شارون بزرگترین قمر پلوتو در سال ۱۹۷۸ کشف گردید. دو قمر دیگر پلوتو به نامهای نیکس و هیدرا نیز در سال ۲۰۰۵ کشف شدند که هر دو از شارون بسیار کوچک ترند. قمرهای باز هم بسیار کوچکتر سربروس و استوکس هم به ترتیب در سالهای ۲۰۱۱ و ۲۰۱۲ میلادی پیدا شدند.
فضاپیمای نیوهورایزنز (افقهای نو) در ۱۴ ژوئیهٔ ۲۰۱۵ میلادی از کنار این قمر و سیارهٔ کوتولهاش گذشت و نخستین بررسی کامل بشر در آن گوشهُ تقریباً ناشناخته از حاشیههای منظومهُ شمسی را با ابزارهای بسیار پیشرفتهاش بررسی و گزارش کرد.
شارون و پلوتو به گونهُ ویژهای که در منظومهُ شمسی نادر است وابسته به یکدیگر شده و رو در روی هم، قفل جزر و مدی را تجربه میکنند. زمین و ماه نیز قفل جزر و مدی را بین خود تجربه میکنند ولی تنها این ماه است که همیشه رو به سوی زمین دارد. بنا بر محاسبات تلسکوپ فضائی هابل که در سال ۱۹۹۴ از فاصلهُ ۳۰AU از زمین صورت گرفته شارون و پلوتو تنها ۱۹٬۶۴۰ کیلومتر از هم دورند. در مقایسه؛ فاصلهُ ماه تا زمین ۳۸۴٬۴۰۰ کیلومتر، یعنی نزدیک به بیست برابر بیشتر است.
داستان کشف شارون[ویرایش]
در دههٔ ۱۹۷۰، جِیمز کریستی (James Christy) در رصدخانهٔ ناوال در واشینگتن، رصدهایی از سیارهها به منظور تصحیح پارامترهای مداری آنها انجام میداد. او برخی تصاویر پلوتو را به دلیل آنکه کشیده به نظر میرسیدند حذف میکرد. این پدیده، بر اساس تجربهٔ نویسنده، زمانی رخ میدهد که تلسکوپ به خوبی آسمان را دنبال نمیکند، در نتیجه تصاویر کشیده میشوند؛ ولی او متوجه شد که تصویر ستارگان عالی است، یعنی آنکه تلسکوپ درست کار میکند؛ همچنین ملاحظه کرد که کشیدگی پلوتو، با گذشت زمان، به دور آن گردش میکند. معلوم شد که کریستی در حال رصد حرکت یک قمر به دور پلوتو، که حالا چارون (Charon) نام دارد، بوده است، و کشف آن در ۲۲ ژوئن ۱۹۷۸ اعلان شد. در سال ۱۹۹۰، تلسکوپ فضایی هابل توانست از دو قرص مجزای پلوتو و چارون تصویربرداری نماید. (چارون قایقرانی بود که مردهها را در عرض رودخانهٔ افسانهای استیکس جابجا میکرد وبا پلوتو ارتباط نزدیکی داشت؛ لذا نامی ایدهآل بود. ضمن آنکه حروف اول آن مشابه نام همسر کریستی، شارلِن بود)
شارون با قطر ۱۲۰۸ کیلومتر کمی از نصف پلوتو بزرگتر و حتی از سیارهٔ کوتولهٔ سرس هم بزرگتر است، و نیز به اندازهٔ کافی بزرگ بوده که تعادل هیدرواستاتیکی برای کروی بودن خود را ایجاد کرده باشد. بر خلاف سطح پلوتو که از ازت و متان یخ زده تشکیل شده، به نظر میرسد که سطح شارون بیشتر از یخ (آب یخ زده)، که کمتر فرّار است تشکیل شده است. در سال ۲۰۰۷ میلادی با بررسی یافتههای تلسکوپ جمنای و بودن لکههایی از هیدروکسید آمونیوم و بلورهای آب بر سطح شارون، باور حضور فعالیتهای یخفشانی در شارون بیشتر شد.
با داشتن اندازههای حجم و جرم شارون، و به دست آوردن چگالی آن میتوان نتیجه گرفت که شارون در مقایسه با پلوتو یک کرهٔ بیشتر یخی است و کمتر از پلوتو «سنگی» است. این موضوع، نظریهای را که میگوید: شارون از برخورد جرم دیگری با پلوتو به وجود آمده، تقویت میکند.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto. It has a mean radius of 606 km (377 mi). It was discovered in 1978 at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., using photographic plates taken at the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS).
With half the diameter and one eighth the mass of Pluto, Charon is a very large moon in comparison to its parent body. Its gravitational influence is such that the barycenter of the Plutonian system lies outside Pluto.
The reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be essential ingredients of life. These tholins were produced from methane, nitrogen and related gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred over 19,000 km (12,000 mi) to the orbiting moon.
The New Horizons spacecraft is the only probe that has visited the Pluto system. It approached Charon to within 27,000 km (17,000 mi) in 2015.
