کشتار قهرمانمرعش یا به اختصار کشتار مرعش واقعهای بود که در آن بیش از ۱۰۰ نفر از مردم کرد علوی توسط گروه گرگهای خاکستری قتلعام گردیدند. این کشتار از ۱۹ تا ۲۶ دسامبر ۱۹۷۸ میلادی و در شهر قهرمانمرعش ترکیه رخ داد.
The Maraş massacre (Turkish: Maraş katliamı) was the massacre of more than one hundred Alevi civilians in the city of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey, in December 1978 by the neo-fascist Grey Wolves and religious conservative community. The tensions were initially ignited by a noise bomb thrown into a movie theater frequently visited by extreme Turkish nationalists. The incident is best remembered for the subsequent campaign of violence directed against left-wingers, mostly Alevis, although some left-wing Sunnis and Kurds were also targeted. Although some 500 perpetrators of the incident were indicted later on, the investigation was kept classified by the government. The real provocateurs setting the stage for the incident were never identified.
The incident in Kahramanmaraş lasted from 19 to 26 December 1978. It started with a bomb thrown into a cinema attended mostly by right-wingers. Rumors spread that left-wingers had thrown the bomb. The next day, a bomb was thrown into a coffee-shop frequently visited by left-wingers, In the evening of 21 December 1978 the teachers Hacı Çolak and Mustafa Yüzbaşıoğlu were killed on their way home. They were known as left-wingers. While a crowd of some 5,000 people prepared for the funeral, right-wing groups stirred up emotions saying that "the communists are going to bomb the mosque, and will massacre our Muslim brothers".
On 23 December 1978, the incidents turned into a pogrom: crowds stormed the quarters where Alevis were living, destroying houses and shops. Many offices including that of Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DİSK), Teachers' Association of Turkey (TÖB-Der), Association of Police Officers (Pol-Der) and Republican People's Party (Turkey) (CHP) were destroyed. During the incidents, over 100 people were killed, more than 200 houses and approximately 100 shops were destroyed. The figures on casualties vary slightly. The Independent Communication Network Bianet and the platform Turkish Information claim that 111 people were killed, while the daily Zaman puts the death toll at 105. On 26 December 1978, martial law was announced in İstanbul, Ankara, Adana, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, Elazığ, Bingöl, Erzurum, Erzincan, Kars, Malatya, Sivas and Urfa.
The court cases, opened at military courts, lasted until 1991. A total of 804 defendants, mostly right-wingers, were put on trial. The courts passed 29 death penalties and sentenced seven defendants to life imprisonment and 321 people to sentences between one and 24 years of imprisonment. The Court of Cassation quashed the sentences and because of legal amendments all defendants were released in 1991.
Hasan Fehmi Güneş, who was appointed Interior Minister after the incidents is convinced that the massacre was planned. Ruşen Sümbüloğlu, chair of the "Association of Persons from 1968" in Ankara, claimed that the Counter-Guerrilla was behind the provocation. Fevzi Gümüş, chair of the "Cultural Association Pir Sultan Abdal" claimed that the CIA and the deep state must have been involved. Turan Eser, President of the "Alevi Bektaşi Federation", spoke at the 29th anniversary of the massacre in Maraş. He alleged that before the events, "counter guerrilla and racist paramilitary imperialist henchmen made efforts to spread the seeds of hatred between those, who were citizens of the same country and had lived together in peace for centuries".
Ökkeş Şendiller, who had been on trial for being involved in the incident and became later a deputy, joining the nationalist Great Union Party (BBP) maintained that the government carried responsibility. A secret document revealed that the secret service (MİT) had planned the incidents. Opinions of witnesses include the following observations:
On 28 December 2007, the radio station Voice of Free Radio and Folk Songs (Turkish: Özgür Radyo ve Türkülerin Sesi Radyosu) broadcast a program, in which Ökkeş Şendiller was interviewed over the phone. Passages of the conversation with Hasan Harmancı are (only quotes from ÖŞ):
On 30 April 2011, Hamit Kapan, an alleged member of Devrimci Savaş, had been held incommunicado for 300 days and two friends of his had died under torture. Hamit accused General Yusuf Haznedaroğlu, leading member of the command for martial law in Kahramanmaraş for being responsible for the torture at the time. The general had tried to blame his organization for the killings.