کارخانه مونتاژ میشو
کارخانه مونتاژ میشو (به انگلیسی: MAF:Michoud Assembly Facility) یکی از مراکز تولیدی ناسا در نیواورلئان، لوئیزیانا است و از اماکن مهم در برنامه موشکی ایالات متحده بهشمار میرود. مخزن خارجی شاتل فضایی هم در این مرکز ساخته میشد.
مساحت این مرکز حدود ۳٫۴ هکتار است. کارخانه مونتاژ میشو، سابقهٔ طولانی در زمینهٔ تولید تجهیزات نظامی و صنعتی دارد و به علت قرار گرفتن در کنار آب، امکان انتقال مواد اولیه و تولیدات را از طریق کشتی ممکن میکند. این مرکز در حال حاضر زیر نظر مرکز فضایی مارشال به فعالیت میپردازد و حدود ۵۰۰۰ نفر در این مرکز مشغول به کار هستند. در حال حاضر این مرکز در حال ساختن قویترین راکت فضایی- سامانه پرتاب فضایی - میباشد و این راکت قادر به تولید ۳۲۰۰۰ کیلو نیوتن نیروی پیشران است. این راکت برای فرستادن اولین انسان به سیاره مریخ استفاده خواهد شد.
این زمین ابتدا حدود ۲۰۰ سال پیش به یک مستعمرهنشین فرانسوی ساکن این منطقه تعلق داشت. پس از مدتی برای شجاعت یکی از سرباز در جنگ، این زمین به وی اهدا میشود. تا سالهای ۱۹۵۰ این زمین دست به دست میشود و معمولاً پایگاه تولید بودهاست. با شرکت آمریکا در جنگ جهانی، نیروی هوایی ایالات متحده با اجارهٔ بخشی از این مرکز به تولید هواپیماهای باری پرداخت. البته این پروژه با تغییر سیاست آمریکا در زمینهٔ تولید هواپیما لغو شد. در آن زمان این مرکز به مرکز هوایی میشو معروف بود. با شروع جنگ کره، شرکت کرایسلر مأمور شد تا موتورهای تانکهای جنگی ایالات متحده را تولید کند. این شرکت بدین منظور با تغییراتی ساختاری در این مرکز به شروع ساخت سرسیلندر موتورها کرد. این مورد هم در این مرکز دوام چندانی نداشت. در سال ۱۹۵۱ آخرین بار از این مرکز با عنوان غیرفعال یاد شده بود. در سال ۱۹۶۱ با شروع جنگ سرد با شوروی، برنامهٔ موشکی آمریکا مورد توجه قرار گرفت، کرایسلر و بوئینگ این مرکز را برای طراحی و مونتاژ بخشهای موشکهای ساترن ۱ و ساترن ۵ انتخاب کردند. نزدیکی به آب یکی از دلایل آن بود. نام رسمی این مرکز در سال ۱۹۶۵ به کارخانه مونتاژ میشو تغییر یافت. تا سال ۱۹۷۰ در این مرکز موتورهای پیشرانهٔ ساترن۱بی و ساترن۱سی ساخته میشد. با پایان یافتن برنامهٔ آپولو و آغاز برنامهٔ شاتلهای فضایی این مرکز زیر نظر لاکهید مارتین به تولید مخزنهای خارجی مورد نیاز شاتلها پرداخت.
The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) is an 832-acre (337 ha) manufacturing complex owned by NASA in New Orleans East, a district within New Orleans, Louisiana, in the United States. Organizationally it is part of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, and is currently a multi-tenant complex to allow commercial and government contractors, as well as government agencies, to use the site.
MAF is one of the largest manufacturing plants in the world with 43 environmentally controlled acres—174,000 m2 (1,870,000 sq ft)—under one roof, and it employs more than 4,200 people. From September 1961 to the end of the Apollo program in December 1972 the site was utilized by Chrysler Corporation to build the first stages of the Saturn I and Saturn IB, later joined by Boeing Corporation to build the first stage of the Saturn V rockets. From September 5, 1973, to September 20, 2010, the factory was used for the construction of the Space Shuttle's external fuel tanks by Martin Marietta Corporation, Denver Colorado.
The facility was originally constructed in 1940 at the village of Michoud, Louisiana, by the Higgins-Tucker division of Higgins Industries under the direction of Andrew Jackson Higgins. Construction was done on behalf of the United States government for the war production during World War II of plywood C-76 cargo planes and landing craft. The project cost $180 million ($2.8 billion in 2018). During the Korean War it made engines for Sherman and Patton tanks, and boasted a 5,500 foot paved runway. It came under the management of NASA in 1961, and was used for the construction of the S-IC first stage of the Saturn V rockets and the S-IB first stage of the Saturn IB rockets built by Chrysler Corporation. It is home to the first stage of the last-constructed Saturn V, SA-515, built by The Boeing Company. The factory's ceiling height limitation - 12 meters, was unable to allow the construction of the bigger C-8 direct Moon vehicle, was one of the major reasons why the smaller C-5 (later renamed Saturn V) was chosen instead of the originally planned Moon vehicle.
