الگو:پایان پانویس

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
نماد توضیحات توضیحات الگو[نمایش] [ویرایش] [تاریخچه] [پاکسازی]

{{refbegin}} and its complementary closing template {{refend}} are used to apply any of several optional styles or presentational choices for کتاب‌شناسی or reference lists—that is, lists of fully-specified references / sources / works cited, alpha-sorted by author/contributor) that appear in Wikipedia articles.

These bibliographies or reference lists frequently appear in dedicated sections within an article, variously titled == References ==, == Works cited ==, == Bibliography ==, == Further reading ==, == Published works ==, and so on.

Wikipedia ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع that use bibliography-style reference lists include: ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع, parenthetical referencing, and ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع. The ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع and embedded citations referencing systems do not use those lists, although articles using these latter two systems may also contain "Further reading" or other sections containing bibliography-style listings, that {{refbegin}} formatting could be applied to.

The formatting options provided by this template are:

refbegin template options/parameters
Option How to get it Notes
default display {{آغاز پانویس}} no parameters needed, default fontsize is 90% of standard fontsize
display list in multiple columns {{آغاز پانویس|n}} where n determines the number of columns, or width of columns based on the browser's screen width
no fontsize reduction {{آغاز پانویس|normalfont=yes}} display list in normal fontsize instead
apply hanging indent {{آغاز پانویس|indent=yes}} will apply hanging indent if an individual reference wraps over more than one line in the browser's display window

Each use of {{refbegin}} whether with or without parameters, needs an accompanying {{refend}} closing template to 'turn off' the formatting; refend does not need any parameters.

Font size reduction is applied by default. Either one, the other, or both of multi-columns and hanging indent may be applied as well (though see specifics and caveats on browser differences in relevant sections, below).

Usage[ویرایش]

With all (optional) parameters shown:

== References ==
{{ آغاز پانویس|n |normalfont= |indent= |indentsize= }}
* list of bibliography/references entries..
...

{{پایان پانویس}}

Placement[ویرایش]

The {{refbegin}} is placed immediately below the header of the bibliography/references section its formatting will be applied to. The closing {{refend}} template is placed within the same section, at the end of the bibliography/references list content.

When used, each occurrence of {{refbegin}} should always be paired with a corresponding closing {{refend}} template:

== References ==
{{آغاز پانویس}}
* 1st entry in the bibliography/references list..
* 2nd entry in the bibliography/references list..
...
* last entry in the bibliography/references list..

{{پایان پانویس}}

The formatting provided by {{refbegin}} is "turned on" at the location where the template is placed, and is applied to all text after and below it, until it is "turned off" by a closing {{refend}} template (or </div> tag). Failing to provide a closing {{refend}} may produce unwanted effects in other sections that may appear below the 'References', 'Bibliography' etc. section, such as 'External links' sections that are usually placed at or near the article's end.

Option 1: Default behaviour[ویرایش]

The default usage (without parameters) applies a style that reduces the text size of the bibliographies/reference list entries. This can be useful to make a long bibliography/list of references display more compactly, and it also mimics the formatting style applied to راهنما:پانویس‌ها by the {{reflist}} template.

The {{reflist}} formats footnotes—any text in the article body that is placed between <ref>...</ref> tags—that are auto-generated by the cite.php extension, called by {{reflist}}. In the case of articles using the ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع referencing system, these footnotes will typically contain an abbreviated citation such as <ref>Smith 2002, p.123</ref> that corresponds with an entry in the bibliography/references list section (other text such as discursive notes may appear as well).

The font size should reduce to 90% for most browsers, but may appear to show at 100% for Internet Explorer and possibly other browsers. Reflist and Refbegin use each one CSS entry in MediaWiki:Common.css to set the font size:

div.reflist,
div.refbegin {
    font-size: 90%;
}

Editors may over-ride this setting by using normalfont=yes in the template.

If the 'full' footnotes referencing system is used (i.e. there is no separate bibliography/references list, all cites/references are defined in <ref>...</ref> tags), then use {{reflist}} alone:

== References ==
{{پانویس}}

If there is a bibliography/references list but no footnoted citations (e.g. in general references or parenthetical referencing systems) then use {{refbegin}} and {{refend}} like so:

== References ==
{{آغاز پانویس}}
* general reference 1
* general reference 2
{{پایان پانویس}}

If there are footnoted citations and a separate bibliography/references list (i.e., the ویکی‌پدیا:شیوه ارجاع به منابع system), then place {{reflist}} to generate the footnotes in one section (immediately above the bibliography/references list), and use {{refbegin}} in the latter section:

