فهرست میراث جهانی یونسکو در اسپانیا

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
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فهرست میراث جهانی یونسکو در اسپانیا شامل ۴۲ میراث (۳ میراث طبیعی و ۳۷ میراث فرهنگی و ۲ ترکیبی) می‌باشد.[۱] میراث جهانی یونسکو نام عهدنامه‌ای بین‌المللی است که در تاریخ ۱۶ نوامبر ۱۹۷۲ میلادی به تصویب کنفرانس عمومی یونسکو رسید. موضوع آن حفظ آثار تاریخی، طبیعی و فرهنگی بشر است که اهمیت جهانی دارند و متعلق به تمام انسان‌های زمین، فارغ از نژاد، مذهب و ملیت خاص، می‌باشند.[۲] اسپانیا در تاریخ ۴ مه سال ۱۹۸۲ به این کنوانسیون پیوست.[۱]

نخستین میراث جهانی ثبت در اسپانیا عبارتند از:مسجد کوردوبا، الحمرا که در جلسه ۸ کمیته میراث جهانی در بوئنوس آیرس ٬آرژانتین در سال ۱۹۸۴ برگزار شد و کلیسای جامع بورگوس ٬پارک گوئل ٬پالائو گوئل، کازا میلا در بارسلونا که در سال ۱۹۸۵ به میراث اسپانسا افزوده شد.

اسپانیا در سال‌های ۲۰۰۸ و ۲۰۰۹ به عنوان رئیس کمیته میراث جهانی و در سال ۲۰۰۹ میزبان جلسه ۳۳ کمیته در سویل ٬اندلس بوده است.[۳]

فهرست میراث[ویرایش]

