کیهان‌شناسی دینی

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کیهان‌شناسی دینی یا شناسی اساطیری (به انگلیسی: Religious cosmology) روشِ توضیحِ منشا، تاریخچه و تکامل گیتی بر اساسِ اسطوره شناسی دینیِ یک سنت خاص است.

یهود[ویرایش]

جهانِ اسرائیل باستان از یک زمین دیسک مانند و تختِ شناور در آب ساخته شده بود که آسمان و بهشت در بالا و دنیای مردگان در زیرِ آن قرار داشتند.[۳] در دورهٔ هلنی (پس از BCE c.330) یهودیان شروع به قبول ایدهٔ یونانیان کردند که می‌تواند مکانی برای مجازاتِ کردارِ بد و نیز لذتِ زندگی پس از مرگ در آسمان‌ها وجود داشته باشد.[۴]

مزدیسنا[ویرایش]

در اسطوره‌های ایرانی جهان هستی به چهار دوره سه هزار ساله تقسیم می‌شود. در سه هزار سال اول که دوره اصلی است، همه چیز در حال سکون و آرامش و جهان غیر مرئی است. این جهان به دو بخش تقسیم می‌شود. یک دنیای زیبا و اهورایی و یک دنیای اهریمنی و تاریک. اهورامزدا از وجود اهریمن آگاه است، اما اهریمن که در قعر تاریکی است، از وجود اهورامزدا بی‌اطلاع است. در سه هزار سال میانه که با خواب اهریمن آغاز می‌شود، اهورامزدا با استفاده از این فرصت دست به کار ساختن شش پیش نمونه جهان هستی یعنی آسمان، آب، زمین، گیاه، چهارپایان و بالاخره انسان می‌شود. در این دوره همچنین هفت اَمشاسپَند (هفت جلوه مینوی) زاده می‌شوند. این فرشتگان مقرب عبارتند از:

زرتشت در آغازِ دورهٔ چهارم به دنیا می‌آید.[۵]

اسلام[ویرایش]

اسلام می‌آموزد که خدا جهان را و از جمله زمین و انسان را به وجود آورده‌است. والاترین هدف، تجسم جهان به عنوان کتابِ نمادها برای مراقبه و تفکر جهتِ تعالی معنوی است یا به عنوان یک زندان که از آن روح انسان برای رسیدن به آزادی واقعی در یک سفر روحانی به سوی خدا می‌گریزد.[۶]

بودا[ویرایش]

در بوداگرایی، جهان وابسته به کردار (کارما) ساکنان آن است.

جاینی[ویرایش]

کیهان‌شناسی جاینی loka یا جهان را به عنوانِ یک نهاد غیر مخلوق و موجودی از بی‌نهایت و بدون آغاز و پایان در نظر می‌گیرد.[۷]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation sereer: Pangool", vol. 2, Les Nouvelles Editions آفریقاines du سنگال, (1990) pp 20-21, 149-155, شابک ‎۲-۷۲۳۶-۱۰۵۵-۱
  2. Clémentine Faïk-Nzuji Madiya, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Canadian Centre for Folk Culture Studies, International Centre for African Language, Literature and Tradition (Louvain, Belgium). ISBN 0-660-15965-1. pp 5, 27, 115
  3. Aune 2003، ص. 119
  4. Lee 2010، صص. 77–78
  5. «داستان نوروز اسطوره‌ای؛ جشن تولد انسان». همشهری آنلاین. ۱۰ فروردین ۱۳۹۳. دریافت‌شده در 15 فروردین 93. تاریخ وارد شده در |تاریخ بازبینی= را بررسی کنید (کمک)
  6. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e459?_hi=10&_pos=2
  7. “This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support” “Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah” [Yogaśāstra of Ācārya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani

کتابشناسی[ویرایش]

  • Aune, David E. (2003). "Cosmology". Westminster Dictionary of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature. Westminster John Knox Press.
  • Bernstein, Alan E. (1996). The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Cornell University Press.
  • Berlin, Adele (2011). "Cosmology and creation". In Berlin, Adele; Grossman, Maxine. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press.
  • Lee, Sang Meyng (2010). The Cosmic Drama of Salvation. Mohr Siebeck.
  • Wright, J. Edward (2002). The Early History of Heaven. Oxford University Press.