== Notes ==
{{پانویس}} <!--this will auto-generate the numbered list of footnotes/cites -->

== References ==
{{آغاز پانویس}}
* bibliography entry / reference 1
* bibliography entry / reference 2
* etc
{{پایان پانویس}}

Option 2: Multiple columns[ویرایش]

If an integer n is supplied as the first parameter, the template will display the bibliography/references list in n columns. This may be useful for compact display for a lengthy list, and matches also the optional capability of {{reflist}} to display output in multiple columns. Thus, {{آغاز پانویس|2}} will display the list in two columns. If no integer parameter is specified, the default is a single column. Note, it will rarely be useful or practical to display bibliography/references list entries in more than two columns.

If a value with a unit is supplied as the first parameter, i.e. 30em, the template will display the bibliography/references list in columns with a minimum width of that value, allowing the browser to determine the optimal number of columns. Using {{آغاز پانویس|30em}} for instance is useful for short citations.

== References ==
{{آغاز پانویس|2}}
* {{cite journal |author=Southworth, Jane |author2= Catherine Tucker |date=August 2001 |title=The Influence of Accessibility, Local Institutions, and Socioeconomic Factors on Forest Cover Change in the Mountains of Western Honduras |url=http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021%5B0276:TIOALI%5D2.0.CO%3B2 |format=PDF reproduction, BioOne online |journal=Mountain Research and Development |location=Boulder, CO |publisher=International Mountain Society and United Nations University |volume=21 |issue=3 |pages=276–283 |doi=10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021[0276:TIOALI]2.0.CO;2
 |issn=0276-4741 |oclc=107067006}}
* {{cite journal |author=Tucker, Catherine M. |author2=Darla K. Munroe; Harini Nagendra;  Jane Southworth |date= June 2005 |title=Comparative Spatial Analyses of Forest Conservation and Change in Honduras and Guatemala |url=http://www.clas.ufl.edu/lueci/southworth/pubs-as-pdf/cs-3-1_10_jtuckeretal.pdf |format=PDF online open access article distributed under Creative Commons |journal=Conservation and Society |location=New Delhi and London |publisher=SAGE Publications |volume=3 |issue=1 |pages=174–200 |issn=0972-4923|oclc=210806013}}
{{پایان پانویس}}

References

== References ==
{{آغاز پانویس|30em}}
* {{cite journal |author=Southworth, Jane |author2= Catherine Tucker |date=August 2001|title=The Influence of Accessibility, Local Institutions, and Socioeconomic Factors on Forest Cover Change in the Mountains of Western Honduras |url=http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021%5B0276:TIOALI%5D2.0.CO%3B2 |format=PDF reproduction, BioOne online |journal=Mountain Research and Development |location=Boulder, CO |publisher=International Mountain Society and United Nations University |volume=21 |issue=3 |pages=276–283 |doi=10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021[0276:TIOALI]2.0.CO;2
 |issn=0276-4741 |oclc=107067006}}
* {{cite journal |author=Tucker, Catherine M. |author2=Darla K. Munroe; Harini Nagendra; Jane Southworth |date=June 2005 |title=Comparative Spatial Analyses of Forest Conservation and Change in Honduras and Guatemala |url=http://www.clas.ufl.edu/lueci/southworth/pubs-as-pdf/cs-3-1_10_jtuckeretal.pdf |format=PDF online open access article distributed under Creative Commons |journal=Conservation and Society |location=New Delhi and London |publisher=SAGE Publications |volume=3 |issue=1 |pages=174–200 |issn=0972-4923|oclc=210806013}}
{{پایان پانویس}}

References

Browser support[ویرایش]

CSS3 multiple column layout
browser support
اینترنت اکسپلورر فایرفاکس موزیلا سافاری گوگل کروم اپرا (مرورگر وب)
≤ 9 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 2 ن/م ≤ 11.0
≥ 10
(2012)
≥ 1.5
(2005)
≥ 3
(2007)
≥ 1
(2008)
≥ 11.1
(2011)

Multiple columns are generated by using شیوه‌نامه آبشاری, which is still in development; thus only browsers that properly support the multi-column property will show multiple columns. See الگو:پانویس for more information.

Option 3: Hanging indentation[ویرایش]

A hanging indentation may be applied to bibliographies/reference lists by using the |indent= parameter. This option can be useful in long bibliographies/reference lists and in particular when individual entries in the list are long, i.e. they wrap over more than one line in the browser display window. Applying a hanging indent to the list makes it much easier to distinguish the keywords (i.e. normally the authors' names) in the bibliography and makes them stand out from preceding and succeeding lines of text. Hanging indents in bibliographies also form part of several widely used citation style implementations, such as APA, MLA, and Chicago.