نام نگاهر مکان بخش‌های خودمختار اسپانیا دوره تاریخ ثبت شرح منبع
غار آلتامیرا and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain Altamira-1880.jpg Santillana del Mar کانتابریا (استان) Upper Paleolithic 310; 1985, 2008 (extended); i, iii The Cave of Altamira contains examples of غارنگاره from the Upper Paleolithic period, ranging from 35,000 to 11,000 BC. The original listing contained seventeen decorated caves. The caves are well-preserved because of their deep isolation from the external climate. [۴]
Old Town of Segovia and its آب‌گذر سگوبیا Aqueduct of Segovia سگوبیا کاستیا و لئون 1st to 16th centuries 311; 1985; i, iii, iv The Roman aqueduct was constructed in the 1st century, the medieval Alcázar palace in the 11th century, and the cathedral in the 16th. [۵]
Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias Santa Maria del Naranco ابیدو آستوریاس 9th century 312; 1985, 1998 (extended); i, ii, iv The پادشاهی آستوریاس remained the only Christian region of Spain in the 9th century. It developed its own style of Pre-Romanesque art and architecture that is displayed in various churches and other monuments. The original entry titled "Churches of the Kingdom of the Asturias" and was extended to include other monuments such as La Foncalada. [۶]
Historic Centre of Córdoba Mosque of Cordoba کوردوبا (اسپانیا) اندلس 7th to 13th centuries 313; 1984, 1994 (extended); i, ii, iii, iv The original listing was the مسجد قرطبه, a 7th-century mosque converted to a کلیسای کاتولیک cathedral in 13th century by Ferdinand III. During the high period of the Moorish rule of the region, Córdoba had over 300 mosques and architecture that compared to that of قسطنطنیه, دمشق, and بغداد. [۷]
الحمرا, ژنرالیف and Albayzín Alhambra گرانادا اندلس 14th century 314; 1984, 1994 (extended); i, iii, iv The three sites are remnants of the موروها influence in southern Spain. The fortress Alhambra and the palace Generalife were built by the rulers of the امارت غرناطه. The Albayzín district contains examples of the Moorish vernacular architecture and was added to the listing in 1994. [۸]
بورگوس Burgos Cathedral بورگوس کاستیا و لئون 13th to 16th centuries 316; 1984; ii, iv, vi The معماری گوتیک cathedral was constructed between the 13th and 16th centuries. It is the burial place of Spanish national hero, ال سید. [۹]
Monastery and Site of the Escorial El Escorial San Lorenzo de El Escorial مادرید (بخش خودمختار) 16th century 318; 1984; i, ii, vi El Escorial is one of several Spanish royal sites due to its history as a residence of the royal family. The palace was designed by فیلیپ دوم اسپانیا and architect Juan Bautista de Toledo to serve as a monument to Spain's central role in the مسیحیت world. [۱۰]
Works of Antoni Gaudí Casa Milà بارسلون کاتالونیا 19th and 20th centuries 320; 1984, 2005 (extended); i, ii, iv The architecture of آنتونی گائودی is part of the Modernist style, but his designs are described as highly unique. The original listing featured پارک گوئل, پالائو گوئل, and کازا میلا; the 2005 extension added کازا ویسنس, the گورابه and nativity façade of ساگرادا فامیلیا, کازا باتیو, and the crypt at Colònia Güell. [۱۱]
Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela سانتیاگو د کمپوستلا گالیسیا 10th and 11th centuries 347; 1985; i, ii, vi The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the reputed burial-place of the حواریون یعقوب پسر زبدی, and is the terminus of the Way of St. James, a زیارت across northern Spain. The town was destroyed by موروها in the 10th century and rebuilt during the following century. [۱۲]
Old Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches City wall of Ávila آبیلا کاستیا و لئون 11th century 348; 1985, 2007 (modified); iii, iv The defensive wall surrounding the original town was constructed in the 11th century. It features 82 semicircular towers and 9 gates, and is one of the most complete examples of town walls in Spain. [۱۳]
Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon Cathedral of Teruel Provinces of تروئل (استان) and ساراگوسا (استان) آراگون 12th to 17th centuries 378; 1986, 2001 (extended); iv The original listing contained four churches in تروئل in the Mudéjar style, a blending of traditional Islamic and contemporary European styles. In 2001, the listing was expanded to include an additional six monuments. [۱۴]
Historic City of Toledo Toledo تولدو کاستیا-لامانچا 8th to 16th centuries 379; 1986; i, ii, iii, iv Toledo was founded by the Romans, served as the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom, was important in Muslim Spain and during the سقوط آندلس, and briefly served as the capital of Spain. The city combines Christian, Muslim, and Jewish influences. [۱۵]
پارک ملی گاراجونای La Gomera جزایر قناری N/A 380; 1986; vii, ix The park is 70% covered by laurisilva or laurel forest, vegetation from the ترشیاری period that disappeared from mainland Europe due to climate change, but had covered much of the southern continent. [۱۶]
Old City of Salamanca Cathedral of Salamanca سالامانکا کاستیا و لئون 13th to 16th centuries 381; 1988; i, ii, iv Salamanca is important as a university city, as the University of Salamanca, founded in 1218, is the oldest in Spain and among the oldest in Europe. The city was first conquered by the کارتاژ in the 3rd century, and later ruled by the Romans and Moors. The city centre represents معماری رومی‌وار, معماری گوتیک, Moorish, معماری رنسانس, and معماری باروک. [۱۷][۱۸]
