الگو:Citation

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
نماد توضیحات توضیحات الگو[نمایش] [ویرایش] [تاریخچه] [پاکسازی]

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).

The template should be inserted after punctuation, such as a period or comma.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Simple citation[ویرایش]

This template gives the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with author.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from الگو:یادکرد هاروارد, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. نیوزویک, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n ۱] when the url was accessed (only useful for content that does not have an identifiable and cited publication date).

Example[ویرایش]

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| id        = {{OL|7120924W}}
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL7120924W 

Full citation parameters[ویرایش]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi_inactivedate =
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  = ,
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[ویرایش]

Syntax[ویرایش]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

COinS[ویرایش]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing نرم‌افزار مدیریت مرجع to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See: Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is generally discouraged as many of these templates will add a lot of extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters:

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publicationplace=, |publication-place=
  • |date=, |year=, |publicationdate=, |publication-date=
  • |series=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapterurl=, |chapter-url=, |contributionurl=, |contribution-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |Author#=, |authors#=, |author#-last=, |author-last#=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • any of the identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

Deprecated[ویرایش]

The following parameters are deprecated and will no longer work. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • access-date · accessday · accessdaymonth · accessed · accessmonth · accessmonthday · accessyear: Use accessdate to include the full date of access.
  • day: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • dateformat · doilabel: These parameters are no longer supported.

Description[ویرایش]

Authors[ویرایش]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Aliases: first1.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author. See the display parameters to change. Aliases: author1 through authorn.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, author-link, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlinkn. Aliases: author1-link through authorn-link.
  • coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Requires author, authors, or lastn Include coauthors in authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as Illustrated by John Smith or Translated by John Smith.
When using Shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Editors[ویرایش]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editors.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editor4-last, editor4-first for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Display:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the editors and the included work, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds."

Title[ویرایش]

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics.
    • trans_title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans_title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space [ ] |


  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • trans_chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans_chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release.
  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name or فهرست کدهای ایزو ۶۳۹-۱ code; use of ISO 639-1 also adds appropriate language categorization; do not use icons or templates.

Date[ویرایش]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[۱] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more]. Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.
  • OR:
    • year: Year of source being referenced. Required with some types of {{sfn}} citations;[more] otherwise use date.
    • month: (deprecated) Name of the month or season of publication. Use date instead.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.
  1. Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Periodical[ویرایش]

  • work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical.
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter is italicized and is not enclosed in quotes.
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not display.
type does not display.

Publisher[ویرایش]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. Not normally included for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

Edition, series, volume[ویرایش]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised" etc. Displays " ed." after this field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; displays in bold— if bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.

In-source locations[ویرایش]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content. Displays preceded with ​p.​ unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded with ​pp.​ unless |nopp=y. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use |at=.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the ​p.​ or ​pp.​ notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

URL[ویرایش]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع.
    • accessdate: Full date when original URL was accessed; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[۱] Do not wikilink. Not required for web pages or linked documents that do not change; mainly for use of web pages that change frequently or have no publication date. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and بایگانی اینترنتی (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archivedate.
      • archivedate: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[۱] Do not wikilink.
      • deadurl: When the URL is still live, but preemptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. پروتکل اینترنت نسخه ۶ host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be کدبندی درصدی. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ Accessdate and archivedate in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Anchor[ویرایش]

Identifiers[ویرایش]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier.

Quote[ویرایش]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes.

Laysummary[ویرایش]

  • layurl: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: laysummary.
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses.

Display options[ویرایش]

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &amp;#32;.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &amp;#32;.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed except when there are nine authors, then the author list in the citation is truncated to eight authors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed except when there are four editors, then the editor list in the citation is truncated to three editors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains four editor names and one wishes all four editor names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-editors=4. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • lastauthoramp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |lastauthoramp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to none. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &amp;#32;.

Subscription or registration required[ویرایش]

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes; superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes; supersedes registration if both are set.

Examples[ویرایش]

Books[ویرایش]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web[ویرایش]

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[سازمان پارک‌های ملی]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
}}
NPS Focus, National Register of Historic Places (سازمان پارک‌های ملی), retrieved November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[ناسا]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, ناسا, archived from the original on October 13, 2007, retrieved October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[ویرایش]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties, BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–61
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J, et al. (1981), The dimensions of DNA in solution, J Mol Biol 152 (1): 153–61, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879
| year   = 1879
| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), Last Testimony of Sister Emma, The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289 
Conference paper
{{Citation
| last  = Sullivan
| first = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year  = 2001
| title = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| url       = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| format    = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[ویرایش]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| year = 1876
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents 1, Signature Books (published 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[ویرایش]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History, BYU Studies (1976) 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| contribution = Affidavit
| year = 1872
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| contribution-url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), "Affidavit", written at Lincoln County, Nevada, in Toohy, Dennis J., Mountain Meadows Massacre, Corinne Daily Reporter (Corinne, Utah, published September 24, 1872) 5 (252): 1 

Press release[ویرایش]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, retrieved April 10, 2010, "in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3" 

Citing patents[ویرایش]

Parameters (all are optional)[ویرایش]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples[ویرایش]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations[ویرایش]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none – leaving |ref= empty has the same effect but is ambiguous; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[ویرایش]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{یادکرد هاروارد|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{SfnRef|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{یادکرد هاروارد بدون پرانتز|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{پانویس کوتاه‌شده|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{یادکرد هاروارد|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{SfnRef|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه‌نامه), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[ویرایش]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[ویرایش]

خطای یادکرد: برچسب <ref> درون <references> در تضاد با ویژگی‌های گروه «n» است.

