از اصطلاحهای کشور توسعهیافته، کشور صنعتی، کشور بیشتر توسعه یافته یا کشور بیشتر توسعهیافته از لحاظ اقتصادی برای اشاره به کشورهای مستقلی استفاده میشود که اقتصادی پیشرفته و زیرساخت فناوری مترقیتری نسبت به کشورهای کمتر صنعتیشده دارند. تعیین مصداق برای معیار توسعهیافتگی همواره مورد بحث بودهاست اما بهطور کلی معیارهای اقتصادی معمولاً شاخص اصلی کشورهای توسعهیافته بودهاست. برای مثال، میزان سرانه درآمد یکی از مهمترین معیارها است و بنابراین کشورهایی که دارای نرخ تولید ناخالص داخلی بالایی هستند، توسعهیافته محسوب میشوند.
معیار مهم اقتصادی دیگر، میزان صنعتی بودن کشور است. یکی دیگر از معیارهایی که اخیراً مورد توجه قرار گرفته، شاخص توسعهٔ انسانی است. این شاخص، معیارهای اقتصادی نظیر درآمد را با امری همچون میزان امید به زندگی و سطح آموزش عمومی ترکیب میکند. به این ترتیب، کشورهایی که دارای نمرهٔ بالاتری در شاخص توسعه انسانی هستند، توسعهیافته محسوب میشوند و به بقیه کشورها، کشورهای در حال توسعه گفته میشود.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or more economically developed country (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate.
Terms linked to the concept developed country include "advanced country", "industrialized country", "'more developed country" (MDC), "more economically developed country" (MEDC), "Global North country", "first world country", and "post-industrial country". The term industrialized country may be somewhat ambiguous, as industrialisation is an ongoing process that is hard to define. The first industrialized country was the United Kingdom, followed by Belgium. Later it spread further to Germany, United States, France and other Western European countries. According to some economists such as Jeffrey Sachs, however, the current divide between the developed and developing world is largely a phenomenon of the 20th century.. Mathis Wackernagel calls the binary labeling of countries as "neither descriptive nor explanatory. It is merely a thoughtless and destructive endorsement of GDP fetish. In reality, there are not two types of countries, but over 200 different countries, all faced with the same laws of nature, yet each with unique features."
Economic criteria have tended to dominate discussions. One such criterion is income per capita; countries with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would thus be described as developed countries. Another economic criterion is industrialisation; countries in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors of industry dominate would thus be described as developed. More recently another measure, the Human Development Index (HDI), which combines an economic measure, national income, with other measures, indices for life expectancy and education has become prominent. This criterion would define developed countries as those with a very high (HDI) rating. The index, however, does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.
And it notes that:
The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
The UN HDI is a statistical measure that gauges a country's level of human development. While there is a strong correlation between having a high HDI score and a prosperous economy, the UN points out that the HDI accounts for more than income or productivity. Unlike GDP per capita or per capita income, the HDI takes into account how income is turned "into education and health opportunities and therefore into higher levels of human development."
Since 1990, Norway (2001–2006, 2009–2018), Japan (1990–1991 and 1993), Canada (1992 and 1994–2000) and Iceland (2007–2008) have had the highest HDI score.
Many countries listed by IMF as "advanced", possess an HDI over 0.800, the threshold for "very high" human development. Many countries[Note 1] possessing an HDI of 0.800 and over are also listed by IMF as "advanced". Thus, many "advanced economies" are characterized by an HDI score of 0.800 or higher. Since April 2016, the IMF classifies Macau as an advanced economy.
Some institutions have produced lists of developed countries: the UN (list shown above), the CIA, and some providers of stock market indices (the FTSE Group, MSCI, S&P, Dow Jones, STOXX, etc.). The latter is not included here because its association of developed countries with countries with both high incomes and developed markets is not deemed as directly relevant.[why?][Note 2]
However many other institutions have created more general lists referred to when discussing developed countries. For example, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identifies 39 "advanced economies". The OECD's 36 members are known as the "developed countries club". The World Bank identifies 81 "high income countries".
According to the World Bank the following 81 countries (including territories) are classified as "high-income economies". As of 2018, high-income economies are those that had a GNI per capita of $12,056 or more – in 2017.
36 countries and territories wholly or partly in Europe:
d The CIA has modified an older version of the IMF's list of Advanced Economies, noting that the IMF's Advanced Economies list "would presumably also cover the following nine smaller countries of Andorra, Bermuda, Faroe Islands, Guernsey, Holy See, Jersey, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino[...]"
There are 22 permanent members in the Paris Club (French: Club de Paris), a group of officials from major creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.
Comparative table of countries with "very high" human development (same or higher than 0.800), according to UNDP; members OECD; "advanced" economies, according to IMF; "high income" economies, according to World Bank and income per capita (purchasing power parity) higher than $22,000, according to the IMF. (oz)
^Namely sovereign states, i.e., excluding Macau: In 2003, the government of Macau calculated its HDI as being 0.909 (the UN does not calculate Macau's HDI); In January 2007, the People's DailyArchived 7 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine reported (from China Modernization Report 2007): "In 2004... Macau... had reached the level of developed countries". The UNCTADArchived 10 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine organisation (of the UN), as well as the CIAArchived 9 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, classify Macau as a "developing" territory. The World Bank classifies Macau as a high income economy (along with developed economies as well as with few developing economies).
^The Developed Countries GlossaryArchived 20 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine entry reads: "The following countries are classified by FTSE as developed countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium/Luxembourg, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong (People's Republic of China), Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States."