Charon was discovered by United States Naval Observatory astronomer James Christy, using the 1.55-meter (61 in) telescope at United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). On June 22, 1978, he had been examining highly magnified images of Pluto on photographic plates taken with the telescope two months prior. Christy noticed that a slight elongation appeared periodically. The bulge was confirmed on plates dating back to April 29, 1965. The International Astronomical Union formally announced Christy's discovery to the world on July 7, 1978.
Subsequent observations of Pluto determined that the bulge was due to a smaller accompanying body. The periodicity of the bulge corresponded to Pluto's rotation period, which was previously known from Pluto's light curve. This indicated a synchronous orbit, which strongly suggested that the bulge effect was real and not spurious. This resulted in reassessments of Pluto's size, mass, and other physical characteristics because the calculated mass and albedo of the Pluto–Charon system had previously been attributed to Pluto alone.
Doubts about Charon's existence were erased when it and Pluto entered a five-year period of mutual eclipses and transits between 1985 and 1990. This occurs when the Pluto–Charon orbital plane is edge-on as seen from Earth, which only happens at two intervals in Pluto's 248-year orbital period. It was fortuitous that one of these intervals happened to occur soon after Charon's discovery.
After its discovery, Charon was originally known by the temporary designation S/1978 P 1, according to the then recently instituted convention. On June 24, 1978, Christy first suggested the name Charon as a scientific-sounding version of his wife Charlene's nickname, "Char". Although colleagues at the Naval Observatory proposed Persephone, Christy stuck with Charon after discovering that it coincidentally refers to a Greek mythological figure: Charon (// or //; Greek Χάρων) is the ferryman of the dead, closely associated in myth with the god Hades, whom the Romans identified with their god Pluto. The IAU officially adopted the name in late 1985 and it was announced on January 3, 1986.
There is minor debate over the preferred pronunciation of the name. The practice of following the classical pronunciation established for the mythological ferryman Charon (IPA [ˈkɛ:rən]) is used by major English-language dictionaries, such as the Merriam-Webster and Oxford English Dictionary. These indicate only one pronunciation of "Charon" when referring specifically to Pluto's moon: with an initial "k" sound. Speakers of many languages other than English, and many English-speaking astronomers as well, follow this pronunciation.
However, Christy himself pronounced the ch as sh (IPA [ʃ]), after his wife Charlene. Because of this, as an acknowledgement of Christy and sometimes as an in-joke or shibboleth, the initial sh pronunciation is common among astronomers when speaking English,[note 3] and this is the prescribed pronunciation at NASA and of the New Horizons team.[note 4]
Simulation work published in 2005 by Robin Canup suggested that Charon could have been formed by a collision around 4.5 billion years ago, much like Earth and the Moon. In this model, a large Kuiper belt object struck Pluto at high velocity, destroying itself and blasting off much of Pluto's outer mantle, and Charon coalesced from the debris. However, such an impact should result in an icier Charon and rockier Pluto than scientists have found. It is now thought that Pluto and Charon might have been two bodies that collided before going into orbit about each other. The collision would have been violent enough to boil off volatile ices like methane (CH
Charon and Pluto orbit each other every 6.387 days. The two objects are gravitationally locked to one another, so each keeps the same face towards the other. This is a case of mutual tidal locking, as compared to that of the Earth and the Moon, where the Moon always shows the same face to Earth, but not vice versa. The average distance between Charon and Pluto is 19,570 kilometres (12,160 mi). The discovery of Charon allowed astronomers to calculate accurately the mass of the Plutonian system, and mutual occultations revealed their sizes. However, neither indicated the two bodies' individual masses, which could only be estimated, until the discovery of Pluto's outer moons in late 2005. Details in the orbits of the outer moons revealed that Charon has approximately 12% of the mass of Pluto.
Charon's diameter is 1,212 kilometres (753 mi), just over half that of Pluto, and larger than the dwarf planet Ceres, and the twelfth largest natural satellite in the Solar System. Charon's slow rotation means that there should be little flattening or tidal distortion, if Charon is sufficiently massive to be hydrostatic equilibrium. Any deviation from a perfect sphere is too small to have been detected by observations by the New Horizons mission. This is in contrast to Iapetus, a Saturnian moon of a similar size to Charon but a pronounced fossil oblateness from early in its history. The lack of such fossil oblateness in Charon could mean that it is currently in hydrostatic equilibrium, or simply that its orbit approached its current one early in its history, when it was still warm.
Based on mass updates from observations made by New Horizons the mass ratio of Charon to Pluto is 0.1218:1. This is much larger than the Moon to the Earth: 0.0123:1. Because of the high mass ratio, the barycenter is outside of the radius of Pluto, and the Pluto-Charon system has been referred to as a dwarf double planet. With four smaller satellites in orbit about the two larger worlds, the Pluto-Charon system has been considered in studies of the orbital stability of circumbinary planets.