The majority of the NASA factory's history was focused on construction and production of NASA's Space Shuttle external tank (ET). Beginning with rollout of ET-1 on June 29, 1979, which flew on STS-1, 136 tanks were produced throughout the Space Shuttle program, ending with the flight-ready tank ET-122, which flew on STS-134, rolled out on September 20, 2010. A single tank produced at the facility, ET-94, was not used in spaceflight and remained at Michoud as a test article.
The facility did not experience significant flooding during Hurricane Katrina due to a natural ridge that runs along its northwestern boundary, the levee that makes up the southern and eastern boundaries, and the work of the pump operators who stayed to protect the facility during the storm. There was wind damage and rainwater damage to several buildings. All shifts were initially canceled up to September 26, 2005, potentially setting back future Shuttle flights. All the buildings and the shuttle hardware within survived the hurricane without grave damage, but the roof of the main manufacturing building was breached and debris damaged ET-122 stored inside; that tank was refurbished and later flew on the final flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-134. Thirty-eight NASA and Lockheed Martin employees stayed behind during Hurricane Katrina to operate the pumping systems, knowing that if not activated and sustained, the facility would have been destroyed. The workers pumped more than one billion gallons (3,800,000 m3) of water out of the facility and probably were the reason that the rocket factory suffered very little damage. These employees were each awarded the NASA Exceptional Bravery Medal, NASA's highest bravery award.
On September 16, 2005 NASA announced that the repairs were progressing faster than anticipated, and so they would continue to use Michoud for external tank work. On October 3, 2005, the facility officially reopened for essential personnel, though some key personnel had returned earlier. On October 31 the facility reopened to all personnel.
On February 7, 2017, an EF3 tornado carved a path through Orleans Parish, in which the factory is located. Two major buildings including the main manufacturing building were damaged, with multiple broken windows. 5 people were injured, and resulting repairs and other factors contributed to the delay of the first SLS launch until late 2020.
The facility consists of four large buildings in one complex:
The shipping port is located 600 meters southwest of the main manufacturing building. Transporting vehicles carrying manufactured SLS components move down Saturn Blvd, past large open fields, to the pier - where the Pegasus Barge is docked. This is where the components are shipped to either their final destination - Kennedy Space Center, or rarely back to the main Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, or the John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi for testing.
Other and future activities
The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses other organizations such as the National Finance Center operated by the United States Department of Agriculture, the United States Coast Guard, GE, the Chris A. Hadfield Rocket Factory, Lockheed Martin and NASA. The factory is now the location for the Space Launch System (SLS) being built by the Boeing company which will be the most powerful rocket in the history of spaceflight. It will carry the Orion spacecraft during its first launch to prove capabilities. Launch is set for no early than June 2020.
The factory complex is open to public visitation, visitors need to sign in at the main reception and clear security.
NASA planned to use the rocket factory to build the structure for several components of the cancelled Constellation program, including the Orion spacecraft, the Ares I Upper Stage, and the Ares V Core Stage. Under the Obama administration, the Constellation Program was cancelled in 2010, but was replaced with SLS a year later to continue space exploration efforts.
NASA has an agreement in place to rent out a portion of the facility to Big Easy Studios, a New Orleans film studio. This deal has been criticized by competing studios as violating NASA's rule that any deal with an outside entity must serve the agency's mission and must not compete with the private sector. NASA officials defend the agreement, stating that this helps to offset the cost of unused space on the facility and that their pricing is vetted by state and local economic development agencies to ensure it is not competing with the private market. Portions of Ender's Game, G.I. Joe: Retaliation, and Dawn of the Planet of the Apes were filmed at the factory.
On May 24, 1988, TACA Flight 110 operated with a Boeing 737-300 jetliner made a successful emergency landing on a grassy levee in the Michoud grounds after power was lost in both engines during a severe thunderstorm. The aircraft was towed into the Michoud facility, where its engines were replaced. On 6 June, it took off, with a crew of two and minimal fuel, using the former runway at Michoud, which had been reused as a road, Saturn Boulevard. It was flown the short distance to New Orleans International Airport, where it was repaired.
Over the years, several reported incidents of robbery and terrorism occurred at the facility; where trespassers on numerous occasions have been known to break in and have stolen technical paperwork. As a result, public visitors and employees taking photographs inside is highly regulated by NASA officials. There was a recent bomb threat to MAF; and after 9/11, double-perimeter security fences were installed in 2007-2008. At the same time, all of the front windows of the administration offices were upgraded with black-anodized shatter-proof transparent panels.