مبنای نام این صورت فلکی به عنوان فورناکس قرن هجدهم و از زمانی آغاز شد که منجم فرانسی نیکلا، لویی دولاکای ان را کوره شیمیایی نامید. این منجم توانست از ستارگان ضعبف واقع در خمیدگی صورت فلکی نهر این صورت فلکی را بسازد.
هرچند که این صورت فلکی جایگاه خوشه ستارهای فورناکس است، اما هیچیک از آنها قابل مشاهده با تلسکوپهای کوچک نیستند. موقعیت این اجرام در گوشه جنوب شرقی، در مرز نهر و در حدود یک درجه مربع است. این مجموعه شامل حدود ۱۸ کهکشان مارپیچی و بیضوی نزدیک به هم است که قدر آنها از ۱۰ تا ۱۳ متغیر میباشد.
The three brightest stars—Alpha, Beta and Nu Fornacis—form a flattened triangle facing south. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, Alpha Fornacis is the brightest star in Fornax. Six star systems have been found to have exoplanets.
The French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille first described the constellation in French as le Fourneau Chymique (the Chemical Furnace) with an alembic and receiver in his early catalogue, before abbreviating it to le Fourneau on his planisphere in 1752, after he had observed and catalogued almost 10,000 southern stars during a two-year stay at the Cape of Good Hope. He devised fourteen new constellations in uncharted regions of the Southern Celestial Hemisphere not visible from Europe. All but one honoured instruments that symbolised the Age of Enlightenment.[a] Lacaille Latinised the name to Fornax Chimiae on his 1763 chart.
The constellation Eridanus borders Fornax to the east, north and south, while Cetus, Sculptor and Phoenix gird it to the north, west and south respectively. Covering 397.5 square degrees and 0.964% of the night sky, it ranks 41st of the 88 constellations in size, The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is 'For'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 8 segments (illustrated in infobox). In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 01h 45m 24.18s and 03h 50m 21.34s, while the declination coordinates are between -23.76° and -39.58°. The whole constellation is visible to observers south of latitude 50°N.[b]
The constellation Fornax as it can be seen by the naked eye.
Lacaille gave Bayer designations to 27 stars now named Alpha to Omega Fornacis, labelling two stars 3.5 degrees apart as Gamma, three stars Eta, two stars Iota, two Lambda and three Chi. Phi Fornacis was added by Gould, and Theta and Omicron were dropped by Gould and Baily respectively. Upsilon, too, was later found to be two stars and designated as such. Overall, there are 59 stars within the constellation's borders brighter than or equal to apparent magnitude 6.5.[c] However, there are no stars brighter than the fourth magnitude.
The three brightest stars form a flattish triangle, with Alpha (also called Dalim) and Nu Fornacis marking its eastern and western points and Beta Fornacis marking the shallow southern apex. Originally designated 12 Eridani by John Flamsteed, Alpha Fornacis was named by Lacaille as the brightest star in the new constellation. It is a binary star that can be resolved by small amateur telescopes. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, the primary is a yellow-white subgiant 1.21 times as massive as the Sun that has begun to cool and expand after exhausting its core hydrogen, having swollen to 1.9 times the Sun's radius. Of magnitude 6.5, the secondary star is 0.78 times as massive as the Sun. It has been identified as a blue straggler, and has either accumulated material from, or merged with, a third star in the past. It is a strong source of X-rays. The pair is 46.4 ± 0.3 light-years distant from Earth. Beta Fornacis is a yellow-hued giant star of spectral type G8IIIb of magnitude 4.5 that has cooled and swelled to 11 times the Sun's diameter, 169 ± 6 light-years from Earth. It is a red clump giant, which means it has undergone helium flash and is currently generating energy through the fusion of helium at its core.
Nu Fornacis is 370 ± 10 light-years distant from Earth. It is a blue giant star of spectral type B9.5IIIspSi that is 3.65 ± 0.18 times as massive and around 245 times as luminous as the Sun, with 3.2 ± 0.4 times its diameter. It varies in luminosity over a period of 1.89 days—the same as its rotational period. This is because of differences in abundances of metals in its atmosphere; it belongs to a class of star known as an Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum variable.
Shining with an apparent magnitude of 5.89, Epsilon Fornacis is a binary star system located 105 ± 1 light-years distant from Earth. Its component stars orbit each other every 37 years. The primary star is around 12 billion years old and has cooled and expanded to 2.53 times the diameter of the Sun, while having only 91% of its mass.
Omega Fornacis is a binary star system composed of a blue main-sequence star of spectral type B9.5V and magnitude 4.96, and a white main sequence star of spectral type A7V and magnitude 7.88.
LP 944-20 is a brown dwarf of spectral type M9 that has around 7% the mass of the Sun. Approximately 21 light-years distant from Earth, it is a faint object with an apparent magnitude of 18.69. Observations published in 2007 showed that the atmosphere of LP 944-20 contains much lithium and that it has dusty clouds. Smaller and less luminous still is 2MASS 0243-2453, a T-type brown dwarf of spectral type T6. With a surface temperature of 1040–1100 K, it has 2.4–4.1% the mass of the Sun, a diameter 9.2 to 10.6% of that of the Sun, and an age of 0.4–1.7 billion years.
Six star systems in Fornax have been found to have planets:
Lambda2 Fornacis is a star about 1.2 times as massive as the Sun with a planet about as massive as Neptune, discovered by doppler spectroscopy in 2009. The planet has an orbit of around 17.24 days.
HD 20868 is an orange dwarf with a mass around 78% that of the Sun, 151 ± 10 light-years away from Earth. It was found to have an orbiting planet approximately double the mass of Jupiter with a period of 380 days.
WASP-72 is a star around 1.4 times as massive that has begun to cool and expand off the main sequence, reaching double the Sun's diameter. It has a planet around as massive as Jupiter orbiting it every 2.2 days.
HD 20781 and HD 20782 are a pair of sunlike yellow main sequence stars that orbit each other. Each has been found to have planets.
^While parts of the constellation technically rise above the horizon to observers between 50°N and 66°N, stars within a few degrees of the horizon for to all intents and purposes unobservable.
^Objects of magnitude 6.5 are among the faintest visible to the unaided eye in suburban-rural transition night skies.
^ abcdeWagman, Morton (2003). Lost Stars: Lost, Missing and Troublesome Stars from the Catalogues of Johannes Bayer, Nicholas Louis de Lacaille, John Flamsteed, and Sundry Others. Blacksburg, Virginia: The McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company. pp. 6–7, 152. ISBN978-0-939923-78-6.
^Bouwens, R. J.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Brammer, G.; Magee, D.; Spitler, L. R.; Franx, M.; Smit, R.; Trenti, M.; Gonzalez, V.; Carollo, C. M. (2013). "Photometric Constraints on the Redshift of z ~ 10 Candidate UDFj-39546284 from Deeper WFC3/IR+ACS+IRAC Observations over the HUDF". The Astrophysical Journal. 765 (1): L16. arXiv:1211.3105. Bibcode:2013ApJ...765L..16B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/765/1/l16.