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از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو

در مهندسی نرم‌افزار یک رابط فصیح (به انگلیسی: Fluent interface) (که توسط اریک ایوانز و مارتین فاولر) راهی است برای پیاده‌سازی رابط برنامه‌نویسی (به انگلیسی: Application Programming Interface یا API) که کدهایی با خوانایی بهتر را پشتیبانی کند.

نمونه‌ها[ویرایش]

دلفی[ویرایش]

unit FluentInterface;
 
interface
 
type
  IConfiguration = interface
    procedure SetColor(Color: string);
    procedure SetHeight(height: integer);
    procedure SetLength(length: integer);
    procedure SetDepth(depth: integer);
  end;
 
  IConfigurationFluent = interface
    function SetColor(Color: string): IConfigurationFluent;
    function SetHeight(height: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
    function SetLength(length: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
    function SetDepth(depth: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
  end;
 
  TConfiguration = class(TInterfacedObject, IConfiguration)
  private
    FColor: string;
    FHeight: integer;
    FLength: integer;
    FDepth: integer;
  protected
    procedure SetColor(Color: string);
    procedure SetHeight(height: integer);
    procedure SetLength(length: integer);
    procedure SetDepth(depth: integer);
  end;
 
  TConfigurationFluent = class(TInterfacedObject, IConfigurationFluent)
  private
    FColor: string;
    FHeight: integer;
    FLength: integer;
    FDepth: integer;
  protected
    function SetColor(Color: string): IConfigurationFluent;
    function SetHeight(height: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
    function SetLength(length: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
    function SetDepth(depth: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
  public
    class function New: IConfigurationFluent;
  end;
 
implementation
 
procedure TConfiguration.SetColor(Color: string);
begin
  FColor := Color;
end;
 
procedure TConfiguration.SetDepth(depth: integer);
begin
  FDepth := depth;
end;
 
procedure TConfiguration.SetHeight(height: integer);
begin
  FHeight := height;
end;
 
procedure TConfiguration.SetLength(length: integer);
begin
  FLength := length;
end;
 
class function TConfigurationFluent.New: IConfigurationFluent;
begin
  Result := Create;
end;
 
function TConfigurationFluent.SetColor(Color: string): IConfigurationFluent;
begin
  FColor := Color;
  Result := Self;
end;
 
function TConfigurationFluent.SetDepth(depth: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
begin
  FDepth := depth;
  Result := Self;
end;
 
function TConfigurationFluent.SetHeight(height: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
begin
  FHeight := height;
  Result := Self;
end;
 
function TConfigurationFluent.SetLength(length: integer): IConfigurationFluent;
begin
  FLength := length;
  Result := Self;
end;
 
end.

Basic Usage:

var C, D: IConfiguration;
    E: IConfigurationFluent;
begin
  C := TConfiguration.Create;
  C.SetColor('blue');
  C.SetHeight(1);
  C.SetLength(2);
  C.SetDepth(3);
 
  { same "non-fluent interface" accessed using the "with" statement }
  D := TConfiguration.Create;
  with D do begin
    SetColor('blue');
    SetHeight(1);
    SetLength(2);
    SetDepth(3)
  end;
 
  E := TConfigurationFluent.New
       .SetColor('Blue')
       .SetHeight(1)
       .SetLength(2)
       .SetDepth(3);
end;