In order for indents to display properly, do not use bullet markers (*); you must use indent markers (:) instead.

To use, set {{آغاز پانویس|indent=yes}}.

Examples

a) Using {{refbegin}} with the hanging indent option |indent=yes applied:

== References ==
{{آغاز پانویس|indent=yes}}
: {{cite book |author=Dakin, Karen|year=1994|chapter=El náhuatl en el yutoazteca sureño: algunas isoglosas gramaticales y fonológicas|title=Investigaciones lingüísticas en Mesoamérica |series=Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas, no. 1|editor=Carolyn MacKay and Verónica Vázquez (eds.)|publisher=Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Seminario de Lenguas Indígenas|location=México D.F.|pages=3–86 |isbn=968-36-4055-9 |oclc=34716589}} {{زبان پیوند|es}}
: {{cite conference |author=Flores Farfán, José Antonio |year=2002|title=The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico |url=http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/ILAC/ILAC_24.pdf |format=[[پی‌دی‌اف]] |conference=Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11–14, 2000) |booktitle=Indigenous Languages across the Community |editor=Barbara Jane Burnaby and John Allan Reyhner (eds.) |location=Flagstaff, AZ |publisher=Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University |pages=225–236 |isbn=0-9670554-2-3 |oclc=95062129}}
: {{cite book |author=Rincón, Antonio del |year=1885 |origyear=1595 |title=Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio Del Rincón de la compañia de Jesus: Dirigido al illustrissimo y reverendissimo s. Don Diego Romano obispo de Tlaxcallan, y del consejo de su magestad, &c. En Mexico en casa de Pedro, Balli. 1595 |url=http://storage.lib.uchicago.edu/pres/2005/pres2005-033.pdf |edition=Reprinted 1885 under the care of Dr. Antonio Peñafiel |format=[[پی‌دی‌اف]] facsimile, University of Chicago Library digital collections|location=México D.F. |publisher=Oficina tip. de la Secretaría de fomento |oclc=162761360 }} {{زبان پیوند|es}}
: {{cite book |author=Voegelin, Charles F.|author2=Florence M. Voegelin; Kenneth L. Hale |year=1962 |title=Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan I: Phonology |type=Supplement to International Journal of American linguistics, vol. 28, no. 1 |series=Indiana University publications in anthropology and linguistics, Memoir 17 |location=Baltimore MD |publisher=Waverly Press |oclc=55576894}}
{{پایان پانویس}}

References

Dakin, Karen (1994). "El náhuatl en el yutoazteca sureño: algunas isoglosas gramaticales y fonológicas". In Carolyn MacKay and Verónica Vázquez (eds.). Investigaciones lingüísticas en Mesoamérica. Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas, no. 1. México D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Seminario de Lenguas Indígenas. pp. 3–86. ISBN 968-36-4055-9. OCLC 34716589.  (اسپانیایی )
Flores Farfán, José Antonio (2002). "The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico" (پی‌دی‌اف). In Barbara Jane Burnaby and John Allan Reyhner (eds.). Indigenous Languages across the Community. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11–14, 2000). Flagstaff, AZ: Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University. pp. 225–236. ISBN 0-9670554-2-3. OCLC 95062129. 
Rincón, Antonio del (1885) [1595]. Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio Del Rincón de la compañia de Jesus: Dirigido al illustrissimo y reverendissimo s. Don Diego Romano obispo de Tlaxcallan, y del consejo de su magestad, &c. En Mexico en casa de Pedro, Balli. 1595 (پی‌دی‌اف facsimile, University of Chicago Library digital collections) (Reprinted 1885 under the care of Dr. Antonio Peñafiel ed.). México D.F.: Oficina tip. de la Secretaría de fomento. OCLC 162761360.  (اسپانیایی )
Voegelin, Charles F.; Florence M. Voegelin; Kenneth L. Hale (1962). Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan I: Phonology (Supplement to International Journal of American linguistics, vol. 28, no. 1). Indiana University publications in anthropology and linguistics, Memoir 17. Baltimore MD: Waverly Press. OCLC 55576894. 

b) Using indent in combination with multi-column (in this case, n=2) display {{آغاز پانویس|2|indent=yes}} (note that multi-column only works in some browsers):