Tools[ویرایش]

See ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

Template Data[ویرایش]

این توضیحاتِ داده‌های الگو این الگو است که توسط ویرایشگر دیداری و دیگر ابزارها استفاده می‌شود.

Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

پارامترهای الگو
پارامتر توضیحات نوع پیش‌فرض مقدار خودکار وضعیت
author surname last surname of the author of the cited material string خالی خالی اختیاری
author given name first given name (first name) of the author of the cited material string خالی خالی اختیاری
title of source title Title of source; displays in italics. string خالی خالی اختیاری
date of source date Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. string خالی خالی اختیاری
url of source url URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. string خالی خالی اختیاری
1 1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
2 2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
3 3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor-surname inventor-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor1-surname inventor1-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor-last inventor-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor1-last inventor1-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor inventor string خالی خالی اختیاری
invent1 invent1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
invent-1 invent-1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
country-code country-code string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor2-surname inventor2-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor2-last inventor2-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor2 inventor2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
invent2 invent2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor3-surname inventor3-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor3-last inventor3-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor3 inventor3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
invent3 invent3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor4-surname inventor4-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor4-last inventor4-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor4 inventor4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
invent4 invent4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor-given inventor-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor1-given inventor1-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor-first inventor-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor1-first inventor1-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor2-given inventor2-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor2-first inventor2-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor3-given inventor3-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor3-first inventor3-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor4-given inventor4-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventor4-first inventor4-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventorlink1 inventorlink1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventorlink inventorlink string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventorlink2 inventorlink2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventorlink3 inventorlink3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
inventorlink4 inventorlink4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
country country string خالی خالی اختیاری
publication-number publication-number string خالی خالی اختیاری
patent-number patent-number string خالی خالی اختیاری
number number string خالی خالی اختیاری
description description string خالی خالی اختیاری
status status string خالی خالی اختیاری
publication-date publication-date string خالی خالی اختیاری
pubdate pubdate string خالی خالی اختیاری
issue-date issue-date string خالی خالی اختیاری
gdate gdate string خالی خالی اختیاری
year year string خالی خالی اختیاری
fdate fdate string خالی خالی اختیاری
pridate pridate string خالی خالی اختیاری
assign1 assign1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
assign2 assign2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
ref ref string خالی خالی اختیاری
separator separator string خالی خالی اختیاری
quote quote string خالی خالی اختیاری
postscript postscript string خالی خالی اختیاری
author-separator author-separator string خالی خالی اختیاری
author-mask author-mask string خالی خالی اختیاری
authormask authormask string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
last1 last1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname1 surname1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author1 author1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author author string خالی خالی اختیاری
authors authors string خالی خالی اختیاری
last2 last2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname2 surname2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author2 author2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
last3 last3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname3 surname3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author3 author3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
last4 last4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname4 surname4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author4 author4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
last5 last5 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname5 surname5 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author5 author5 string خالی خالی اختیاری
last6 last6 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname6 surname6 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author6 author6 string خالی خالی اختیاری
last7 last7 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname7 surname7 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author7 author7 string خالی خالی اختیاری
last8 last8 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname8 surname8 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author8 author8 string خالی خالی اختیاری
last9 last9 string خالی خالی اختیاری
surname9 surname9 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author9 author9 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first1 first1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given1 given1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given given string خالی خالی اختیاری
first2 first2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given2 given2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first3 first3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given3 given3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first4 first4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given4 given4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first5 first5 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given5 given5 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first6 first6 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given6 given6 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first7 first7 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given7 given7 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first8 first8 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given8 given8 string خالی خالی اختیاری