C[ویرایش]

namespace Example.FluentInterfaces
{
    #region Standard Example
 
    public interface IConfiguration
    {
        string Color { set; }
        int Height { set; }
        int Length { set; }
        int Depth { set; }
    }
 
    public class Configuration : IConfiguration
    {
        string color;
        int height;
        int length;
        int depth;
 
        public string Color
        {
            set { color = value; }
        }
 
        public int Height
        {
            set { height = value; }
        }
 
        public int Length
        {
            set { length = value; }
        }
 
        public int Depth
        {
            set { depth = value; }
        }
    }
 
    #endregion
 
    #region Fluent Example
 
    public interface IConfigurationFluent
    {
        IConfigurationFluent SetColor(string color);
        IConfigurationFluent SetHeight(int height);
        IConfigurationFluent SetLength(int length);
        IConfigurationFluent SetDepth(int depth);
    }
 
    public class ConfigurationFluent : IConfigurationFluent
    {
        string color;
        int height;
        int length;
        int depth;
 
        public IConfigurationFluent SetColor(string color)
        {
            this.color = color;
            return this;
        }
 
        public IConfigurationFluent SetHeight(int height)
        {
            this.height = height;
            return this;
        }
 
        public IConfigurationFluent SetLength(int length)
        {
            this.length = length;
            return this;
        }
 
        public IConfigurationFluent SetDepth(int depth)
        {
            this.depth = depth;
            return this;
        }
    }
 
    #endregion
 
    public class ExampleProgram
    {
        public static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            //Standard Example
            IConfiguration config = new Configuration
            {
                Color = "blue",
                Height = 1,
                Length = 2,
                Depth = 3
            };
 
            //Fluent Example
            IConfigurationFluent fluentConfig =
                  new ConfigurationFluent().SetColor("blue")
                                           .SetHeight(1)
                                           .SetLength(2)
                                           .SetDepth(3);
        }
    }
}

C++[ویرایش]

 // basic definition
 class GlutApp {
 private:
     int w_, h_, x_, y_, argc_, display_mode_;
     char **argv_;
     char *title_;
 public:
     GlutApp(int argc, char** argv) {
         argc_ = argc;
         argv_ = argv;
     }
     void setDisplayMode(int mode) {
         display_mode_ = mode;
     }
     int getDisplayMode() {
         return display_mode_;
     }
     void setWindowSize(int w, int h) {
         w_ = w;
         h_ = h;
     }
     void setWindowPosition(int x, int y) {
         x_ = x;
         y_ = y;
     }
     void setTitle(const char *title) {
         title_ = title;
     }
     void create();
 };
 // basic usage
 int main(int argc, char **argv) {
     GlutApp app(argc, argv);
     app.setDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE|GLUT_RGBA|GLUT_ALPHA|GLUT_DEPTH); // Set framebuffer params
     app.setWindowSize(500, 500); // Set window params
     app.setWindowPosition(200, 200);
     app.setTitle("My OpenGL/GLUT App");
     app.create();
 }
 
 // Fluent wrapper
 class FluentGlutApp : private GlutApp {
 public:
     FluentGlutApp(int argc, char **argv) : GlutApp(argc, argv) {} // inherit parent constructor
     FluentGlutApp &withDoubleBuffer() {
         setDisplayMode(getDisplayMode() | GLUT_DOUBLE);
         return *this;
     }
     FluentGlutApp &withRGBA() {
         setDisplayMode(getDisplayMode() | GLUT_RGBA);
         return *this;
     }
     FluentGlutApp &withAlpha() {
         setDisplayMode(getDisplayMode() | GLUT_ALPHA);
         return *this;
     }
     FluentGlutApp &withDepth() {
         setDisplayMode(getDisplayMode() | GLUT_DEPTH);
         return *this;
     }
     FluentGlutApp &across(int w, int h) {
         setWindowSize(w, h);
         return *this;
     }
     FluentGlutApp &at(int x, int y) {
         setWindowPosition(x, y);
         return *this;
     }
     FluentGlutApp &named(const char *title) {
         setTitle(title);
         return *this;
     }
     // it doesn't make sense to chain after create(), so don't return *this
     void create() {
         GlutApp::create();
     }
 };
 // basic usage
 int main(int argc, char **argv) {
     FluentGlutApp(argc, argv)
         .withDoubleBuffer().withRGBA().withAlpha().withDepth()
         .at(200, 200).across(500, 500)
         .named("My OpenGL/GLUT App")
         .create();
 }