Religious cosmology is an explanation of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe, from a religious perspective. This may include beliefs on origin in the form of a creation myth, subsequent evolution, current organizational form and nature, and eventual fate or destiny. There are various traditions in religion or religious mythology asserting how and why everything is the way it is and the significance of it all. Religious cosmologies describe the spatial lay-out of the universe in terms of the world in which people typically dwell as well as other dimensions, such as the seven dimensions of religion; these are ritual, experience and emotional, narrative and mythical, doctrinal, ethical, social, and material. Religious mythologies may include descriptions of an act or process of creation by a creator deity or a larger pantheon of deities, explanations of the transformation of chaos into order, or the assertion that existence is a matter of endless cyclical transformations. Religious cosmology differs from a strictly scientific cosmology informed by the results of the study of astronomy and similar fields, and may differ in conceptualizations of the world's physical structure and place in the universe, its creation, and forecasts or predictions on its future. The scope of religious cosmology is more inclusive than a strictly scientific cosmology (physical cosmology) in that religious cosmology is not limited to experiential observation, testing of hypotheses, and proposals of theories; for example, religious cosmology may explain why everything is the way it is or seems to be the way it is and prescribing what humans should do in context. Variations in religious cosmology include those of Indian origin, such as Buddhism, Hindu, and Jain; the religious beliefs of China; and, the beliefs of the Abrahamic faiths, such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Religious cosmologies have often developed into the formal logics of metaphysical systems, such as Platonism, Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, Daoism, Kabbalah, or the great chain of being.

Abrahamic

Judaism and Christianity

Biblical cosmology

The universe of the ancient Israelites was made up of a flat disc-shaped earth floating on water, heaven above, underworld below.[1] Humans inhabited earth during life and the underworld after death, and the underworld was morally neutral;[2] only in Hellenistic times (after c.330 BC) did Jews begin to adopt the Greek idea that it would be a place of punishment for misdeeds, and that the righteous would enjoy an afterlife in heaven.[3] In this period too the older three-level cosmology was widely replaced by the Greek concept of a spherical earth suspended in space at the centre of a number of concentric heavens.[1]

Ex nihilo

The belief that God created matter is called creatio ex nihilo. It is the accepted orthodoxy of most denominations of Judaism and Christianity. Most denominations of Christianity and Judaism believe that a single, uncreated God was responsible for the creation of the cosmos.

Islam

Cosmology according to Zakariya al-Qazwini. The Earth is considered flat and surrounded by a series of mountains—including Mount Qaf. Earth is supported by an ox that stands on Bahamut dwelling in a cosmic ocean; the ocean is inside a bowl that sits on top of an angel or jinn.[4]

Islam teaches that God created the universe, including Earth's physical environment and human beings. The highest goal is to visualize the cosmos as a book of symbols for meditation and contemplation for spiritual upliftment or as a prison from which the human soul must escape to attain true freedom in the spiritual journey to God.[5]

Below here there are some other citations from the Quran on cosmology.

"And the heavens We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are [its] expander." 51:47 Sahih International

"Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?" 21:30 Yusuf Ali translation

"The day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books (completed),- even as We produced the first creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfil it." 21:104 Yusuf Ali translation

Indian

Buddhism

In Buddhism, like other Indian religions, there is no ultimate beginning nor final end to the universe. It considers all existence as eternal, and believes there is no creator god.[6][7] Buddhism views the universe as impermanent and always in flux. This cosmology is the foundation of its Samsara theory, that evolved over time the mechanistic details on how the wheel of mundane existence works over the endless cycles of rebirth and redeath.[8] In early Buddhist traditions, Saṃsāra cosmology consisted of five realms through which wheel of existence recycled.[9] This included hells (niraya), hungry ghosts (pretas), animals (tiryak), humans (manushya), and gods (devas, heavenly).[9][8][10] In latter traditions, this list grew to a list of six realms of rebirth, adding demi-gods (asuras).[9][11] The "hungry ghost, heavenly, hellish realms" respectively formulate the ritual, literary and moral spheres of many contemporary Buddhist traditions.[9][8]

