کیوی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
کیوی
درخت کیوی-شمال ایران آستارا
طبقه‌بندی علمی
فرمانرو: گیاهان
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): گیاهان گلدار
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): دولپه‌ای‌های نو
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): آستریدها
راسته: خلنگ‌سانان
تیره: کیویان
سرده: Actinidia
Lindl.
Species

See text

کیوی گیاهی است از گروه گیاهان گلدار دولپه‌ای در راسته خلنگ‌سانان و رده کیویان. این گیاه بومی جنوب چین و میوه ملی جمهوری خلق چین است. میوه آن تخم مرغی شکل به اندازه یک تخم مرغ بزرگ (به طول ۵-۸ سانتیمتر و عرض ۴٫۵ - ۵٫۵ سانتیمتر) است و پوست آن قهوه‌ای رنگ و گوشت آن سبز کمرنگ است.

تاریخچه[ویرایش]

این گیاه در جنوب چین توسط کشاورزی ساده لوح برای اولین بار به عمل آمد و در آنجا میوه ملی چین نامیده شد. اما نام آن از نام گونه‌ای پرنده زیبا که در نیوزیلند پرنده ملی بوده در دهه شصت میلادیش به این میوه داده شده رایج گردیده‌است (پرنده کیوی).[۱]

پیوند این میوه بعد از رشد حدود یک هفته‌ای تبدیل به نهال و قابل قلمه زدن است. این روش از متداول‌ترین روشهای کاشت نهال کیوی در دنیا به خصوص کشور چین می‌باشد. کشور چین یکی از بزرگ‌ترین کشورهای صادر کننده نهال پیوندی این میوه می‌باشد.[نیازمند منبع]

ارزش غذایی[ویرایش]

میوه کیوی

کیوی منبعی غنی و سرشار از ویتامین C است و مقدار ویتامین C آن از پرتقال نیز بیشتر است. همچنین دانه‌های سیاه آن حاوی ویتامین D است. کیوی همچنین دارای ویتامین A ویتامین‌های B۱، B۲، B۳ و سایر ویتامین‌های گروه ب می‌باشد. کیوی از میوه‌های بسیار کم کالری است. در ۱۰۰ گرم کیوی ۴۷ کالری وجود دارد. و از جهت میزان کالری همردیف زردآلو و نارنگی است. مقدار پتاسیم آن از موز بیشتر است. از میزان منیزیم بسیار بالایی نیز برخوردار است و به همین خاطر نیز امکان مبتلا شدن به بعضی از سرطان‌ها و بیمارهای قلبی را کاهش می‌دهد. همچنین دارای مس، آهن و فسفر است. کیوی میوه‌ای است که مواد غذایی بالا و در صد کالری بسیار پایینی دارد، از اینرو می‌توان آن را در رده میوه‌های بسیار مفید قرار داد.[۲]

میزان تولید در جهان[ویرایش]

تولید کیوی در جهان
نمایی از یک باغ کیوی در تالش
شکوفه کیوی در رودسر
کشورهای برتر تولید کننده کیوی در سال ۲۰۰۷ (تن)
Flag of Italy.svg ایتالیا ۴۱۰
Flag of New Zealand.svg نیوزیلند ۳۶۰
Flag of Chile.svg شیلی ۱۷۰
Flag of France.svg فرانسه ۸۰
Flag of Greece.svg یونان ۴۰
Flag of Japan.svg ژاپن ۴۰
Flag of Iran.svg ایران ۲۰
Flag of the United States.svg ایالات متحده آمریکا ۲۰
Flag of Canada.svg کانادا ۱۰
Flag of Cambodia.svg کامبوج ۱۰
سراسر جهان ۱،۱۴۰
منبع:
فائو (سازمان خواربار و کشاورزی ملل متحد)
[۳]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

یونس ابراهیمی

منابع[ویرایش]

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

جستجو در ویکی‌انبار در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ کیوی موجود است.
Kiwifruit by species
A = A. arguta, C = A. chinensis, D = A. deliciosa, E = A. eriantha, I = A. indochinensis, P = A. polygama, S = A. setosa.

The kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry (often shortened to kiwi outside New Zealand), is the edible berry of a woody vine in the genus Actinidia.[1]

The most common cultivar group of kiwifruit ('Hayward')[2] is oval, about the size of a large hen's egg (5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) in length and 4.5–5.5 cm (1.8–2.2 in) in diameter). It has a fibrous, dull greenish-brown skin and bright green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds. The fruit has a soft texture and a sweet but unique flavor, and today is a commercial crop in several countries, such as Italy, New Zealand, Chile, Greece, and France.[3]

History

Kiwifruit jam from Lebanon

Kiwifruit is native to northern China. Other species of Actinidia are native to India, Japan, and southeastern Siberia. Cultivation of the fuzzy kiwifruit spread from China in the early 20th century, when seeds were introduced to New Zealand by Mary Isabel Fraser, the principal of Wanganui Girls' College, who had been visiting mission schools in Yichang, China.[4] The seeds were planted in 1906 by a Wanganui nurseryman, Alexander Allison, with the vines first fruiting in 1910.

The first commercial planting of Chinese gooseberries occurred in 1937 in New Zealand by the orchardist Jim MacLoughlin. The fruit proved popular with American servicemen in New Zealand during World War II. In 1952, MacLoughlin partnered with the New Zealand Fruit Federation to market and export the fruit in the United States market.[5] Due to pioneering research into the transportability of the fruit by John Pilkington Hudson and others at the agriculture department in Wellington, this was the first international export of the kiwifruit.[6]

Names

As the local popularity of this fruit increased, New Zealanders discarded the local Chinese name for the fruit(yang tao or mí hóu táo)[7] in favor of the name Chinese gooseberry.[8] After World War II, it was marketed under the names "Chinese gooseberry" and "melonette". The California based importer, Norman Sontag, rejected these names because melons and berries attracted high duties in the US.[7] In 1959, the fruit was re-branded "kiwifruit" after the kiwi bird, New Zealand’s national symbol, as the bird and the fruit share a similar appearance (small, brown, and furry).[7][9] Kiwifruit has since become a common name for all commercially grown fruit from the family Actinidia.[7] In Chinese, the current word for most wild or local varieties of the kiwifruit is the Macaque peach. The imported varieties are often referred to as wonder fruit (qí yì guǒ), as qí yì (wonder) sounds similar to kiwi.

Cultivars

A close-up view of fuzzy kiwi skin
Five red-ringed kiwifruits (A. chinensis)[10][11] sliced in a hexagon shape

The genus Actinidia contains around 60 species. Though most kiwifruit are easily recognized as kiwifruit (due to basic shape) their fruit is quite variable. The skin of the fruit can vary in size, shape, hairiness, and color. The flesh can vary in color, juiciness, texture, and taste. Some fruits are unpalatable while others taste considerably better than the majority of the commercial varieties.[12][9]

The most common kiwifruit is the Fuzzy Kiwifruit and comes from the species A. deliciosa. Other species have fruits that are commonly eaten; some examples are Golden Kiwifruit (A. chinensis), Chinese Egg Gooseberry (A. coriacea), Baby Kiwifruit (A. arguta), Arctic Kiwifruit (A. kolomikta), Red Kiwifruit (A. melanandra), Silver Vine (A. polygama), Purple Kiwifruit (A. purpurea).[12]

Fuzzy kiwifruit

Almost all kiwifruit in commerce belong to a few cultivars of fuzzy kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa): 'Hayward', 'Blake', and 'Saanichton 12'.[1] They have a fuzzy, dull-brown skin, and bright-green flesh. The familiar cultivar 'Hayward' was developed by Hayward Wright in Avondale, New Zealand, around 1924.[12] It was initially grown in domestic gardens, but commercial planting began in the 1940s.

