سارتر در روز ۲۱ ژوئن ۱۹۰۵ در پاریس به دنیا آمد. پدرش «ژان باپتیست سارتر» (۱۸۴۷–۱۹۰۶) افسر نیروی دریایی فرانسه بود و مادرش «آنه ماری شوایتزر» (۱۸۸۲–۱۹۶۹) دخترعموی «آلبرت شوایتزر» پزشک معروف، برندهٔ جایزه صلح نوبل است. پانزدهماهه بود که پدرش به علت «تب» از دنیا رفت. پس از آن مادرش به نزد والدینش در مودون بازگشت.
پدربزرگش «شارل شوایتزر» یکی از عموهای آلبرت شوایتزر در مدرسه به آموزش زبان آلمانی اشتغال داشت. ژان در خانه زیر نظر او و چند معلم خصوصی دیگر تربیت شد و در خردسالی خواندن و نوشتن (فرانسه و آلمانی) را فراگرفت. در کودکی چشم راستش دچار آب مروارید شد، به تدریج انحراف به خارج پیدا کرد و قدرت بیناییش را از دست داد.
تا ده سالگی بیشتر خانهنشین بود ارتباط بسیار کمی با مردم داشت. همانگونه که خود در کتاب «کلمات» دوران کودکیاش را بیان میکند، کودکی تیزهوش اما گوشهگیر بود و سالهای کودکی را بیش از هرجا میان انبوه کتابها به خواندن آثار مهم ادبی و تاریخی گذراندهاست. پس از آن به مدرسه لیس هنری هشتم رفت. دوازده سال بود که مادرش دوباره ازدواج کرد و با همسر جدیدش که یکی از دوستان قدیمی پدر ژان بود به شهر «لا روشل» نقل مکان نمود. این اقدام موجب نفرت سارتر از مادرش شد. تا ۱۵ سالگی برای تحصیل به مدرسهای در «لا روشل» رفت اما تحمل شرایط مدرسه و رفتارهای خشونتآمیز دانش آموزان دیگر برای او بسیار دشوار بود.
ژان در سال ۱۹۲۰ به یک مدرسه شبانهروزی در پاریس فرستاده شد. در آنجا با یکی از همکلاسیهایش به نام «پل نیزان» آشنا شد که این آشنایی به یک رفاقت درازمدت انجامید. نیزان در معرفی ادبیات معاصر به سارتر نقش بسزایی داشت.
در سال ۱۹۲۲ موفق به گرفتن دیپلم شد، پس از آن تصمیم گرفت به همراه «نیزان» در «دانشسرای عالی پاریس» در رشتهٔ آموزگاری ادامه تحصیل دهد. ۱۹۲۴ در امتحان ورودی از ۳۵ نفر قبول شده نهایی، رتبه هفتم را به دست میآورد. به همراه نیزان دست به انتشار مجلهای در دانشسرا میزند.
چهار سال بعد در امتحانات نهایی رشته فلسفه مردود میشود. دلیل رد شدن نیز عقیده سارتر در مورد فلسفه بود. او عقیده داشت «فلسفه فهمیدنی است، نه حفظ کردنی». سال بعد (۱۹۲۹) در امتحانات نهایی جایگاه نخست نصیب سارتر میشود و «سیمون دوبووار» و «ژان ایپولیت» و «پل نیزان» مقامهای بعدی را کسب میکنند.
سیمون دوبووار، فیلسوف، نویسنده و فمینیست فرانسوی همراه و همدم مادامالعمر او بود. آشنایی این دو به سال ۱۹۲۹ و زمان آمادگی دوبووار برای امتحانات فلسفه در سوربن بازمیگردد. سیمون دوبووار دختر ناز پروردهای که تحت سلطه قرار دادهای مذهب کاتولیک بود بعد از آشنایی با سارتر شدیداً و عمیقاً به او دلبسته میشود و تا آخر عمر با او همراه میماند هر چند که این رابطه در سالهای پایانی عمر سارتر تا حدودی ضعیف میشود.
