# سطح ترمودینامیکی ماکسول

تصویری از یک نمونه قدیمی که در سال ۱۹۴۲ گرفته شده است.[۱]

سطح ترمودینامیکی ماکسول(به انگلیسی: Maxwell's thermodynamic surface) ماکتی تراش خورده است که توسط فیزیکدان مشهور اسکاتلندی جیمز کلارک ماکسول ساخته شده و نشان دهنده رابطه بین حجم، آنتروپی و انرژی درونی برای یک ماده خالص است.[۲][۳]

## منابع

1. Muriel Rukeyser (1942), Willard Gibbs American Genius (reprinted by Ox Bow Press, ISBN 0-918024-57-9), p. 203.
2. James Clerk Maxwell and P. M. Harman (2002), The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, Volume 3; 1874-1879, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-25627-5, p. 148: "I have just finished a clay model of a fancy surface, showing the solid, liquid, and gaseous states, and the continuity of liquid and gaseous states." (letter to Thomas Andrews, November, 1874)
3. James Clerk Maxwell, Elizabeth Garber, Stephen G. Brush, and C. W. Francis Everitt (1995), Maxwell on heat and statistical mechanics: on "avoiding all personal enquiries" of molecules, Lehigh University Press, p. 248: "I think you know Prof. J. Willard Gibbs's (Yale College Connecticut) graphical methods in thermodynamics. Last winter I made several attempts to model the surface which he suggests, in which the three coordinates are volume, entropy and energy. The numerical data about entropy can only be obtained by integration from data which are for most bodies very insufficient, and besides it would require a very unwieldy model to get all the features, say of CO2, well represented, so I made no attempt at accuracy, but modelled a fictitious substance, in which the volume is greater when solid than when liquid; and in which, as in water, the saturated vapour becomes superheated by compression. When I had at last got a plaster cast I drew on it lines of equal pressure and temperature, so as to get a rough motion of their forms. This I did by placing the model in sunlight, and tracing the curve when the rays just grazed the surface... I send you a sketch of these lines..." (letter to Thomas Andrews, 15 July 1875)