first9 first9 string خالی خالی اختیاری
given9 given9 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author-link author-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
author1-link author1-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink authorlink string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink1 authorlink1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author2-link author2-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink2 authorlink2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author3-link author3-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink3 authorlink3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author4-link author4-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink4 authorlink4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author5-link author5-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink5 authorlink5 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author6-link author6-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink6 authorlink6 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author7-link author7-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink7 authorlink7 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author8-link author8-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink8 authorlink8 string خالی خالی اختیاری
author9-link author9-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
authorlink9 authorlink9 string خالی خالی اختیاری
coauthor coauthor string خالی خالی اختیاری
coauthors coauthors string خالی خالی اختیاری
origyear origyear string خالی خالی اختیاری
month month string خالی خالی اختیاری
trans_chapter trans_chapter string خالی خالی اختیاری
trans_title trans_title string خالی خالی اختیاری
type type string خالی خالی اختیاری
archiveurl archiveurl string خالی خالی اختیاری
deadurl deadurl string خالی خالی اختیاری
series series string خالی خالی اختیاری
version version string خالی خالی اختیاری
journal journal string خالی خالی اختیاری
periodical periodical string خالی خالی اختیاری
newspaper newspaper string خالی خالی اختیاری
magazine magazine string خالی خالی اختیاری
work work string خالی خالی اختیاری
volume volume string خالی خالی اختیاری
issue issue string خالی خالی اختیاری
pages pages string خالی خالی اختیاری
page page string خالی خالی اختیاری
at at string خالی خالی اختیاری
nopp nopp string خالی خالی اختیاری
chapter chapter string خالی خالی اختیاری
contribution contribution string خالی خالی اختیاری
chapter-url chapter-url string خالی خالی اختیاری
chapterurl chapterurl string خالی خالی اختیاری
contribution-url contribution-url string خالی خالی اختیاری
others others string خالی خالی اختیاری
edition edition string خالی خالی اختیاری
place place string خالی خالی اختیاری
location location string خالی خالی اختیاری
publication-place publication-place string خالی خالی اختیاری
publisher publisher string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor-last editor-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor-surname editor-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor1-last editor1-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor1-surname editor1-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor1 editor1 string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor editor string خالی خالی اختیاری
editors editors string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor2-last editor2-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor2-surname editor2-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor2 editor2 string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor3-last editor3-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor3-surname editor3-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor3 editor3 string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor4-last editor4-last string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor4-surname editor4-surname string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor4 editor4 string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor-first editor-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor-given editor-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor1-first editor1-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor1-given editor1-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor2-first editor2-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor2-given editor2-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor3-first editor3-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor3-given editor3-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor4-first editor4-first string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor4-given editor4-given string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor-link editor-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor1-link editor1-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor2-link editor2-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor3-link editor3-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
editor4-link editor4-link string خالی خالی اختیاری
language language string خالی خالی اختیاری
in in string خالی خالی اختیاری
format format string خالی خالی اختیاری
arxiv arxiv string خالی خالی اختیاری
asin asin string خالی خالی اختیاری
ASIN ASIN string خالی خالی اختیاری
asin-tld asin-tld string خالی خالی اختیاری
bibcode bibcode string خالی خالی اختیاری
doi doi string خالی خالی اختیاری
DOI DOI string خالی خالی اختیاری
doi_inactivedate doi_inactivedate string خالی خالی اختیاری
doi_brokendate doi_brokendate string خالی خالی اختیاری
isbn isbn string خالی خالی اختیاری
ISBN ISBN string خالی خالی اختیاری
issn issn string خالی خالی اختیاری
ISSN ISSN string خالی خالی اختیاری
jfm jfm string خالی خالی اختیاری
JFM JFM string خالی خالی اختیاری
jstor jstor string خالی خالی اختیاری
JSTOR JSTOR string خالی خالی اختیاری
lccn lccn string خالی خالی اختیاری
LCCN LCCN string خالی خالی اختیاری
mr mr string خالی خالی اختیاری
MR MR string خالی خالی اختیاری
oclc oclc string خالی خالی اختیاری
OCLC OCLC string خالی خالی اختیاری
ol ol string خالی خالی اختیاری
OL OL string خالی خالی اختیاری
osti osti string خالی خالی اختیاری
OSTI OSTI string خالی خالی اختیاری
pmc pmc string خالی خالی اختیاری
PMC PMC string خالی خالی اختیاری
pmid pmid string خالی خالی اختیاری
PMID PMID string خالی خالی اختیاری
rfc rfc string خالی خالی اختیاری
RFC RFC string خالی خالی اختیاری
ssrn ssrn string خالی خالی اختیاری
SSRN SSRN string خالی خالی اختیاری
zbl zbl string خالی خالی اختیاری
id id string خالی خالی اختیاری
ID ID string خالی خالی اختیاری
access-date access-date string خالی خالی اختیاری
accessdate accessdate string خالی خالی اختیاری
laysummary laysummary string خالی خالی اختیاری
laysource laysource string خالی خالی اختیاری
laydate laydate string خالی خالی اختیاری
author-name-separator author-name-separator string خالی خالی اختیاری
lastauthoramp lastauthoramp string خالی خالی اختیاری
display-authors display-authors string خالی خالی اختیاری
archivedate archivedate string خالی خالی اختیاری

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.


خطای یادکرد: خطای یادکرد: برچسب <ref> برای گروهی به نام «n» وجود دارد، اما برچسب <references group="n"/> متناظر پیدا نشد.