کلیسای جامع سبیا, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville Cathedral and Archivo de Indias of Seville سبیا (شهر) اندلس 13th to 16th centuries 383; 1987; i, ii, iii, iv The Alcázar was built during the موحدون that ruled southern Spain until the سقوط آندلس. The cathedral dates to the 15th century and holds the tombs of Ferdinand III and کریستف کلمب. The Archivo (Archive) houses documents relating to the colonization of the Americas. [۱۹]
Old Town of Cáceres Cáceres کاسرس (شهر) اکسترمادورا 3rd to 15th centuries 384; 1986; iii, iv The old town combines Roman, معماری اسلامی, Northern معماری گوتیک, and معماری رنسانس architectural influences, including more than 30 Islamic towers. [۲۰][۲۱]
Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture Ibiza ایبیزا، اسپانیا جزایر بالئارس N/A 417; 1999; ii, iii, iv, ix, x The coast of Ibiza is home to posidonia oceanica, a seagrass only found in the Mediterranean that supports a diverse coastal and marine ecosystem. The island also contains numerous فنیقی‌هاn ruins, and the fortified and walled older portions of the city date to the 16th century. [۲۲]
Poblet Monastery Poblet Monastery Vimbodí کاتالونیا 12th and 13th centuries 518; 1991; i, iv The monastery was founded by the سیسترسی‌ها in 1151 and is one of the largest in Spain. It is associated with various royal families in medieval Spain, particularly the kings of Aragon. It is the burial place of Aragon monarchs Alfonso II, John I, John II, James I, Ferdinana I, and Peter IV. [۲۳][۲۴]
Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of اوبدا and بائسا Cathedral of Baeza خائن (استان) اندلس 16th century 522; 2003; ii, iv Renovations of the two towns in the 16th century were done under the emerging معماری رنسانس and are among the first examples of the style in Spain. [۲۵]
Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida Roman theatre of Mérida مریدا اکسترمادورا 1st to 5th centuries 664; 1993; iii, iv Mérida was founded in 25 BC by the Romans as Emerita Augusta and was the capital of the Lusitania province. Remains from the Roman era include a bridge, آکوئدوکتو ده لوس میلاگروس, amphitheatre, theatre, circus, and forum. [۲۶]
Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe Santa María de Guadalupe Guadalupe اکسترمادورا 13th to 16th centuries 665; 1993; iv, vi The monastery is home of Our Lady of Guadalupe, a shrine to Mary found in the 13th century after being buried from Muslim invaders in 714. The Virgin of Guadalupe and the monastery served as important symbols during the سقوط آندلس, culminating in 1492, the same year as کریستف کلمب discovery of America. The Guadalupe Virgin became an important symbol during the evangelization of America. [۲۷][۲۸]
Route of Santiago de Compostela Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela آراگون, کاستیا و لئون, گالیسیا, نابارا, and لاریوخا (استان) N/A 669; 1993; ii, iv, vi The Route, or the Way of St. James, is a زیارت from the French-Spanish border to the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, where the حواریون یعقوب پسر زبدی is believed to be buried. [۲۹]
Doñana National Park Doñana National Park Provinces of هوئلبا (استان) and سبیا (استان) اندلس N/A 685; 1994, 2005 (extended); vii, ix, x The park consists of the delta region where the Guadalquivir River reaches the اقیانوس اطلس. It is home to a diverse variety of biotopes, such as مردابs, ماندابlands, ریگ‌روان, and maquis. The park is one of the largest heronries in the مدیترانه region and holds more than 500,000 مرغابیان during the winter period. [۳۰]
Pyrénées – Mont Perdu Ordesa Valley آراگون (shared with فرانسه) N/A 773; 1997, 1999 (extended); iii, iv, v, vii, viii The site contains the پیرنه mountain chain along the French-Spanish border. The Spanish portion contains two of the largest تنگ (جغرافی) in Europe, while the French side contains three large سیرک یخچالی walls [۳۱]
Historic Walled Town of Cuenca Cuenca کوئنکا کاستیا-لامانچا 12th to 18th centuries 781; 1996; ii, v The Moors built the fortified city in the early 8th century, and it was captured by the Christians in the 12th century. The cathedral is the first معماری گوتیک example in Spain. The town is also famous for its casas colgados, houses that hang over the edge of a cliff. [۳۲][۳۳]
La Lonja de la Seda de Valencia La Lonja والنسیا بخش خودمختار والنسیا 15th and 16th centuries 782; 1996; i, iv La Lonja (or Llotja in گویش والنسیایی) de la Seda means Silk Exchange in English, and the group of معماری گوتیک buildings demonstrate the wealth of Valencia as an important Mediterranean and European mercantile city in the period. [۳۴][۳۵]
لاس مدولاس Las Médulas Ponferrada کاستیا و لئون 1st to 3rd centuries 803; 1997; i, ii, iii, iv The Romans established a gold mine and worked the site for two centuries. They used an early form of hydraulic mining and cut aqueducts in the rock cliffs to provide water for the operations. The Romans left in the early 3rd century, leaving sheer cliff faces and mining infrastructure that is intact today. [۳۶][۳۷]