'Hayward' is the most commonly available cultivar in stores. It is a large, egg-shaped fruit with a sweet flavor. 'Saanichton 12', from British Columbia, is somewhat more rectangular than 'Hayward' and comparably sweet, but the inner core of the fruit can be tough. 'Blake' can self-pollinate, but it has a smaller, more oval fruit and the flavor is considered inferior.[1][12] The most common male pollenizer for these varietals is 'Chico'.[citation needed]

Golden kiwifruit

A sliced golden kiwifruit

The golden kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) has a smooth, bronze skin, with a beak shape at the stem attachment. Flesh color varies from bright green to a clear, intense yellow. This species is sweeter and more aromatic in flavor; the flavor is reminiscent of some subtropical fruit. Its short storage life currently limits its commercial potential. One of the most attractive varieties has a red 'iris' around the center of the fruit and yellow flesh outside. The yellow fruit fetches a higher market price and, being less hairy than the fuzzy kiwi, is more palatable for consumption without peeling.[12]

A commercially viable[13] variety of this red-ringed kiwi, patented as the EnzaRed™, is a cultivar of the Chinese hong yang variety.[10][11]

Hort16A, marketed as Zespri® Gold, is a golden kiwifruit now marketed worldwide in increasing volumes.[14]

Kiwi berries

The larger fuzzy kiwi in back compared to the smaller kiwi berry

Kiwi berries are composed of three species of kiwifruit, hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta), Arctic beauty (A. kolomikta), and silver vine (A. polygama). They are fast-growing, climbing vines, durable over their growing season. The fruits are edible berry- or grape-sized fruits similar to the fuzzy kiwi in taste and appearance, with thin, smooth skin. They are referred to as kiwi berry, baby kiwi, dessert kiwi, grape kiwi, or cocktail kiwi.[15]

The cultivar 'Issai' is a hybrid of hardy kiwi and silver vine which can self-pollinate. Grown commercially because of its relatively large fruit, Issai is less hardy than most hardy kiwi.[citation needed]

Production

Cultivation

Kiwifruit growing on supported vine
Hort16a kiwifruit at flowering

Kiwifruit can be grown in most temperate climates with adequate summer heat. Where fuzzy kiwi (A. deliciosa) is not hardy, other species can be grown as substitutes.

Kiwifruit is commercially grown on sturdy support structures, as it can produce several tonnes per hectare, more than the rather weak vines can support. These are generally equipped with a watering system for irrigation and frost protection in the spring. Kiwifruit vines require vigorous pruning, similar to that of grapevines. Fruit is borne on one-year-old and older canes, but production declines as each cane ages. Canes should be pruned off and replaced after their third year.[9]

Pollination

Most of the plants require a male plant to pollinate a female plant for the female plant to produce fruit (dioecious). For a good yield of fruit, one male vine for every three to eight female vines is required.[9] Other varieties can self pollinate, but they produce a greater and more reliable yield when pollinated by male kiwifruit vines.[9]

Kiwifruit is notoriously difficult to pollinate, because the flowers are not very attractive to bees. Some producers blow collected pollen over the female flowers. Generally, the most successful approach, though, is saturation pollination, where the bee populations are made so large (by placing hives in the orchards at a concentration of about 8 hives per hectare) that bees are forced to use this flower because of intense competition for all flowers within flight distance.[9]

Storage

Firm kiwifruit ripen after a few days to a week when stored at room temperature, but should not be kept in direct sunlight. Faster ripening occurs when placed in a paper bag with an apple, pear, or banana.[16] Once a kiwifruit is ripe, however, it is preserved optimally when stored far from other fruits, as it is very sensitive to the ethylene gas they may emit, thereby tending to over-ripen even in the refrigerator.[16] If stored appropriately, ripe kiwifruit normally keep for about one to two weeks.[16]