پس از اتمام تحصیلات در دبیرستانهای «لو آور» و «لیون» به تدریس فلسفه پرداخت. پس از مدتی تصمیم گرفت که برای کامل شدن تحقیقاتش در زمینه فلسفه پدیدارشناسی هوسرل راهی آلمان شود. با استفاده از یک بورس تحصیلی به آلمان رفت و در برلین به ادامهٔ تحصیل پرداخت. در اینجا بود که آشنایی عمیقتری با آثار فیلسوفان بزرگی همچون مارتین هایدگر (فلسفه اصالت وجود یا اگزیستانسیالیسم) و ادموند هوسرل (فلسفه پدیدارشناسی) پیدا کرد. اما پس از چندی تاب تحمل حکومت آلمان نازی را نیاورد، به پاریس برگشت و کار تدریس فلسفه را دنبال نمود.
سارتر از کودکی در پی کسب شهرت بود. به همین دلیل به نویسندگی روی آورد. با این همه مدتهای مدیدی نوشتههایش یکی پس از دیگری از سوی ناشران بازگشت داده میشدند و او بدین خاطر نتوانست به آرزوی دیرینهاش جامه عمل بپوشاند. اما در ۱۹۳۸ و با نگارش نخستین رمان فلسفیاش با نام «تهوع» به شهرتی فراگیر دست یافت. در این رمان تکان دهنده دلهره وجود و بیهودگی ذاتی هستی، با جسارتی بیسابقه ترسیم شدهاست. پس از آن، نگارش مجموعهای از داستانها با نام «دیوار» (۱۹۳۹) را آغاز کرد که به دلیل شروع جنگ جهانی دوم ناتمام ماند. سارتر در دوره ای از زندگی خود به مصرف روان گردانی بنام مسکالین روی آورده و با دگرگونیهای روانی حاصل از آن به تمرکز بر تجربههای شخصی اش میپرداختهاست(Stanislav, 1993)
سارتر تا آخر عمر با سیمون دوبوار ارتباط داشت اما آنها که ازدواج را یک امر بورژوایی میدانستند، تا آخر عمر با هم ازدواج نکردند. یکی از مواردی که در آن سارتر همیشه مورد انتقاد بوده زندگی سه نفره او با دوبوار و یک دختر جوان بودهاست. دوبوار که دو جنس گرا بود و به دختران جوان تمایل داشت با مشورت سارتر دختر جوانی را وارد روابط آنها میکرد و این روابط گاهی چند ماه طول میکشید. در جریان این روابط دخترانی مثل ناتالی سوروکین، وندا کساکیویکز و بیانکا لمبلین به شدت آسیب دیدند.
بهطور کلی دو دوره در زندگی حرفهای سارتر وجود داشت. اولین دورهٔ زندگی حرفهای او دورهٔ پس از نوشتن اثر معروفاش، هستی و نیستی، بودو نوشتن رمان تهوع. سارتر به آزادی بنیادی انسان اعتقاد داشت و باور داشت که «انسان محکوم به آزادی است. »
در دومین دورهٔ حرفهٔ زندگیاش، سارتر بهعنوان روشنفکری فعال از نظر سیاسی شناخته میشد. سارتر از طرفداران کمونیسم بود، هرچند که هرگز بهطور رسمی به عضویت حزب کمونیست فرانسه درنیامد. وی بیشتر عمر خویش را صرف مطابقت دادن ایدههای اگزیستانسیالیستیاش کرد. سارتر معتقد بود که انسان باید خود سرنوشتاش را تعیین کند. وی همچنین، مطابق با اصول کمونیسم، باور داشت که نیروهای اقتصادی-اجتماعی جامعه که از کنترل انسان خارج هستند، نقشی حیاتی در تعیین مسیر زندگی اشخاص دارند. در سال ۱۹۶۴ جایزه ادبی نوبل به سارتر تعلق گرفت، ولی او از پذیرفتن این جایزه خودداری کرد. او در نامهای که به آکادمی نوبل نوشت توضیح داد که نمیتواند جایزه را بپذیرد و نمیخواهد که هرگز نامش در فهرست دریافتکنندگان آن جایزه قرار گیرد. سارتر بهعنوان یک نویسنده نمیخواست نامش با سازمانی مرتبط گردد.
