‎.ru‏

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
‎.ru‏
RuNet Logo.jpg
Runet logo at the ۲۰۰۹ Runet Prize ceremony
سال فعال شدن۷ April ۱۹۹۴
نوع دامنه سطح‌بالادامنه سطح‌بالای کد کشوری
وضعیتفعال
ثبتCoordination Center for TLD RU
نیت استفادهبرای ارتباط با روسیه
استفاده حقیقیبسیار مورد استفاده در روسیه
ساختارRegistrations are permitted directly at the second level; third-level registrations are also possible under the rule of the official registry
سیاست نزاعندارد
وب‌سایتCoordination Center for TLD RU



‎.ru‏ دامنه اینترنتی اختصاص داده شده به کشور روسیه است.

منبع[ویرایش]

ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی، نسخهٔ ۷ ژانویه ۲۰۰۷

.ru
CCTLD RU logo ru.svg
IntroducedApril 7, 1994; 25 years ago (1994-04-07)
TLD typeCountry code top-level domain
StatusActive
RegistryCoordination Center for TLD RU
Intended useEntities connected with  Russia
Actual useVery popular in Russia
Registered domains5,381,137 (January, 2018)[1]
StructureRegistrations are permitted directly at the second level; third-level registrations are also possible under the rule of the official registry
Dispute policiesNone
DNSSECyes
Registry websiteCoordination Center for TLD RU

.ru is the Latin alphabet Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Russian Federation introduced on April 7, 1994. The Russian alphabet internationalized country code is .рф.

Control of .ru is assigned to the Coordination Center for TLD RU (CC for TLD RU), the current official registry. On 1 January 2005, the former registry, the Russian Institute for Public Networks (RIPN), stopped new registrations directly under .ru, but still carried out registry operations for domain names under the second-level domains .com.ru, .net.ru, .org.ru and .pp.ru.

The company RELCOM also proposes third-level registrations beneath various second-level domains such as .msk.ru (Moscow), while Macomnet Telcom[2] proposes third-level registrations beneath .int.ru simultaneously.

Background

The creation of .ru in April 1994 was preceded by a historical agreement in 1993 known as "The order of RU top-level domain administration". According to the agreement, administrative and technical support responsibilities for the .ru domain were to be handed over to RIPN. In 2002, the administrative functions were handed over to CC for TLD RU.

Development of .ru

The ccTLD is developing rapidly under self-regulation. In 1993, an informal union was formed, known as the RU Top-Level Domain Coordination Group (RU TLD CG). The union includes the leading Russian ISPs as well as scientific and educational networks entrusted by RIPN with RU domain administration.

In 1998, RIPN and RU TLD CG established a domain registration association. Subsequently, in 2000, a new system of domain name registration for .ru was introduced. It was a distributed system of second-level domain name registrations in .ru, through accredited registrars. The accredited registrars provide domain name registration and support services on a "first come, first served" basis to end-users.

RIPN became one of four co-founders of CC for TLD RU, but continued to support centralized technical aspects of the operation of .ru. All organizational and administrative functions were handed over to CC for TLD RU. To preserve historical continuity, one of CC for TLD RU's committees was established on the basis of RU TLD CG.

CC for TLD RU maintains domain name registration rules for .ru, the registrar accreditation procedure, and promotes perspective projects that involve the growth of .ru, whereas RIPN secures .ru technical base functions and supports DNS for the .ru DNS zone.

The current distributed registration system was first tested in 2001 and subsequently implemented in 2005.

Second-level domains

Although direct registration of second-level domains is widespread, there are a number of second-level domains designated for third-level domain name registrations depending on organizational type and geographic location. The full list is published on the CC for TLD RU website.[3]

Generic second-level domains

  • .ac.ru — scientific institutions and higher education
  • .com.ru — commercial organizations
  • .edu.ru — education
  • .gov.ru — Russia's federal government
  • .int.ru — international organizations
  • .mil.ru — the Russian military
  • .net.ru — organizations having to do with the Internet
  • .org.ru — noncommercial organizations
  • .pp.ru — individuals

Second-level domains for federal subjects of Russia

Note that some federal subjects have multiple second-level domains, and others (not listed below) have none.

Other geographic second-level domains

These were created before rules were established for geographic second-level domain names in .ru, and have had to be grandfathered in.[4]

In addition, the .test.ru second-level domain is reserved for use in examples in documentation.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Domeny Rossii – Celi ispol'zovanija domenov" Домены России - Цели использования доменов (in Russian). cctld.ru, tcinet.ru. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  2. ^ int.ru
  3. ^ "Перечень зарезервированных доменных имен". Cctld.ru. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
  4. ^ "Регламент и тарифы на услуги по регистрации доменов". Cctld.ru. Retrieved 2012-01-15.

External links

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.