According to Akira Sadakata, the Buddhist cosmology is far more complex and uses extraordinarily larger numbers than those found in Vedic and post-Vedic Hindu traditions.[12] It also shares many ideas and concepts, such as those about Mount Meru.[13][14] The Buddhist thought holds that the six cosmological realms are interconnected, and everyone cycles life after life, through these realms, because of a combination of ignorance, desires and purposeful karma, or ethical and unethical actions.[9][8]

Hindu

The Hindu cosmology, like the Buddhist and Jain cosmology, considers all existence as cyclic.[15][16] With its ancient roots, Hindu texts propose and discuss numerous cosmological theories. Hindu culture accepts this diversity in cosmological ideas and has lacked a single mandatory view point even in its oldest known Vedic scripture, the Rigveda.[17] Alternate theories include a universe cyclically created and destroyed by god, or goddess, or no creator at all, or a golden egg or womb (Hiranyagarbha), or self-created multitude of universes with enormous lengths and time scales.[17][18][19] The Vedic literature includes a number of cosmology speculations, one of which questions the origin of the cosmos and is called the Nasadiya sukta:

Neither being (sat) nor non-being was as yet. What was concealed?
And where? And in whose protection?…Who really knows?
Who can declare it? Whence was it born, and whence came this creation?
The devas (gods) were born later than this world's creation,
so who knows from where it came into existence? None can know from where
creation has arisen, and whether he has or has not produced it.
He who surveys it in the highest heavens,
He alone knows or perhaps He does not know."

— Rig Veda 10. 129[20][21][22]

Time is conceptualized as a cyclic Yuga with trillions of years.[23] In some models, Mount Meru plays a central role.[24][25]

Beyond its creation, Hindu cosmology posits divergent theories on the structure of the universe, from being 3 lokas to 12 lokas (worlds) which play a part in its theories about rebirth, samsara and karma.[26][27][28]

The complex cosmological speculations found in Hinduism and other Indian religions, states Bolton, is not unique and are also found in Greek, Roman, Irish and Babylonian mythologies, where each age becomes more sinful and of suffering.[29][30]

Jain

Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having no beginning or an end.[31] Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is narrow at the top, broad at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.[32]

Mahāpurāṇa of Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote:

Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression.

Chinese

There is a "primordial universe" Wuji (philosophy), and Hongjun Laozu, water or qi.[33][34] It transformed into Taiji and multiplied into everything.[35][36] The Pangu legend tells a formless chaos coalesced into a cosmic egg. Pangu emerged (or woke up) and separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. After Pangu died, he became everything.

Yoonir, symbol of the Universe in Serer religion.[37][38]

Esoteric cosmology

Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. Esoteric cosmology maps out the universe with planes of existence and consciousness according to a specific worldview usually from a doctrine.

Gnosticism

Gnostic teachings were contemporary with those of Neoplatonism. Gnosticism is an imprecise label, covering monistic as well as dualistic conceptions. Usually the higher worlds of Light, called the Pleroma or "fullness", are radically distinct from the lower world of Matter. The emanation of the Pleroma and its godheads (called Aeons) is described in detail in the various Gnostic tracts, as is the pre-creation crisis (a cosmic equivalent to the "fall" in Christian thought) from which the material world comes about, and the way that the divine spark can attain salvation.[39]

Serer religion

Serer religion posits that, Roog, the creator deity, is the point of departure and conclusion.[38] As farming people, trees play an important role in Serer religious cosmology and creation mythology. The Serer high priests and priestesses (the Saltigues) chart the Star of Sirius known as Yoonir in the Serer language and some of the Cangin languages. This star enables them to give accurate information as to when Serer farmers should start planting seeds among other things relevant to Serer lives and Serer country. The Star of Yoonir is the symbol of the universe in Serer cosmology and creation mythology.[37][38]