برخی فیلسوفان معتقدند که سارتر در کارهایش مفاهیم متناقضی را در کنار هم قرار دادهاست. برای مثال هربرت مارکوزه معتقد بود که افکار سارتر متناقض و بیش از حد ایدئال گراست و این ایدئال گرایی خلاف ادعای سارتر در مورد واقع گرایی است. همچنین، ریچارد وولهایم و توماس بالدوین نشان میدهند که نقد سارتر از فروید در واقع بر اساس یک تفسیر اشتباه از کارهای فروید بنیان نهاده شدهاست.
از سال ۱۹۷۳ به بعد تقریباً تمامی قدرت بینایی خود را از دست داده بود و دیگر قادر به نوشتن نبود، با این همه او سعی میکرد با انجام مصاحبهها، دیدارها و حضور در مراسم کماکان چهرهای فعال و اجتماعی از خود نشان دهد. برای نمونه ملاقات او با «آندریاس بادر» زندانی سیاسی و عضو «فراکسیون ارتش سرخ» (RAF) در «زندان اشتوتگارت» (آلمان) توجه همگان را برانگیخت. ۱۹۷۹ در یک کنفرانس مطبوعاتی جنجالی به حمایت از آوارگان جنگ ویتنام (Boat people) پرداخت. در جایی دیگر از مبارزه مردم ایران علیه محمدرضاشاه پهلوی و آزادی زندانیان سیاسی و همچنین مبارزه مردم شیلی علیه دیکتاتوری آگوستو پینوشه طرفداری نمود.
در سال ۱۹۸۰ روزنامه «نوول آبزرواتور» اقدام به انتشار گفتگوی سارتر با «بنی لویس» - فیلسوف و نویسنده - نمود که شگفتی همگان از جمله دوبوار را به همراه داشت. سارتر در این مصاحبه به بحث در مورد نکاتی همچون «روابط میان فردی و شرایط اجتماعی» پرداخت. این گفتگو تا حدی نشانگر تطابق نظریات سارتر و لویس بود.
ژان-پل سارتر در روز ۱۵ آوریل ۱۹۸۰ در سن ۷۵ سالگی در بیمارستان بروسه پاریس در پی خیز ریوی از دنیا رفت. او حتی تا پایان عمر یک چهره سرشناس جهانی باقیماند؛ خبر درگذشت او به سرعت در سراسر جهان پخش شد و حدود ۵۰ هزار نفر در پاریس در مراسم خاکسپاری اش شرکت کردند، در حالی که بیش از ده سال از افول سارتر در فرانسه گذشته بود. این مراسم پرجمعیتترین تشییع جنازه یک فیلسوف در قرن بیستم بود؛ از این نظر میتوان او را به ولتر - فیلسوف بزرگ عصر روشنگری فرانسه - تشبیه نمود.
خاکستر او در گورستان مونپارناس در حوالی محل زندگی دوران پیری اش در محلهای از پاریس به خاک سپرده شد، جایی که ۶ سال بعد همسفر زندگی اش سیمون دوبووار به همراهش آرمید. ۳ سال پس از مرگ سارتر، سیمون دوبووار کتابی با نام تشریفات خداحافظی در مورد مرگ وی منتشر کرد. یک هفته بعد از مرگ سارتر روی جلد هفتهنامه نوول آبزرواتور که سارتر به آن علاقه داشت و واپسین گفتگوهایش هم در آن منتشر شده بود، بر زمینهٔ سرمهای تیره تصویر درشتی از چهرهٔ سال خوردهٔ سارتر چاپ شد، و زیر آن با حروف سفید واپسین عبارت کتاب واژهها آمد:
جدول زیر گزیدهای از ترجمهٔ آثار سارتر را به نمایش میگذارد. مهمترین اثر فلسفی سارتر به نام نقد خرد دیالکتیک هنوز به فارسی ترجمه نشدهاست.