== References ==
{{آغاز پانویس|2|indent=yes}}
: {{cite book |author=Dakin, Karen|year=1994|chapter=El náhuatl en el yutoazteca sureño: algunas isoglosas gramaticales y fonológicas|title=Investigaciones lingüísticas en Mesoamérica |series=Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas, no. 1|editor=Carolyn MacKay and Verónica Vázquez (eds.)|publisher=Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Seminario de Lenguas Indígenas|location=México D.F.|pages=3–86 |isbn=968-36-4055-9 |oclc=34716589}} {{زبان پیوند|es}}
: {{cite conference |author=Flores Farfán, José Antonio |year=2002|title=The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico |url=http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/ILAC/ILAC_24.pdf |format=[[پی‌دی‌اف]] |conference=Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11–14, 2000) |booktitle=Indigenous Languages across the Community |editor=Barbara Jane Burnaby and John Allan Reyhner (eds.) |location=Flagstaff, AZ |publisher=Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University |pages=225–236 |isbn=0-9670554-2-3 |oclc=95062129}}
: {{cite book |author=Rincón, Antonio del |year=1885 |origyear=1595 |title=Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio Del Rincón de la compañia de Jesus: Dirigido al illustrissimo y reverendissimo s. Don Diego Romano obispo de Tlaxcallan, y del consejo de su magestad, &c. En Mexico en casa de Pedro, Balli. 1595 |url=http://storage.lib.uchicago.edu/pres/2005/pres2005-033.pdf |edition=Reprinted 1885 under the care of Dr. Antonio Peñafiel |format=[[پی‌دی‌اف]] facsimile, University of Chicago Library digital collections|location=México D.F. |publisher=Oficina tip. de la Secretaría de fomento |oclc=162761360 }} {{زبان پیوند|es}}
: {{cite book |author=Voegelin, Charles F.|author2=Florence M. Voegelin; Kenneth L. Hale |year=1962 |title=Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan I: Phonology |format=Supplement to International Journal of American linguistics, vol. 28, no. 1 |series=Indiana University publications in anthropology and linguistics, Memoir 17 |location=Baltimore MD |publisher=Waverly Press |oclc=55576894}}
{{پایان پانویس}}

References

Dakin, Karen (1994). "El náhuatl en el yutoazteca sureño: algunas isoglosas gramaticales y fonológicas". In Carolyn MacKay and Verónica Vázquez (eds.). Investigaciones lingüísticas en Mesoamérica. Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas, no. 1. México D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Seminario de Lenguas Indígenas. pp. 3–86. ISBN 968-36-4055-9. OCLC 34716589.  (اسپانیایی )
Flores Farfán, José Antonio (2002). "The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico" (پی‌دی‌اف). In Barbara Jane Burnaby and John Allan Reyhner (eds.). Indigenous Languages across the Community. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11–14, 2000). Flagstaff, AZ: Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University. pp. 225–236. ISBN 0-9670554-2-3. OCLC 95062129. 
Rincón, Antonio del (1885) [1595]. Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio Del Rincón de la compañia de Jesus: Dirigido al illustrissimo y reverendissimo s. Don Diego Romano obispo de Tlaxcallan, y del consejo de su magestad, &c. En Mexico en casa de Pedro, Balli. 1595 (پی‌دی‌اف facsimile, University of Chicago Library digital collections) (Reprinted 1885 under the care of Dr. Antonio Peñafiel ed.). México D.F.: Oficina tip. de la Secretaría de fomento. OCLC 162761360.  (اسپانیایی )
Voegelin, Charles F.; Florence M. Voegelin; Kenneth L. Hale (1962). Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan I: Phonology (Supplement to International Journal of American linguistics, vol. 28, no. 1). Indiana University publications in anthropology and linguistics, Memoir 17. Baltimore MD: Waverly Press. OCLC 55576894. 


داده‌های الگو[ویرایش]

این توضیحاتِ داده‌های الگو این الگو است که توسط ویرایشگر دیداری و دیگر ابزارها استفاده می‌شود.

پایان پانویس

This template is used to start formatting for a reference list or bibliography.

پارامترهای الگو
پارامتر توضیحات نوع وضعیت
Columns 1

Specify number or width of columns.

پیش‌فرض
خالی
مثال
خالی
مقدار خودکار
خالی
number اختیاری
colwidth colwidth

Width of columns eg '25em' the default is '30em'.

پیش‌فرض
خالی
مثال
خالی
مقدار خودکار
خالی
string اختیاری
Hanging indent indent

Set to "yes" to use hanging indent if an individual reference wraps over more than one line in the browser's display window.

پیش‌فرض
خالی
مثال
خالی
مقدار خودکار
خالی
string اختیاری
indentsize indentsize

Amount of indent in em units. Default is '3.2'

پیش‌فرض
خالی
مثال
خالی
مقدار خودکار
خالی
number اختیاری


جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

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