Pests and diseases

Pseudomonas syringae actinidiae (PSA) was first identified in Japan in the 1980s. This bacterial strain has been controlled and managed successfully in orchards in Asia. In 1992, it was found in northern Italy. In 2007/2008, economic losses were observed, as a more virulent strain became more dominant (PSA V).[17][18][19] In 2010 it was found in New Zealand's Bay of Plenty kiwifruit orchards in the North Island.[20]

Scientists reported they had worked out the strain of PSA affecting New Zealand kiwifruit originated in China, Italy, and Chile.[21]

Worldwide production

Kiwifruit output in 2005
Top kiwifruit-producing countries in 2012
(in metric tons)
Rank Country Production
(Tonnes)
1  Italy 384,844
2  New Zealand 376,400
3  Chile 240,000
4  Greece 161,400
5  France 65,253
6  Turkey 36,781
7  Iran 32,000
8  Japan 28,000
9  United States 26,853
10  Portugal 25,000
World 1,412,351
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization[22]

Kiwifruit exports rapidly increased from the late 1960s to early 1970s in New Zealand. By 1976, exports exceeded the amount consumed domestically.[23] Outside of Australasia, all New Zealand kiwifruits are now marketed under the brand-name label Zespri.[24]

Over 70% of kiwi production is in Italy, New Zealand, and Chile. Italy produces roughly 10% more kiwifruit than New Zealand, and Chile produces 40% less.[3] With these three main production centers, kiwifruit is produced for worldwide consumption roughly all year long.

In the 1980s, countries outside New Zealand began to export kiwifruit.[25] In Italy, the infrastructure and techniques required to support grape production have been adapted to the kiwifruit. This, coupled with being very close to the European kiwifruit market, led to Italians becoming the leading producer of kiwifruit. The growing season of Italian kiwifruit does not overlap much with the New Zealand or the Chilean growing seasons, therefore direct competition between New Zealand or Chile was not much of a factor.[26]

Although kiwifruit is a national fruit of China, until recently, China was not a major producing country of kiwifruit, as it was traditionally collected from the wild.[27] In China, it is grown mainly in the mountainous area upstream of the Yangtze River, as well as Sichuan.[28]


Human consumption

Kiwifruit, gold, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 251 kJ (60 kcal)
Carbohydrates 14.23 g
- Sugars 10.98 g
- Dietary fiber 2 g
Fat 0.56 g
Protein 1.23 g
- lutein and zeaxanthin 114 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.024 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.046 mg (4%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.28 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.5 mg (10%)
Vitamin B6 0.057 mg (4%)
Folate (vit. B9) 34 μg (9%)
Choline 5 mg (1%)
Vitamin C 105.4 mg (127%)
Vitamin E 1.49 mg (10%)
Vitamin K 5.5 μg (5%)
Calcium 20 mg (2%)
Iron 0.29 mg (2%)
Magnesium 14 mg (4%)
Manganese 0.058 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 29 mg (4%)
Potassium 316 mg (7%)
Sodium 3 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.10 mg (1%)
link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Kiwifruit, green, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 255 kJ (61 kcal)
Carbohydrates 14.66 g
- Sugars 8.99 g
- Dietary fiber 3 g
Fat 0.52 g
Protein 1.14 g
- lutein and zeaxanthin 122 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.027 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.025 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.341 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.183 mg (4%)
Vitamin B6 0.063 mg (5%)
Folate (vit. B9) 25 μg (6%)
Choline 7.8 mg (2%)
Vitamin C 92.7 mg (112%)
Vitamin E 1.46 mg (10%)
Vitamin K 40.3 μg (38%)
Calcium 34 mg (3%)
Iron 0.31 mg (2%)
Magnesium 17 mg (5%)
Manganese 0.098 mg (5%)
Phosphorus 34 mg (5%)
Potassium 312 mg (7%)
Sodium 3 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.14 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
A pavlova with strawberries, passionfruit, kiwifruit and cream

Raw kiwifruit is rich in the protein-dissolving enzyme actinidain (in the same family of thiol proteases as papain), which is commercially useful as a meat tenderizer. Actinidain also makes raw kiwifruit unsuitable for use in desserts containing milk or any other dairy products which are not going to be served within hours, because the enzyme soon begins to digest milk proteins. This applies to gelatin-based desserts, as well, as the actinidain will dissolve the proteins in gelatin very quickly, either liquifying the dessert, or preventing it from solidifying.