کتابی با نام فاجعه بزرگ به ترجمه بهروز بهزاد که بعد از انقلاب با نام خانواده خوشبخت با ترجمه دوباره از کتابی که وجود نداشت بیژن فروغانی و سارا برمخشاد چاپ شدهاست، اثر سارتر نیست و متعلق به خود مترجمین میباشد که نمونهای از سرقت ادبی است.[نیازمند منبع]
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (//, US also //; French: [saʁtʁ]; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism. His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines.
Sartre was also noted for his open relationship with prominent feminist and fellow existentialist philosopher and writer Simone de Beauvoir. Together, Sartre and de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyle and thought. The conflict between oppressive, spiritually destructive conformity (mauvaise foi, literally, "bad faith") and an "authentic" way of "being" became the dominant theme of Sartre's early work, a theme embodied in his principal philosophical work Being and Nothingness (L'Être et le Néant, 1943). Sartre's introduction to his philosophy is his work Existentialism Is a Humanism (L'existentialisme est un humanisme, 1946), originally presented as a lecture.
He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature despite attempting to refuse it, saying that he always declined official honours and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution".
Jean-Paul Sartre was born on 21 June 1905 in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, and Anne-Marie (Schweitzer). His mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer, whose father Louis Théophile was the younger brother of Anne-Marie's father. When Sartre was two years old, his father died of an illness, which he most likely contracted in Indochina. Anne-Marie moved back to her parents' house in Meudon, where she raised Sartre with help from her father Charles Schweitzer, a teacher of German who taught Sartre mathematics and introduced him to classical literature at a very early age. When he was twelve, Sartre's mother remarried, and the family moved to La Rochelle, where he was frequently bullied.
As a teenager in the 1920s, Sartre became attracted to philosophy upon reading Henri Bergson's essay Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness. He attended the Cours Hattemer, a private school in Paris. He studied and earned certificates in psychology, history of philosophy, logic, general philosophy, ethics and sociology, and physics, as well as his diplôme d'études supérieures (roughly equivalent to an MA thesis) in Paris at the École Normale Supérieure, an institution of higher education that was the alma mater for several prominent French thinkers and intellectuals. (His 1928 MA thesis under the title "L'Image dans la vie psychologique: rôle et nature" ["Image in Psychological Life: Role and Nature"] was supervised by Henri Delacroix.) It was at ENS that Sartre began his lifelong, sometimes fractious, friendship with Raymond Aron. Perhaps the most decisive influence on Sartre's philosophical development was his weekly attendance at Alexandre Kojève's seminars, which continued for a number of years.
From his first years in the École Normale, Sartre was one of its fiercest pranksters. In 1927, his antimilitarist satirical cartoon in the revue of the school, coauthored with Georges Canguilhem, particularly upset the director Gustave Lanson. In the same year, with his comrades Nizan, Larroutis, Baillou and Herland, he organized a media prank following Charles Lindbergh's successful New York City–Paris flight; Sartre & Co. called newspapers and informed them that Lindbergh was going to be awarded an honorary École degree. Many newspapers, including Le Petit Parisien, announced the event on 25 May. Thousands, including journalists and curious spectators, showed up, unaware that what they were witnessing was a stunt involving a Lindbergh look-alike. The public's resultant outcry[need quotation to verify] forced Lanson to resign.
