicembre, 2004.
  • Christopher White, The Late Etchings of Rembrandt, 1969, British Museum/Lund Humphries, London

Further reading

  • Catalogue raisonné: Stichting Foundation Rembrandt Research Project:
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume I, which deals with works from Rembrandt’s early years in Leiden (1629–1631), 1982
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume II: 1631–1634. Bruyn, J., Haak, B. (et al.), Band 2, 1986, ISBN 978-90-247-3339-2
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume III, 1635–1642. Bruyn, J., Haak, B., Levie, S.H., van Thiel, P.J.J., van de Wetering, E. (Ed. Hrsg.), Band 3, 1990, ISBN 978-90-247-3781-9
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume IV. Ernst van de Wetering, Karin Groen et al. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands (NL). ISBN 1-4020-3280-3. p. 692. (Self-Portraits)
  • Rembrandt. Images and metaphors, Christian Tumpel (editor), Haus Books London 2006 ISBN 978-1-904950-92-9
  • Van De Wetering, Ernst (2004) (2nd paperback printing). The Painter At Work. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. University of California Press, London, England. By arrangement with Amsterdam University Press. ISBN O-520-22668-2.

External links