گیره لنز، (به انگلیسی:Bayonet mount) مکانیزم چفت و بستی است متشکل از یک طرف نر (با یک یا چند پین) و طرف دیگر مادگی (شکاف L مانند) که در صورت اتصال و تطبیق یافتن با یکدیگر، در هم قفل میشوند.
اتصال لنز به دوربین عکاسی اغلب دارای کانتکتهای مکانیکی و الکتریکی است، مگر در دوربینهای قدیمی که سیستم اتوفوکوس ندارند و کنترل دیافراگم نیز به صورت مکانیکی است. این سیستم به دوربین امکان میدهد تا لنزهای متعددی بر روی آن نصب گردد. انواعی از محلهای اتصال لنز به دوربین، بر اساس طراحیهای کارخانجات متعدد وجود دارد. از این میان میتوان به گیرههای نوع C و T و K اشاره کرد.
در انواع قدیمی، لنزها بر روی بدنه دوربین پیچ میشدند. در این میان دو قطر معروف ۳۹ و ۴۲ میلیمتری که دارای گامهای ۰٫۷۵ میلیمتر بودند، از انواع پر مصرف و معروف بودند. به خاطر سرعت عمل بیشتر در تعویض لنز، و اشکالاتی که در زائدههای کنترل دیافراگم لنز در دورهای متعدد پیچاندن آن به وجود میآمد، پیچ را به زبانههایی که در یک چهارم دور عمل فیکس آن بر روی بدنه دوربین انجام میگرفت و اغلب به صورت سهگانه طراحی شدهاند، تغییر و اصلاح نمودند. عمل فیکس لنز در این سیستمها با پین کوچکی که وظیفه قفل لنز را بر عهده دارد، کامل میشود.
Pentax K-7 with visible lens mount. The red mounting index marker has a corresponding marker on the lens, and helps to align the lens to the correct mounting orientation. The contact pins on the bottom left are an interface for lens–body communication. The shaft on the lower right drives the autofocus of lenses without an internal motor.
Female lens mount of an Minolta XD-7 with male mount of Minolta MC-Rokkor 58mm 1:1.4 lens
A lens mount may be a screw-threaded type, a bayonet-type, or a breech-lock (friction lock) type. Modern still camera lens mounts are of the bayonet type, because the bayonet mechanism precisely aligns mechanical and electrical features between lens and body. Screw-threaded mounts are fragile and do not align the lens in a reliable rotational position, yet types such as the C-mount interface are still widely in use for other applications like video cameras and optical instrumentation.
Bayonet mounts generally have a number of tabs (often three) around the base of the lens, which fit into appropriately sized recesses in the lens mounting plate on the front of the camera. The tabs are often "keyed" in some way to ensure that the lens is only inserted in one orientation, often by making one tab a different size. Once inserted the lens is fastened by turning it a small amount. It is then locked in place by a spring-loaded pin, which can be operated to remove the lens.
Lens mounts of competing manufacturers (Sony, Nikon, Canon, Contax/Yashica, Pentax, etc.) are almost always incompatible. In addition to the mechanical and electrical interface variations, the flange focal distance from the lens mount to the film or sensor can also be different. Many[who?] allege that these incompatibilities are due to the desire of manufacturers to "lock in" consumers to their brand.
In movie cameras, the two most popular mounts in current usage on professional digital cinematography cameras are Arri's PL-mount and Panavision's PV-mount. The PL-Mount is used both on Arri and RED digital cinematography cameras, which as of 2012[update] are the most used cameras for films shot in digital. The Panavision mounts are exclusively used with Panavision lenses, and thus are only available on Panaflex cameras or third-party cameras "Panavised" by a Panavision rental house, whereas the PL-mount style is favored with most other cameras and cine lens manufacturers. Both of these mounts are held in place with locating pins and friction locking rings. Other mounts which are now largely historical or a minority in relation to current practices are listed below.
For small camera modules, used in e.g. CCTV systems and machine vision, a range of metric thread mounts exists. The smallest ones can be found also in e.g. cellphones and endoscopes. The most common by far is the M12x0.5, followed by M8x0.5 and M10x0.5.
So some manufacturers (e.g. Linhof) offered special focusing lens mounts, so-called wide-angle focusing accessories for their cameras.
With such a device, the lens could be focused precisely without moving the entire front standard.
Secondary lens mount
A teleconverter attached between a camera and its objective
Secondary lens refers to a multi-element lens mounted either in front of a camera's primary lens, or in between the camera body and the primary lens.
(D)SLR camera & interchangeable-lens manufacturers offer lens accessories like extension tubes and secondary lenses like teleconverters, which mount in between the camera body and the primary lens, both using and providing a primary lens mount. Various lensmakers also offer optical accessories that mount in front of the lens; these may include wide-angle, telephoto, fisheye, and close-up or macro adapters.
Canon PowerShot A and Canon PowerShot G cameras have a built-in or non-interchangeable primary (zoom) lens, and Canon has "conversion tube" accessories available for some Canon PowerShot camera models which provide either a 52mm or 58mm "accessory/filter" screw thread. Canon's close-up, wide- (WC-DC), and tele-conversion (TC-DC) lenses have 2, 3, and 4-element lenses respectively, so they are multi-element lenses and not diopter "filters".
Lens mount adapters
This lens adapter is a passive adapter designed for mounting a Nikon F mount lens to a Micro Four Thirds camera.
Lens mount adapters are designed to attach a lens to a camera body with non-matching mounts. Generally, a lens can be easily adapted to a camera body with a smaller flange focal distance by simply adding space between the camera and the lens. When attempting to adapt a lens to a camera body with a larger flange focal distance, the adapter must include a secondary lens in order to compensate. This has the side effect of decreasing the amount of light that reaches the sensor, as well as adding a crop factor to the lens. Without the secondary lens, these adapters will function as an extension tube and will not be able to focus to infinity.
^A: The authoritative normative source for 4/3 standards information is Four-Thirds.Org and not 3rd-party reviews.
4/3's published facts:
"Size of the 4/3-type Sensor: The standard diagonal length of the sensor is 21.63 millimetres (0.852 in). It is half that of 35-mm film format (36 millimetres (1.4 in) x 24 millimetres (0.94 in) = 43.27 millimetres (1.704 in)) The image circle of the interchangeable lens is specified based on this diagonal length. The focal length is about a half that of a 135 film camera lens assuming the same angle of view."
"The foundation for the high picture quality of the Four Thirds system is the lens mount, which is about twice the diameter of the image circle."
"Differences between Four Thirds System mount and Micro Four Thirds System mount: Mount diameter reduction; As a result of research aimed at facilitating the design of compact, lightweight lenses while maintaining the current strength, the outer diameter of the lens mount has been reduced by approx. 6 millimetres (0.24 in). ... the Micro Four Thirds System ... specifies the optimum flange back length required to reduce camera size and thickness, assuming the omission of the mirror box. The flange back length has been reduced to about 1/2 that of the Four Thirds System."
21.63mm * 2 = 43.26 millimetres (1.703 in) or ~44mm
43.26mm – 6mm = 37.26 millimetres (1.467 in) or ~38mm
Some published reviews of 4/3 instead cite the (female) "outside diameter" of the lens or mount as ~50mm (and micro-4/3 as ~44mm), and not the appropriate major diameter (D) ~44mm which is the camera body's female mount inside-diameter and the lens's male mount outside-diameter (micro-4/3 ~38mm).