In 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and later went on to become a noted philosopher, writer, and feminist. The two became inseparable and lifelong companions, initiating a romantic relationship, though they were not monogamous. The first time Sartre took the agrégation, he failed. He took it a second time and virtually tied for first place with Beauvoir, although Sartre was eventually awarded first place, with Beauvoir second.
Sartre was drafted into the French Army from 1939 to 1941 and served as a meteorologist for some time. He later argued in 1959 that each French person was responsible for the collective crimes during the Algerian War of Independence.
From 1931 until 1945, Sartre taught at various lycées of Le Havre (at the Lycée de Le Havre, the present-day Lycée François-Ier (Le Havre), 1931–36), Laon (at the Lycée de Laon, 1936–37), and, finally, Paris (at the Lycée Pasteur, 1937–39, and at the Lycée Condorcet, 1941–44; see below).
In 1933–34, he succeeded Raymond Aron at the Institut français d'Allemagne in Berlin where he studied Edmund Husserl's phenomenological philosophy. Aron had already advised him in 1930 to read Emmanuel Levinas's Théorie de l'intuition dans la phénoménologie de Husserl (The Theory of Intuition in Husserl's Phenomenology).
World War II
In 1939 Sartre was drafted into the French army, where he served as a meteorologist. He was captured by German troops in 1940 in Padoux, and he spent nine months as a prisoner of war—in Nancy and finally in Stalag XII-D, Trier, where he wrote his first theatrical piece, Barionà, fils du tonnerre, a drama concerning Christmas. It was during this period of confinement that Sartre read Martin Heidegger's Sein und Zeit, later to become a major influence on his own essay on phenomenological ontology. Because of poor health (he claimed that his poor eyesight and exotropia affected his balance) Sartre was released in April 1941. According to other sources, he escaped after a medical visit to the ophthalmologist. Given civilian status, he recovered his teaching position at Lycée Pasteur near Paris and settled at the Hotel Mistral. In October 1941 he was given a position, previously held by a Jewish teacher who had been forbidden to teach by Vichy law, at Lycée Condorcet in Paris.
After coming back to Paris in May 1941, he participated in the founding of the underground group Socialisme et Liberté ("Socialism and Liberty") with other writers Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Toussaint Desanti, Dominique Desanti, Jean Kanapa, and École Normale students. In spring of 1941, Sartre suggested with "cheerful ferocity" at a meeting that the Socialisme et Liberté assassinate prominent war collaborators like Marcel Déat, but de Beauvoir noted his idea was rejected as "none of us felt qualified to make bombs or hurl grenades". The British historian Ian Ousby observed that the French always had far more hatred for collaborators than they did for the Germans, noting it was French people like Déat that Sartre wanted to assassinate rather than the military governor of France, General Otto von Stülpnagel, and the popular slogan always was "Death to Laval!" rather than "Death to Hitler!". In August Sartre and de Beauvoir went to the French Riviera seeking the support of André Gide and André Malraux. However, both Gide and Malraux were undecided, and this may have been the cause of Sartre's disappointment and discouragement. Socialisme et liberté soon dissolved and Sartre decided to write instead of being involved in active resistance. He then wrote Being and Nothingness, The Flies, and No Exit, none of which were censored by the Germans, and also contributed to both legal and illegal literary magazines.
In his essay "Paris under the Occupation", Sartre wrote that the "correct" behaviour of the Germans had entrapped too many Parisians into complicity with the occupation, accepting what was unnatural as natural:
Sartre noted when Wehrmacht soldiers asked Parisians politely in their German-accented French for directions, people usually felt embarrassed and ashamed as they tried their best to help out the Wehrmacht which led Sartre to remark "We could not be natural". French was a language widely taught in German schools and most Germans could speak at least some French. Sartre himself always found it difficult when a Wehrmacht soldier asked him for directions, usually saying he did not know where it was that the soldier wanted to go, but still felt uncomfortable as the very act of speaking to the Wehrmacht meant he had been complicit in the Occupation. Ousby wrote: "But, in however humble a fashion, everyone still had to decide how they were going to cope with life in a fragmenting society ... So Sartre's worries ... about how to react when a German soldier stopped him in the street and asked politely for directions were not as fussily inconsequential as they might sound at first. They were emblematic of how the dilemmas of the Occupation presented themselves in daily life". Sartre wrote the very "correctness" of the Germans caused moral corruption in many people who used the "correct" behavior of the Germans as an excuse for passivity, and the very act of simply trying to live one's day-to-day existence without challenging the occupation aided the "New Order in Europe", which depended upon the passivity of ordinary people to accomplish its goals.
