کنترل تکانه

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

کنترل مهاری که به آن مهار پاسخ نیز می گویند ، یک فرایند شناختی است و به طور خاص تر ، یک عملکرد اجرایی - این به فرد اجازه می دهد تا از انگیزه های خود و پاسخ های رفتاری طبیعی ، عادی یا مسلط به محرک ها ( a.k.a. همان پاسخ های پیش توان ) جلوگیری کند تا رفتار مناسب تری را که با تحقق اهداف آنها سازگار است ، انتخاب کند. [۱] خود کنترلی جنبه مهمی از کنترل مهاری است. [۲] [۳] به عنوان مثال ، سرکوب موفقیت آمیز پاسخ رفتاری طبیعی برای خوردن کیک هنگامی که فرد هوس آن را می کند در حالی که رژیم غذایی به سر میبرد نیاز به استفاده از کنترل مهاری دارد.

قشر جلوی پیشانی ، هسته دمی و هسته ساب تالاموس برای تنظیم شناخت کنترل مهاری شناخته شده اند. کنترل بازدارندگی هم در اعتیاد و هم در اختلال بیش فعالی با کمبود توجه مختل می شود . [۴] در بزرگسالان سالم و افراد مبتلا به ADHD ، کنترل مهاری با دوزهای کم (درمانی) متیل فنیدیت یا آمفتامین در کوتاه مدت بهبود می یابد. [۱] [۵] کنترل مهاری نیز ممکن است در طولانی مدت از طریق ورزش هوازی مداوم بهبود یابد. [۲] [۳]

تست ها[ویرایش]

آزمون کنترل مهاری نوعی آزمایش عصب روانشناختی است که توانایی فرد را برای غلبه بر پاسخ رفتاری طبیعی ، عادی یا مسلط به محرک برای پیاده سازی رفتارهای goal-oriented پذیرانه سازگارترکند. [۱] برخی از آزمایش های عصب روانشناختی که کنترل مهاری را اندازه گیری می کنند شامل Stroop task، go/no-go task, Simon task، Flanker task، antisaccade tasks، delay of gratification tasks, and stop-signal tasksاست.

تفاوت های جنسیتی[ویرایش]

زن ها تمایل دارند که ظرفیت پایه بیشتری برای اعمال کنترل بازدارندگی بر رفتارهای ناخواسته یا عادت داشته باشند و به عوامل متناسب با محیط تعدیل کننده نسبت به مردها واکنش متفاوتی نشان دهند. [۶] [۷]  به عنوان مثال ، گوش دادن به موسیقی به طور قابل توجهی سرعت مهار پاسخ را در زنان بهبود می بخشد ، اما میزان مهار پاسخ را در مردان کاهش می دهد.   [ منبع غیر اصلی مورد نیاز است ]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