To overcome this effect, the United States Department of Agriculture suggests cooking the fruit for a few minutes before adding it to gelatin.[29] Sliced kiwifruit has long been regularly used as a garnish atop whipped cream on the common New Zealand and Australian dessert, the pavlova. It can also be used in a variety of other savoury and sweet dishes.

Animal consumption

Whitetail deer eat vine-ripened kiwifruit that falls to the ground in August through September, making it a soft mast food source. Kiwis are being used more in food plots for wildlife because of the early ripening period, providing wildlife with an abundance of sweet fruit during a time when ripened fruit is scarce.[30]

Allergies

The actinidain found in kiwifruit can be an allergen for some individuals.[31][32][33] Specifically, people allergic to latex, bananas, papayas, or pineapples are likely to also be allergic to kiwifruit. The fruit also contains calcium oxalate crystals in the form of raphides. Reactions to these chemicals include sweating, tingling, and sore mouth or throat; swelling of the lips, tongue and face; rash; vomiting and abdominal pain, heartburn; and, in the most severe cases, breathing difficulties, wheezing, and collapse. The most common symptoms are unpleasant itching and soreness of the mouth, with the most common severe symptom being wheezing. Severe symptoms are most likely to occur in young children.

Nutrition

Kiwifruit is a rich source of vitamin C (1.5 times the United States DRI per 100 grams) and vitamin K, and a good source of dietary fiber and vitamin E.[29][34] The fruit and skin contain flavonoids, actinidain, and adhered pollen, which may produce irritation in the mouth and throat of some allergic individuals.[32]

Kiwifruit seed oil contains on average 62% alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid.[35] Usually a medium size kiwifruit provides about 46 calories,[36] 0.3 g fat, 1 g protein, 11 g carbohydrates, and 2.6 g dietary fiber found partly in the edible skin.[37] Kiwifruit is often reported to have mild laxative effects, due to its significant levels of dietary fiber.[38]

Kiwifruit contains carotenoids, such as provitamin A beta-carotene,[39] lutein and zeaxanthin.[40]

Kiwifruit components, possibly involving vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids from its numerous edible seeds, have potential properties of a natural blood thinner. Consuming two to three kiwifruit daily for 28 days significantly reduced platelet aggregation and blood triglyceride levels (similar to popular mainstream aspirin therapy), potentially reducing the risk of blood clots.[41]