Throughout the occupation, it was German policy to plunder France and food shortages were always a major problem as the majority of food from the French countryside went to Germany. Sartre wrote about the "languid existence" of the Parisians as people waited obsessively for the one weekly arrival of trucks bringing food from the countryside that the Germans allowed, writing: "Paris would grow peaked and yawn with hunger under the empty sky. Cut off from the rest of the world, fed only through the pity or some ulterior motive, the town led a purely abstract and symbolic life". Sartre himself lived on a diet of rabbits sent to him by a friend of de Beauvior living in Anjou. The rabbits were usually in an advanced state of decay full of maggots, and despite being hungry, Sartre once threw out one rabbit as uneatable, saying it had more maggots in it than meat. Sartre also remarked that conversations at the Café de Flore between intellectuals had changed, as the fear that one of them might be a mouche (informer) or a writer of the corbeau (anonymous denunciatory letters) meant that no one really said what they meant anymore, imposing self-censorship. Sartre and his friends at the Café de Flore had reasons for their fear; by September 1940, the Abwehr alone had already recruited 32,000 French people to work as mouches while by 1942 the Paris Kommandantur was receiving an average of 1,500 letters/per day sent by the corbeaux.
Sartre wrote under the occupation Paris had become a "sham", resembling the empty wine bottles displayed in shop windows as all of the wine had been exported to Germany, looking like the old Paris, but hollowed out, as what had made Paris special was gone. Paris had almost no cars on the streets during the occupation as the oil went to Germany while the Germans imposed a nightly curfew, which led Sartre to remark that Paris "was peopled by the absent". Sartre also noted that people began to disappear under the occupation, writing:
Sartre wrote the feldgrau ("field grey") uniforms of the Wehrmacht and the green uniforms of the Order Police which had seemed so alien in 1940 had become accepted, as people were numbed into accepting what Sartre called "a pale, dull green, unobtrusive strain, which the eye almost expected to find among the dark clothes of the civilians". Under the occupation, the French often called the Germans les autres ("the others"), which inspired Sartre's aphorism in his play Huis clos ("No Exit") of "l'enfer, c'est les Autres" ("Hell is other people"). Sartre intended the line "l'enfer, c'est les Autres" at least in part to be a dig at the German occupiers.
After August 1944 and the Liberation of Paris, he wrote Anti-Semite and Jew. In the book he tries to explain the etiology of "hate" by analyzing antisemitic hate. Sartre was a very active contributor to Combat, a newspaper created during the clandestine period by Albert Camus, a philosopher and author who held similar beliefs. Sartre and de Beauvoir remained friends with Camus until 1951, with the publication of Camus's The Rebel. Later, while Sartre was labeled by some authors as a resistant, the French philosopher and resistant Vladimir Jankelevitch criticized Sartre's lack of political commitment during the German occupation, and interpreted his further struggles for liberty as an attempt to redeem himself. According to Camus, Sartre was a writer who resisted; not a resister who wrote.
In 1945, after the war ended, Sartre moved to an apartment on the rue Bonaparte which was where he was to produce most of his subsequent work, and where he lived until 1962. It was from there that he helped establish a quarterly literary and political review, Les Temps modernes (Modern Times), in part to popularize his thought. He ceased teaching and devoted his time to writing and political activism. He would draw on his war experiences for his great trilogy of novels, Les Chemins de la Liberté (The Roads to Freedom) (1945–1949).