قصر موسیقی کاتالان and بیمارستان سنت پائول, Barcelona Hospital de Sant Pau بارسلون کاتالونیا 20th century 804; 1997; i, ii, iv Both buildings were constructed in the early 20th century and designed by لوییز دومانچه‌ای مونتانر in the modernist هنر نو movement that was very popular in Barcelona in that period. The two buildings are Montaner's most famous works. [۳۸]
San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries San Millán Yuso San Millán de la Cogolla لاریوخا (استان) 6th to 16th centuries 805; 1997; ii, iv, vi The original Suso monastery was founded in the mid-6th century, and is the location where the Glosas Emilianenses were written. The codixes are considered the first written examples of the زبان اسپانیایی and زبان باسکی languages, and the monastery is considered the birthplace of written and spoken Spanish. The newer Yuso monastery was built in the 16th century. [۳۹]
Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde Rock art in Côa کاستیا و لئون (shared with پرتغال) Palaeolithic 866; 1998, 2010 (extended); i, iii The original 1998 listing contained examples of Upper Palaeolithic rock art in the Côa Valley of Portugal. In 2010 it was extended to include 645 engravings in the archaeological zone of Siega Verde in Spain. The two sites represent the most well-preserved collection of open-air Palaolithic art in the Iberian peninsula. [۴۰]
Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula Deer painting in cave اندلس, آراگون, کاستیا-لامانچا, کاتالونیا, مورسیا, and بخش خودمختار والنسیا Prehistoric 874; 1998; iii The site includes over 750 examples of rock art from the late پیشاتاریخ period, which feature images ranging from geometric shapes to scenes of men hunting animals. [۴۱][۴۲]
Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco Aqueduct of Tárraco تاراگونا کاتالونیا 1st to 4th centuries 875; 2000; ii, iii The prominent Roman city of Tárraco at the site of modern-day Tarragona served as the capital of the provinces of Hispania Citerior and later Hispania Tarraconensis. The amphitheatre was constructed in the 2nd century. Most remains are only fragments or preserved under more modern buildings. [۴۳][۴۴]
University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares University of Alcalá الکالا د هنارس مادرید (بخش خودمختار) 16th century 876; 1998; ii, iv, vi Cardinal Cisneros founded the University of Alcalá in 1499 and is the first example of the planned university city, serving as a model to other European universities and Spanish missionaries in America. The city is the birthplace of میگل د سروانتس, known for his contributions to the Spanish language and Western literature [۴۵][۴۶]
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna سان کریستبال د لا لاگونا جزایر قناری 16th to 18th centuries 929; 1999; ii, iv The city has an original and unplanned Upper Town, and "city-territory" Lower Town. It was Spain's first non-fortified colonial town and served as a model for development in America. Many religious-function buildings and other public and private buildings date to the 16th century. [۴۷][۴۸]
Palmeral of Elche Elche الچه بخش خودمختار والنسیا N/A 930; 2000; ii, v The grove of خرما was formally laid out with irrigation systems under the Moors in the 10th century. The palmeral is a rare example of Arab agricultural practices in Europe. [۴۹]
Roman Walls of Lugo Walls of Lugo لوگو (شهر) گالیسیا 3rd century 987; 2000; iv The walls built to protect the Roman town of Lucus in the 3rd century remain entirely intact and are the best remaining example in Western Europe. [۵۰]
Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí Taüll – Sant Climent Vall de Boí کاتالونیا 11th to 14th centuries 988; 2000; ii, iv The small valley at the edge of the پیرنه contains churches in معماری رومی‌وار decorated with Romanesque murals, statues, and altars. The churches are unique for their tall, square bell towers. [۵۱][۵۲]
Archaeological Site of Atapuerca Atapuerca Atapuerca کاستیا و لئون Prehistoric 989; 2000; iii, v The caves in the Atapuerca Mountains contain fossil remains of the earliest human beings discovered in Europe dating from nearly one million years ago. The Sima de los Huesos or "Pit of Bones" contains the world's largest collection of hominid fossils. [۵۳][۵۴]
Aranjuez Cultural Landscape Palace at Aranjuez Aranjuez مادرید (بخش خودمختار) 15th to 19th centuries 1044; 2001; ii, iv The landscape around the Royal Palace of Aranjuez was developed by the Spanish royal family over a course of three centuries and contains innovative horticultural and design ideas. The area was the exclusive property of the royal family until the 19th century when the modern civilian city developed. [۵۵][۵۶]
Vizcaya Bridge Vizcaya Bridge Portugalete سرزمین باسک 19th century 1217; 2006; i, ii The bridge was designed by Alberto Palacio to cross the Nervion without disrupting maritime traffic to the Port of Bilbao. It was built in 1893 and is the world's first transporter bridge. [۵۷][۵۸]
پارک ملی تیده Mount Teide تنریف جزایر قناری N/A 1258; 2007; vii, viii The park contains Mount Teide, a volcano and the highest elevation in Spain. [۵۹]
برج هرکول Tower of Hercules لاکرونیا گالیسیا 1st century 1312; 2009; iii The Romans built this ۵۵ متر (۱۸۰ فوت) فانوس دریایی on a ۵۷ متر (۱۸۷ فوت) rock to mark the entrance to the A Coruña harbor. It is the only fully preserved and functioning Roman lighthouse. [۶۰]