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c Bernadine Stirk (2005). "Growing Kiwifruit". Pacific Northwest Extension Publishing. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ Beutel JA (1997). "Kiwifruit, in: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops, 1990". Center for New Crops & Plant Products at Purdue University. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Kiwi fruit: World List, 2010". FAOSTAT. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Isabel Fraser: Hand carried the first kiwifruit seeds from China". Zespri Kiwifriut. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  5. ^ "First Commercial Kiwifruit Grower and Explorer". Zespri. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  6. ^ ODNB entry: Retrieved 24 June 2011. Subscription required.
  7. ^ a b c d "Kiwifruit's name". Zespri Kiwifruit. Retrieved February 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ Green, Emily (May 8, 2002). "Kiwi, Act II". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Morton J (2011). "Kiwifruit: Actinidia deliciosa In: Fruits of Warm Climates, 1987". Center for New Crops & Plant Products at Purdue University. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Yang, Hong-Li; Wang, Yan-Chang; Jiang, Zheng-Wang; Huang, Hong-Wen (2009). "[Construction of cDNA library of 'Hongyang' kiwifruit and analysis of F3H expression]". Yi Chuan (in Chinese) 31 (12): 1265–1272. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1005.2009.01265. PMID 20042395. 
  11. ^ a b "Turners plugs its Enza red kiwifruit – grown in China". National Business Review. 24 February 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Ferguson, A. R. (1999). "New Temperate Fruits: Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia deliciosa". In Janick, Jules. Perspectives on new crops and new uses. Alexandria, Virginia: ASHS Press. pp. 342–347. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  13. ^ "EnzaRed kiwifruit set to take on world stage". New Zealand Exporter. 14 June 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: How Was Zespri Gold Kiwifruit Developed?". Zespri Kiwifriut. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Hardy Kiwi". Penn State University College of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c "Kiwi fruit". The UK Food Guide. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Kiwifruit vine disease by MAF Biosecurity NZ". 
  18. ^ Watson, Peter (2011-01-25). "More virulent PSA strain a new worry for kiwifruit growers". The Dominion Post. Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  19. ^ Hembry, Owen (2011-08-25). "Relief for kiwifruit industry". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  20. ^ "Suspected Bacterial Vine Infection". MAF Biosecurity New Zealand. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  21. ^ Butler, Margi I.; Stockwell, Peter A.; Black, Michael A.; Day, Robert C.; Lamont, Iain L.; Poulter, Russel T. M. (February 2013). "Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from Recent Outbreaks of Kiwifruit Bacterial Canker Belong to Different Clones That Originated in China". PLoS ONE 8 (2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057464. Retrieved 11 March 2013. 
  22. ^ "Production of Kiwi (fruit) by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  23. ^ Sayeeda Bano and Frank Scrimgeour (June 2011). "New Zealand Kiwifruit Export Performance: Market Analysis and Revealed Comparative Advantage". University of Waikato. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  24. ^ "Zespri History". Zespri Kiwifriut. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  25. ^ Skallerud, Kare; Olsen, Svein (2011). "Export Market Arrangements in Four New Zealand Agriculture Industrues: An Institutional Perspective". Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing 23 (4): 310–329. doi:10.1080/08974438.2011.621841. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  26. ^ Wilkinson, Tracy (May 26, 2008). "Italy leads world as top producer of kiwis". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  27. ^ Huang, H.; Ferguson, A. R. (2003). "Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinesis and A. deliciosa) plantings and production in China, 2002". New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 31 (3). doi:10.1080/01140671.2003.9514253. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  28. ^ Huang, H.; Ferguson, A. R. (2001). "Review: Kiwifruit in China". New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 29 (1). doi:10.1080/01140671.2001.9514154. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "How To Buy Fresh Fruits". United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. January 1994. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  30. ^ "Wildlife Arctic Beauty Kiwi Plants". Prepper Gardens. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  31. ^ Lucas, J.S.; Lewis, S.A.; Hourihane, J.O. (2003). "Kiwi fruit allergy: a review". Pediatr Allergy Immunol 14 (6): 420–428. doi:10.1046/j.0905-6157.2003.00095.x. PMID 14675467. 
  32. ^ a b Alemán A et al. (2004). "Allergy to kiwi: a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study in patients from a birch-free area". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113 (3): 543–550. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2003.11.043. PMID 15007359. 
  33. ^ Le TM et al. (2013). "Kiwifruit allergy across Europe: clinical manifestation and IgE recognition patterns to kiwifruit allergens". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 131 (1): 164–171. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.09.009. 
  34. ^ "Kiwifruit: Nutrition . Selection . Storage". Fruits & Veggies More Matters. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  35. ^ Seed Oil Fatty Acids - SOFA Database Retrieval
  36. ^ "Kiwi fruit, (chinese gooseberries), fresh, raw". Self Nutrition Data. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  37. ^ Food Fact Sheet From the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture
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