Cold War politics and anticolonialism
The first period of Sartre's career, defined in large part by Being and Nothingness (1943), gave way to a second period—when the world was perceived as split into communist and capitalist blocs—of highly publicized political involvement. Sartre tended to glorify the Resistance after the war as the uncompromising expression of morality in action, and recalled that the résistants were a "band of brothers" who had enjoyed "real freedom" in a way that did not exist before nor after the war. Sartre was "merciless" in attacking anyone who had collaborated or remained passive during the German occupation; for instance, criticizing Camus for signing an appeal to spare the collaborationist writer Robert Brasillach from being executed. His 1948 play Les mains sales (Dirty Hands) in particular explored the problem of being a politically "engaged" intellectual. He embraced Marxism but did not join the Communist Party. For a time in the late 1940s, Sartre described French nationalism as "provincial" and in a 1949 essay called for a "United States of Europe". In an essay published in the June 1949 edition of the journal Politique étrangère, Sartre wrote:
About the Korean War, Sartre wrote: "I have no doubt that the South Korean feudalists and the American imperialists have promoted this war. But I do not doubt either that it was begun by the North Koreans". In July 1950, Sartre wrote in Les Temps Modernes about his and de Beauvoir's attitude to the Soviet Union:
Sartre held that the Soviet Union was a "revolutionary" state working for the betterment of humanity and could be criticized only for failing to live up to its own ideals, but that critics had to take in mind that the Soviet state needed to defend itself against a hostile world; by contrast Sartre held that the failures of "bourgeois" states were due to their innate shortcomings. The Swiss journalist François Bondy wrote that, based on a reading of Sartre's numerous essays, speeches and interviews "a simple basic pattern never fails to emerge: social change must be comprehensive and revolutionary" and the parties that promote the revolutionary charges "may be criticized, but only by those who completely identify themselves with its purpose, its struggle and its road to power", deeming Sartre's position to be "existentialist".
While a Marxist, Sartre attacked what he saw as abuses of freedom and human rights by the Soviet Union. In 1954, Sartre visited the Soviet Union, which he stated he found a "complete freedom of criticism" while condemning the United States for sinking into "prefascism". Sartre wrote about those Soviet writers expelled from the Soviet Writers' Union "still had the opportunity of rehabilitating themselves by writing better books". He was one of the first French journalists to expose the existence of the labor camps, and vehemently opposed the invasion of Hungary, Russian anti-Semitism, and the execution of dissidents. About the Hungarian revolt of 1956, Sartre wrote: "In spite of everything, the Rakosi regime stood for socialization. Only it did it badly and that is worse than not to do so at all". Sartre came to admire the Polish leader Władysław Gomułka, a man who favored a "Polish road to socialism" and wanted more independence for Poland, but was loyal to the Soviet Union because of the Oder-Neisse line issue. Sartre's newspaper Les Temps Modernes devoted a number of special issues in 1957 and 1958 to Poland under Gomułka, praising him for his reforms. Bondy wrote of the notable contradiction between Sarte's "ultra Bolshevism" as he expressed admiration for the Chinese leader Mao Zedong as the man who led the oppressed masses of the Third World into revolution while also praising more moderate Communist leaders like Gomułka.
As an anti-colonialist, Sartre took a prominent role in the struggle against French rule in Algeria, and the use of torture and concentration camps by the French in Algeria. He became an eminent supporter of the FLN in the Algerian War and was one of the signatories of the Manifeste des 121. Consequently, Sartre became a domestic target of the paramilitary Organisation armée secrète (OAS), escaping two bomb attacks in the early '60s. (He had an Algerian mistress, Arlette Elkaïm, who became his adopted daughter in 1965.) He opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and, along with Bertrand Russell and others, organized a tribunal intended to expose U.S. war crimes, which became known as the Russell Tribunal in 1967.
