انجمن دانشگاههای آمریکایی (به انگلیسی: Association of American Universities) سازمانی است متشکل از دانشگاههای مختلف ایالات متحده آمریکا و کانادا، که هدف از این سازمان بنیانگذاری و جهت دادن به سیاستهای دانشگاههای آمریکای شمالی است.
این انجمن که بیش از یک قرن پیش در ایالات متحده تأسیس گردید، هماکنون دارای شصت و یک عضو از ایالات متحده و دو عضو از کانادا میباشد.
عضویت در این انجمن فقط بر حسب دعوت و تصویب سه چهارم اعضا صورت میگیرد و لازمه آن ارائه مدارج دکترا و داشتن بنیه پژوهشی فعال در طیف گستردهای از زمینهها میباشند.
دانشگاههایی که صرفاً بر علوم پزشکی متمرکزند در این انجمن عضویت ندارند، و در عوض عضو انجمن کالج پزشکی آمریکا (Association of American Medical Colleges) که دستور کار مشابه اما ویژه علوم پزشکی دارد میباشند.
The AAU was founded on February 28, 1900, by a group of 14 Doctor of Philosophy degree–granting universities[a] in the United States to strengthen and standardize American doctoral programs. American universities—starting with the Johns Hopkins University in 1876—were adopting the research-intensive German model of higher education. Lack of standardization damaged European universities' opinions of their American counterparts, however, and many American students attended graduate school in Europe instead of staying in the US. The presidents of the Johns Hopkins University, the University of Chicago, Columbia University, Harvard University, and the University of California had sent a letter of invitation to nine other universities to meet at Chicago in February 1900 to promote and raise standards. Charles E. Elliot of Harvard University was elected the organization's first president, and Stanford University's David Starr Jordan was elected the organization's first chairman.
In 1914, the AAU began accrediting undergraduate education at its members and other schools. German universities used the "AAU Accepted List" to determine whether a college's graduates were qualified for graduate programs. Regional accreditation agencies existed in the U.S. by the 1920s, and the AAU ended accrediting schools in 1948.
The AAU is made up of universities of varying sizes and missions. Today, 62 universities in the US and Canada are members and the primary purpose of the organization is to provide a forum for the development and implementation of institutional and national policies, in order to promote strong programs in academic research and scholarship and undergraduate, graduate, and professional education.
The largest attraction of the AAU for many schools, especially nonmembers, is prestige. For example, in 2010 the chancellor of nonmember North Carolina State University described it as "the pre-eminent research-intensive membership group. To be a part of that organization is something N.C. State aspires to." A spokesman for nonmember University of Connecticut called it "perhaps the most elite organization in higher education. You'd probably be hard-pressed to find a major research university that didn't want to be a member of the AAU." In 2012, the new elected chancellor of University of Massachusetts Amherst, a nonmember of AAU, reaffirmed the framework goal of elevating the campus to AAU standards which inspire them to become a member in the near future, and called it a distinctive status. Because of the lengthy and difficult entrance process, boards of trustees, state legislators, and donors often see membership as evidence of the quality of a university.
The AAU acts as a lobbyist at its headquarters in the city of Washington, DC, for research and higher education funding and for policy and regulatory issues affecting research universities. The association holds two meetings annually, both in Washington. Separate meetings are held for university presidents, provosts, and other officials. Because the meetings are private they offer the opportunity for discussion without media coverage. Prominent government officials, businessmen, and others often speak to the groups.
National Merit/Achievement Scholars (2004): 5,434; 63 percent nationally
Faculty: approximately 72,000
AAU membership is by invitation only, which requires an affirmative vote of three fourths of current members. Invitations are considered periodically, based in part on an assessment of the breadth and quality of university programs of research and graduate education, as well as undergraduate education. The association ranks its members using four criteria: research spending, the percentage of faculty who are members of the National Academies, faculty awards, and citations. Two thirds of members can vote to revoke membership for poor rankings. As of 2010[update] annual dues are $80,500. All 60 US members of the AAU are also classified as Highest Research Activity (R1) Universities by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
Removed from the AAU. Chancellor Harvey Perlman claimed that the lack of an on-campus medical school (the Medical Center is a separate campus of the University of Nebraska system) and the AAU's disregarding of USDA-funded agricultural research in its metrics hurt the university's performance in the association's internal ranking system.
Because of a dispute over how to count nonfederal grants, Syracuse voluntarily withdrew from the AAU in 2011. The Chronicle of Higher Education reported that after "it became clear that Syracuse wouldn't meet the association's revised membership criteria, university officials decided that they would leave the organization voluntarily, rather than face a vote like Nebraska's, and notified the leadership of their intentions."
Map of schools
UC San Diego
UC Santa Barbara
A map of the AAU schools, with private schools marked blue and public schools marked red. Four private schools in Greater Boston are not labeled separately due to space reasons: Harvard, MIT, Boston University, and Brandeis.
In 2014, the AAU supported the proposed Research and Development Efficiency Act arguing that the legislation "can lead to a long-needed reduction in the regulatory burden currently imposed on universities and their faculty members who conduct research on behalf of the federal government." According to the AAU, "too often federal requirements" for accounting for federal grant money "are ill-conceived, ineffective, and/or duplicative." This wastes the researchers' times and "reduces the time they can devote to discovery and innovation and increases institutional compliance costs." AAU institutions are frequently involved in US science policy debates. In 2008, AAU Vice President for Policy, Tobin Smith, co-authored a textbook on US science policy.
^Over $15.9 billion: NIH: $9.1 billion, 60 percent of total academic research funding. Research Funding: National Science Foundation: $2.0 billion, 63 percent of total academic research funding Department of Defense: $1.2 billion, 56 percent of total academic research funding Department of Energy: $505.2 million, 63 percent of total academic research funding NASA: $673.2 million, 57 percent of total academic research funding Department of Agriculture: $271.9 million, 41 percent of total academic research funding.
^Although Emory shares a joint engineering department with Georgia Tech, the program is accredited through Georgia Tech.
^UNC shares a joint engineering department with NCSU.
^ abcd"Colleges WIll Co-operate: Organization of the Association of American Universities". The Washington Post. March 1, 1900. p. 2.
^"Accreditation and Assessment". Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University School of Medicine. Retrieved May 17, 2018.