A similar set of beliefs related also to Sirius, has been observed among Dogon people of Mali.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Aune 2003, p. 119
  2. ^ Wright 2002, pp. 117,124–125
  3. ^ Lee 2010, pp. 77–78
  4. ^ Zakariya al-Qazwini. ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt (The Wonders of Creation). Original published in 1553 AD
  5. ^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e459?_hi=10&_pos=2
  6. ^ Blackburn, Anne M.; Samuels, Jeffrey (2003). Approaching the Dhamma: Buddhist Texts and Practices in South and Southeast Asia. Pariyatti. pp. 128–146. ISBN 978-1-928706-19-9.
  7. ^ Harvey, Peter (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (2nd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 36–38, ISBN 9780521676748
  8. ^ a b c d Kevin Trainor (2004). Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-19-517398-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e Jeff Wilson (2010). Saṃsāra and Rebirth, in Buddhism. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0141. ISBN 9780195393521.
  10. ^ Robert DeCaroli (2004). Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. pp. 94–103. ISBN 978-0-19-803765-1.
  11. ^ Akira Sadakata (1997). Buddhist Cosmology: Philosophy and Origins. Kōsei Publishing 佼成出版社, Tokyo. pp. 68–70. ISBN 978-4-333-01682-2.
  12. ^ Akira Sadakata (1997). Buddhist Cosmology: Philosophy and Origins. 佼成出版社. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-4-333-01682-2.
  13. ^ Akira Sadakata (1997). Buddhist Cosmology: Philosophy and Origins. 佼成出版社. pp. 27–29. ISBN 978-4-333-01682-2.
  14. ^ Randy Kloetzli (1983). Buddhist Cosmology: From Single World System to Pure Land : Science and Theology in the Images of Motion and Light. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 13, 23–31. ISBN 978-0-89581-955-0.
  15. ^ George Michell; Philip H. Davies (1989). The Penguin Guide to the Monuments of India: Buddhist, Jain, Hindu. Penguin. p. 37. ISBN 978-0140081442.
  16. ^ Sushil Mittal, Gene Thursby (2012). Hindu World. Routledge. p. 284. ISBN 9781134608751.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  17. ^ a b James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  18. ^ Randall L. Nadeau (2014). Asian Religions: A Cultural Perspective. Wiley. pp. 133–137. ISBN 978-1-118-47195-1.
  19. ^ Charles Lanman, To the unknown god, Book X, Hymn 121, Rigveda, The Sacred Books of the East Volume IX: India and Brahmanism, Editor: Max Muller, Oxford, pages 46–50
  20. ^ Kenneth Kramer (January 1986). World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religions. Paulist Press. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-8091-2781-8.
  21. ^ David Christian (1 September 2011). Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. University of California Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-520-95067-2.
  22. ^ Robert N. Bellah (2011). Religion in Human Evolution. Harvard University Press. pp. 510–511. ISBN 978-0-674-06309-9.
  23. ^ Graham Chapman; Thackwray Driver (2002). Timescales and Environmental Change. Routledge. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1-134-78754-8.
  24. ^ Ludo Rocher (1986). The Purāṇas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 123–125, 130–132. ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5.
  25. ^ John E. Mitchiner (2000). Traditions Of The Seven Rsis. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 141–144. ISBN 978-81-208-1324-3.
  26. ^ Deborah A. Soifer (1991). The Myths of Narasimha and Vamana: Two Avatars in Cosmological Perspective. SUNY Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7914-0799-8.
  27. ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.
  28. ^ John A. Grimes (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. State University of New York Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5.
  29. ^ Robert Bolton (2001). The Order of the Ages: World History in the Light of a Universal Cosmogony. Sophia Perennis. pp. 64–78. ISBN 978-0-900588-31-0.
  30. ^ Donald Alexander Mackenzie (1915). Mythology of the Babylonian People. Bracken Books. pp. 310–314. ISBN 978-0-09-185145-3.
  31. ^ “This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support” “Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah” [Yogaśāstra of Ācārya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani
  32. ^ See Hemacandras description of universe in Yogaśāstra “…Think of this loka as similar to man standing akimbo…”4.103-6
  33. ^ 《太一生水》之混沌神話
  34. ^ 道教五方三界諸天「氣數」說探源
  35. ^ 太一與三一
  36. ^ 太極初探
  37. ^ a b Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation sereer : Pangool", vol. 2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, (1990) pp 20–21, 149–155, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
  38. ^ a b c Clémentine Faïk-Nzuji Madiya, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Canadian Centre for Folk Culture Studies, International Centre for African Language, Literature and Tradition (Louvain, Belgium). ISBN 0-660-15965-1. pp 5, 27, 115
  39. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2001). The Encyclopedia of Saints. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 396. ISBN 1438130260.

Bibliography