  • اثرات نوروبیولوژیک ورزش بدنی # کنترل شناختی و حافظه
  • مهار بازگشت

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ (2015). "Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis". J Cogn Neurosci. 27 (6): 1–21. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. PMID 25591060.
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Guiney H, Machado L (February 2013). "Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations". Psychon Bull Rev. 20 (1): 73–86. doi:10.3758/s13423-012-0345-4. PMID 23229442. Executive functions are strategic in nature and depend on higher-order cognitive processes that underpin planning, sustained attention, selective attention, resistance to interference, volitional inhibition, working memory, and mental flexibility ... Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post-error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. ... Support for the idea that higher levels of aerobic activity may be associated with superior brain structure has been gained through cross-sectional studies in older adults and children (for a recent review, see Voss, Nagamatsu, et al., 2011). ... only those in the aerobic exercise group exhibited improved connectivity between the left and right prefrontal cortices, two areas that are crucial to the effective functioning of the fronto-executive network. ... Together, these studies provide evidence that regular aerobic exercise benefits control over responses during selective attention in older adults. ... aerobic fitness is a good predictor of performance on tasks that rely relatively heavily on inhibitory control over prepotent responses (e.g., Colcombe et al., 2004, Study 1; Prakash et al., 2011) and also that regular aerobic exercise improves performance on such tasks ... Overall, the results from the span and Sternberg tasks suggest that regular exercise can also confer benefits for the volume of information that children and older adults can hold in mind at one time.
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ Buckley J, Cohen JD, Kramer AF, McAuley E, Mullen SP (2014). "Cognitive control in the self-regulation of physical activity and sedentary behavior". Front Hum Neurosci. 8: 747. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00747. PMC 4179677. PMID 25324754. Recent theory (e.g., Temporal Self-Regulation Theory; Hall and Fong, 2007, 2010, 2013) and evidence suggest that the relation between physical activity and cognitive control is reciprocal (Daly et al., 2013). Most research has focused on the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on executive functions-the set of neural processes that define cognitive control. Considerable evidence shows that regular physical activity is associated with enhanced cognitive functions, including attention, processing speed, task switching, inhibition of prepotent responses and declarative memory (for reviews see Colcombe and Kramer, 2003; Smith et al., 2010; Guiney and Machado, 2013; McAuley et al., 2013). Recent research demonstrates a dose-response relationship between fitness and spatial memory (Erickson et al., 2011) ... The effects of physical activity on cognitive control appear to be underpinned by a variety of brain processes including: increased hippocampal volume, increased gray matter density in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), upregulation of neurotrophins and greater microvascular density ... Together, this research suggests that an improvement in control processes, such as attention and inhibition or interference control, is associated with an improvement in self-regulation of physical activity. ... Increasingly, research shows that cognitive control abilities are malleable, and that cognitive training can produce positive cognitive outcomes and improvements in daily function (Willis et al., 2006; Hertzog et al., 2008) that can have long-lasting effects (Rebok et al., 2014). Approaches to cognitive training are numerous and varied; however, the relative superiority of different approaches with regard to training and transfer continue to be debated.
  4. Koob GF, Volkow ND (2010). "Neurocircuitry of addiction". Neuropsychopharmacology. 35 (1): 217–38. doi:10.1038/npp.2009.110. PMC 2805560. PMID 19710631. Animal and human imaging studies have revealed ... a key role in the preoccupation/anticipation stage for a widely distributed network involving the orbitofrontal cortex-dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, hippocampus, and insula involved in craving and the cingulate gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal, and inferior frontal cortices in disrupted inhibitory control.
  5. Spencer RC, Devilbiss DM, Berridge CW (June 2015). "The Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Psychostimulants Involve Direct Action in the Prefrontal Cortex". Biol. Psychiatry. 77 (11): 940–950. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.09.013. PMC 4377121. PMID 25499957. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers (improving PFC-dependent function). This information has potentially important clinical implications as well as relevance for public health policy regarding the widespread clinical use of psychostimulants and for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other conditions associated with PFC dysregulation. ... In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response inhibition, whereas maximal suppression of overt behavior and facilitation of attentional processes occurs at higher doses.
  6. Mansouri FA, Fehring DJ, Gaillard A, Jaberzadeh S, Parkington H (2016). "Sex dependency of inhibitory control functions". Biol Sex Differ. 7: 11. doi:10.1186/s13293-016-0065-y. PMC 4746892. PMID 26862388. Inhibition of irrelevant responses is an important aspect of cognitive control of a goal-directed behavior. Females and males show different levels of susceptibility to neuropsychological disorders such as impulsive behavior and addiction, which might be related to differences in inhibitory brain functions. ... Here, we show a significant difference in executive control functions and their modulation by contextual factors between females and males
  7. Driscoll, Helen; Zinkivskay, Ann; Evans, Kelly; Campbell, Anne (2006-05-01). "Gender differences in social representations of aggression: The phenomenological experience of differences in inhibitory control?". British Journal of Psychology. 97 (2): 139–153. doi:10.1348/000712605X63073. ISSN 2044-8295. PMID 16613646.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]