ژوئیه (به فرانسوی: juillet) یا جولای (به انگلیسی: July) هفتمین ماه سال میلادی در گاهشماری گریگوری و گاهشماری ژولینی (میان ژوئن و اوت) است این ماه، چهارمین ماهی است که ۳۱ روز دارد. نام این ماه از سوی سنای روم برای بزرگداشت ژولیوس سزار که در این ماه به دنیا آمده بود، برگزیده شده است. پیش از آنکه چنین نامگذاری صورت گیرد نام این ماه کوئینتیلیس بود.
به صورت میانگین این ماه گرمترین ماه در نیم کره شمالی است (چون اولین ماه تابستان است) و سردترین ماه در نیم کره جنوبی است (چون اولین ماه زمستان است). در نیم کرهٔ جنوبی از دیدگاه فصلی ژوئیه متناظر با ژانویه در نیم کرهٔ شمالی است.
در نیم کرهٔ شمالی عبارت «روزهای سگی» برای روزهای آغازین ژوئیه بکار میرود چون هوای طاقت فرسای تابستان آغاز شده است. گوسفندان بهاری در اواخر زمستان و آغاز بهار به دنیا میآیند و معمولاً پیش از ۱ ژوئیه به فروش میرسند.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
July is the seventh month of the year (between June and August) in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.
It is on average the warmest month in most of the Northern hemisphere, where it is the second month of summer, and the coldest month in much of the Southern hemisphere, where it is the second month of winter. The second half of the year commences in July. In the Southern hemisphere, July is the seasonal equivalent of January in the Northern hemisphere.
"Dog days" are considered to begin in early July in the Northern Hemisphere, when the hot sultry weather of summer usually starts. Spring lambs born in late winter or early spring are usually sold before 1 July.
July is the traditional period known as "fence month," the closed season for deer in England. The end of England's High Court of Justice Trinity Term takes place on 31 July. July is also the time in which the elections take place for the Japanese House of Councillors, held every three years and replacing half of its seats.
In Ancient Rome, the festival of Poplifugia was celebrated on 5 July, and Ludi Apollinares was held on 13 July and for several days afterwards. However, these dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.
This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.
Non-Gregorian observances, 2019
Movable observances, 2019
First Monday: July 1
Day after first Monday: July 2
First Friday: July 5
5 July or following Monday if it's a weekend: July 5
First Saturday: July 6
First Saturday and Sunday: July 6–7
First Sunday: July 7
Sunday closest to 2 July: July 7
First full week in July: July 7–13
Second Thursday: July 11
Second Sunday: July 14
Nearest Sunday to 11 July: July 14
Third Monday: July 15
Third Tuesday: July 16
Third Sunday: July 21
Fourth Thursday: July 25
Last Friday: July 26
Friday preceding the Fourth Saturday and the following Sunday: July 26–28
Last Saturday: July 27
Fourth Sunday: July 28
Last Sunday: July 28
Fixed Gregorian observances