Charon's volume and mass allow calculation of its density, 1.702±0.017 g/cm3, from which it can be determined that Charon is slightly less dense than Pluto and suggesting a composition of 55% rock to 45% ice (± 5%), whereas Pluto is about 70% rock. The difference is considerably lower than that of most suspected collisional satellites. Before New Horizons' flyby, there were two conflicting theories about Charon's internal structure: some scientists thought Charon to be a differentiated body like Pluto, with a rocky core and an icy mantle, whereas others thought it would be uniform throughout. Evidence in support of the former position was found in 2007, when observations by the Gemini Observatory of patches of ammonia hydrates and water crystals on the surface of Charon suggested the presence of active cryogeysers. The fact that the ice was still in crystalline form suggested it had been deposited recently, because solar radiation would have degraded it to an amorphous state after roughly thirty thousand years.
Unlike Pluto's surface, which is composed of nitrogen and methane ices, Charon's surface appears to be dominated by the less volatile water ice. In 2007, observations by the Gemini Observatory of patches of ammonia hydrates and water crystals on the surface of Charon suggested the presence of active cryogeysers and cryovolcanoes.
Photometric mapping of Charon's surface shows a latitudinal trend in albedo, with a bright equatorial band and darker poles. The north polar region is dominated by a very large dark area informally dubbed "Mordor" by the New Horizons team. The favored explanation for this phenomenon is that they are formed by condensation of gases that escaped from Pluto's atmosphere. In winter, the temperature is −258 °C, and these gases, which include nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, condense into their solid forms; when these ices are subjected to solar radiation, they chemically react to form various reddish tholins. Later, when the area is again heated by the Sun as Charon's seasons change, the temperature at the pole rises to −213 °C, resulting in the volatiles sublimating and escaping Charon, leaving only the tholins behind. Over millions of years, the residual tholin builds up thick layers, obscuring the icy crust. In addition to Mordor, New Horizons found evidence of extensive past geology that suggests that Charon is probably differentiated; in particular, the southern hemisphere has fewer craters than the northern and is considerably less rugged, suggesting that a massive resurfacing event—perhaps prompted by the partial or complete freezing of an internal ocean—occurred at some point in the past and removed many of the earlier craters.
Charon has a series of extensive grabens or canyons, such as Serenity Chasma, which extend as an equatorial belt for at least 1,000 km (620 mi). Argo Chasma potentially reaches as deep as 9 km (6 mi), with steep cliffs that may rival Verona Rupes on Miranda for the title of tallest cliff in the solar system.
Mountain in a moat
In a released photo by New Horizons, an unusual surface feature has captivated and baffled the scientist team of the mission. The image reveals a mountain rising out of a depression. It's "a large mountain sitting in a moat", said Jeff Moore, of NASA's Ames Research Center, in a statement. "This is a feature that has geologists stunned and stumped", he added. New Horizons captured the photo from a distance of 79,000 km (49,000 mi).
Observation and exploration
Since the first blurred images of the moon (1), images showing Pluto and Charon resolved into separate disks were taken for the first time by the Hubble Space Telescope in the 1990s (2). The telescope was responsible for the best, yet low quality images of the moon. In 1994, the clearest picture of the Pluto-Charon system showed two distinct and well defined circles (3). The image was taken by Hubble's Faint Object Camera (FOC) when the system was 4.4 billion kilometers (2.6 billion miles) away from Earth Later, the development of adaptive optics made it possible to resolve Pluto and Charon into separate disks using ground-based telescopes.
In June 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft captured consecutive images of the Pluto–Charon system as it approached it. The images were put together in an animation. It was the best image of Charon to that date (4). In July 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft made its closest approach to the Pluto system. It is the only spacecraft to date to have visited and studied Charon. Charon's discoverer James Christy and the children of Clyde Tombaugh were guests at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory during the New Horizons closest approach.
The center of mass (barycenter) of the Pluto–Charon system lies outside either body. Because neither object truly orbits the other, and Charon has 12.2% the mass of Pluto, it has been argued that Charon should be considered to be part of a binary system with Pluto. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) states that Charon is considered to be just a satellite of Pluto, but the idea that Charon might be classified a dwarf planet in its own right may be considered at a later date.
In a draft proposal for the 2006 redefinition of the term, the IAU proposed that a planet be defined as a body that orbits the Sun that is large enough for gravitational forces to render the object (nearly) spherical. Under this proposal, Charon would have been classified as a planet, because the draft explicitly defined a planetary satellite as one in which the barycenter lies within the major body. In the final definition, Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet, but the formal definition of a planetary satellite was not decided upon. Charon is not in the list of dwarf planets currently recognized by the IAU. Had the draft proposal been accepted, even the Moon would be classified as a planet in billions of years when the tidal acceleration that is gradually moving the Moon away from Earth takes it far enough away that the center of mass of the system no longer lies within Earth.
The other moons of Pluto–Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx–orbit the same barycenter but they are not large enough to be spherical and they are simply considered to be satellites of Pluto (or of Pluto–Charon).