گزارش دست به دست یا یک کلاغ چهل کلاغ یک وضعیت از نقدپذیر بودن منبع خبر است که از چند منبع مستقل برآمده است، اما در واقع فقط یک منبع، منبع اصلی آن بودهاست. در بسیاری از موارد در اثر اشتباه در جمع کردن اطلاعات چنین اتفاقی رخ میدهد. بعضی مواقع نیز به عمد توسط منبع اصلی چنین وضعیتی رخ میدهد.
رابطه یک کلاغ چهل کلاغ شدن بین مطبوعات و ویکیپدیا
↑Micheal T. Hurley; Kenton V. Smith. "8". I Solemnly Swear. p. 128. ISBN0-595-29947-4. Circular reporting occurs when what is reported is fed back to the originator in revised fashion which makes it difficult to objectively view the end product until you can trace back the sources to determine where the original information actually came from. Pan Am would eventually try to play that game by trying to introduce into court news reports that they themselves had a hand in producing.Google Book search, retrieved on 23 July 2009.
Two basic ways that circular reporting can happen. Dashed lines indicate sourcing that isn't visible to the final reviewer. In both cases, one original source (top) appears to the final reviewer (bottom) as two independent sources
"Citogenesis" redirects here. It is not to be confused with cytogenesis.
Circular reporting or false confirmation is a situation in source criticism where a piece of information appears to come from multiple independent sources, but in reality comes from only one source. In many cases, the problem happens mistakenly through sloppy intelligence-gathering practices. However, at other times the situation can be intentionally contrived by the original source as a way of reinforcing the widespread belief in its information.
In the following examples, false claims were propagated on Wikipedia and in news sources because of circular reporting. Randall Munroe, in his comic xkcd, called this phenomenon citogenesis.
Wikipedia and The Northern Echo: In January 2014 a statement was anonymously added to the Wikipedia page on UK comedian/broadcaster Dave Gorman stating that "he had taken a career break for a sponsored hitch-hike around the Pacific Rim countries". When this was questioned, an article published at a later date (September 2014) in The Northern Echo, a daily regional newspaper in North East England was cited as evidence. The falsity of the original claim was confirmed by Gorman in an episode of his UK TV show Modern Life Is Goodish (first broadcast 22 November 2016).
^Hurley, Micheal T.; Smith, Kenton V. "Chapter 8: The Aviv Report". I Solemnly Swear: Conmen, Dea, the Media and Pan Am 103. New York: iUniverse. p. 129. ISBN0-595-29947-4. Retrieved 26 June 2019. Circular reporting occurs when what is reported is fed back to the originator in revised fashion which makes it difficult to objectively view the end product until you can trace back the sources to determine where the original information actually came from. Pan Am would eventually try to play that game by trying to introduce into court news reports that they themselves had a hand in producing.[self-published source]
^Drogin, Bob; Hamburger, Tom (17 February 2006). "Niger Uranium Rumors Wouldn't Die". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 June 2019. This became a classic case of circular reporting," said a U.S. intelligence official who spoke on condition of anonymity because he is not authorized to talk to reporters. "It seemed like we were hearing it from lots of places. People didn't realize it was the same bad information coming in different doors. This is an interesting example of circular reporting.