فهرست پیشنهادی[ویرایش]

Tramuntana Sierra
Loarre Castle

علاوه بر فهرست میراث ثبت شده در یونسکو کشورها می‌توانند فهرستی از میراث را برای ثبت در فهرست میراث جهانی پیشنهاد بدهند.[۶۱]

  1. The Ribeira Sacra, لوگو (شهر) and اورنسه (شهر) (۱۹۹۶)
  2. The Tramuntana Sierra, Cultural and Natural Landscape (۱۹۹۶)
  3. The Architecture of Dry Built Stone (۱۹۹۸)
  4. Bulwarked Frontier Fortification (۱۹۹۸)
  5. Mediterranean Wind Mills (۱۹۹۸)
  6. The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial and Natural Surroundings (۱۹۹۸)
  7. Romanesque Cultural Enclave in the North of Castile-León and the South of Cantabria (۱۹۹۸)
  8. The Silver Route (۱۹۹۸)
  9. Wine and Vineyard Cultural Itinerary through Mediterranean Towns (۱۹۹۸)
  10. Cultural Itinerary of فرانسیسکو زاویر (۲۰۰۱)
  11. Dinosaur Ichnite Sites of the Iberian Peninsula (۲۰۰۲)
  12. Greek Archaeological ensemble in Empúries, l'Escala, Girona (۲۰۰۲)
  13. The Mediterranean Facet of the پیرنه (France-Spain) (۲۰۰۴)
  14. المادن on the Mercury Route of the Intercontinental Camino Real (۲۰۰۷)
  15. Ancares – Somiedo (۲۰۰۷)
  16. El Ferrol of the Illustration Historical Heritage (۲۰۰۷)
  17. Historic City-Centre of لاس پالماس (۲۰۰۷)
  18. Loarre Castle (۲۰۰۷)
  19. Mesta Livestock trails (۲۰۰۷)
  20. Mining Historical Heritage (۲۰۰۷)
  21. The Northern or Primitive Route (extension of the Route of Santiago de Compostella) (۲۰۰۷)
  22. Renaissance and Baroque Arch in the City of Granada (extension of گرانادا) (۲۰۰۷)
  23. Roman Ways, Itineraries of the Roman Empire (۲۰۰۷)
  24. پلاسنسیاMonfragüeTrujillo (۲۰۰۹)

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ "Spain – Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
  2. "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
  3. "Spanish Funds-in-Trust". UNESCO. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
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  61. "Tentative Lists". UNESCO. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

(اسپانیایی) کمیسیون ملی یونسکو اسپانیا