Java[ویرایش]

public Collection<Student> findByNameAgeGender(String name, int age, Gender gender) {
    return em.createNamedQuery("Student.findByNameAgeGender")
             .setParameter("name", name)
             .setParameter("age", age)
             .setParameter("gender", gender)
             .setFirstResult(1)
             .setMaxResults(30)
             .setHint("hintName", "hintValue")
             .getResultList();
}
String[] datesStr = new String[] {"12-10-1492", "06-12-1978" };
...
List<Calendar> dates = 
    Op.on(datesStr).toList().map(FnString.toCalendar("dd-MM-yyyy")).get();
Collection mockCollection = EasyMock.createMock(Collection.class);
EasyMock.expect(mockCollection.remove(null)).andThrow(new NullPointerException()).atLeastOnce();

نمونه‌های دیگر جاوا[ویرایش]

In Java, the LayoutManager interface defines how Container objects can have controlled Component placement. One of the more powerful LayoutManager implementations is the GridBagLayout class which requires the use of the GridBagConstraints class to specify how layout control occurs. A typical example of the use of this class is something like the following.

	GridBagLayout gl = new GridBagLayout();
	JPanel p = new JPanel();
	p.setLayout( gl );
 
	JLabel l = new JLabel("Name:");
	JTextField nm = new JTextField(10);
 
	GridBagConstraints  gc = new GridBagConstraints();
	gc.gridx = 0;
	gc.gridy = 0;
	gc.fill = GridBagConstraints.NONE;
	p.add( l, gc );
 
	gc.gridx = 1;
	gc.fill = GridBagConstraints.HORIZONTAL;
	gc.weightx = 1;
	p.add( nm, gc );

This creates a lot of code and makes it difficult to see what exactly is happening here. The Packer class, visible at http://packer.dev.java.net, provides a Fluent mechanism for using this class so that you would instead write:

	JPanel p = new JPanel();
	Packer pk = new Packer( p );
 
	JLabel l = new JLabel("Name:");
	JTextField nm = new JTextField(10);
 
	pk.pack( l ).gridx(0).gridy(0);
	pk.pack( nm ).gridx(1).gridy(0).fillx();

There are many places where Fluent APIs can greatly simplify how software is written and help create an API language that helps users be much more productive and comfortable with the API because the return value of a method always provides a context for further actions in that context.

PHP[ویرایش]

The following is an example of a class with a fluent interface implemented in PHP:

class Car {
	private $speed;
	private $color;
	private $doors;
 
	public function setSpeed($speed){
		$this->speed = $speed;
		return $this;
	}
 
	public function setColor($color) {
		$this->color = $color;
		return $this;
	}
 
	public function setDoors($doors) {
		$this->doors = $doors;
		return $this;
	}
}
 
// Fluent interface
$myCar = new Car();
$myCar->setSpeed(100)->setColor('blue')->setDoors(5);
 
// Example without fluent interface
$myCar2 = new Car();
$myCar2->setSpeed(100);
$myCar2->setColor('blue');
$myCar2->setDoors(5);

JavaScript[ویرایش]

The following is an example of a class with a fluent interface implemented in جاوااسکریپت:

var Car = function(){
 
	var speed, color, doors, pub;
 
	function setSpeed(new_speed) {
		speed = new_speed;
		return pub;
	}
 
	function setColor(new_color) {
		color = new_color;
		return pub;
	}
 
	function setDoors(new_doors) {
		doors = new_doors;
		return pub;
	}
 
	pub = {
		'setSpeed': setSpeed,
		'setColor': setColor,
		'setDoors': setDoors,
	};
 
	return pub;
 
};
 
// Fluent interface
myCar = Car();
myCar.setSpeed(100).setColor('blue').setDoors(5);
 
// Example without fluent interface
myCar2 = Car();
myCar2.setSpeed(100);
myCar2.setColor('blue');
myCar2.setDoors(5);