His work after Stalin's death, the Critique de la raison dialectique (Critique of Dialectical Reason), appeared in 1960 (a second volume appearing posthumously). In the Critique Sartre set out to give Marxism a more vigorous intellectual defense than it had received until then; he ended by concluding that Marx's notion of "class" as an objective entity was fallacious. Sartre's emphasis on the humanist values in the early works of Marx led to a dispute with a leading leftist intellectual in France in the 1960s, Louis Althusser, who claimed that the ideas of the young Marx were decisively superseded by the "scientific" system of the later Marx. In the late 1950s, Sartre began to argue that the European working classes were too apolitical to carry out the revolution predicated by Marx, and influenced by Frantz Fanon stated to argue it was the impoverished masses of the Third World, the "real damned of the earth", who would carry out the revolution. A major theme of Sarte's political essays in the 1960s was of his disgust with the "Americanization" of the French working class who would much rather watch American TV shows dubbed into French than agitate for a revolution.
Sartre went to Cuba in the 1960s to meet Fidel Castro and spoke with Ernesto "Che" Guevara. After Guevara's death, Sartre would declare him to be "not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age" and the "era's most perfect man". Sartre would also compliment Guevara by professing that "he lived his words, spoke his own actions and his story and the story of the world ran parallel". However he stood against the persecution of gays by Castro's régime, which he compared to Nazi persecution of the Jews, and said: "In Cuba there are no Jews, but there are homosexuals".
Towards the end of his life, Sartre began to describe himself as a "special kind" of anarchist.
Late life and death
In 1964 Sartre renounced literature in a witty and sardonic account of the first ten years of his life, Les Mots (The Words). The book is an ironic counterblast to Marcel Proust, whose reputation had unexpectedly eclipsed that of André Gide (who had provided the model of littérature engagée for Sartre's generation). Literature, Sartre concluded, functioned ultimately as a bourgeois substitute for real commitment in the world. In October 1964, Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature but he declined it. He was the first Nobel laureate to voluntarily decline the prize, and remains one of only two laureates to do so. According to Lars Gyllensten, in the book Minnen, bara minnen ("Memories, Only Memories") published in 2000, Sartre himself or someone close to him got in touch with the Swedish Academy in 1975 with a request for the prize money, but was refused. In 1945, he had refused the Légion d'honneur. The Nobel prize was announced on 22 October 1964; on 14 October, Sartre had written a letter to the Nobel Institute, asking to be removed from the list of nominees, and warning that he would not accept the prize if awarded, but the letter went unread; on 23 October, Le Figaro published a statement by Sartre explaining his refusal. He said he did not wish to be "transformed" by such an award, and did not want to take sides in an East vs. West cultural struggle by accepting an award from a prominent Western cultural institution. Nevertheless, he was that year's prizewinner. After being awarded the prize he tried to escape the media by hiding in the house of Simone's sister Hélène de Beauvoir in Goxwiller, Alsace.
Though his name was then a household word (as was "existentialism" during the tumultuous 1960s), Sartre remained a simple man with few possessions, actively committed to causes until the end of his life, such as the May 1968 strikes in Paris during the summer of 1968 during which he was arrested for civil disobedience. President Charles de Gaulle intervened and pardoned him, commenting that "you don't arrest Voltaire".
In 1975, when asked how he would like to be remembered, Sartre replied:
Sartre's physical condition deteriorated, partially because of the merciless pace of work (and the use of amphetamine) he put himself through during the writing of the Critique and a massive analytical biography of Gustave Flaubert (The Family Idiot), both of which remained unfinished. He suffered from hypertension, and became almost completely blind in 1973. Sartre was a notorious chain smoker, which could also have contributed to the deterioration of his health.
Sartre died on 15 April 1980 in Paris from edema of the lung. He had not wanted to be buried at Père-Lachaise Cemetery between his mother and stepfather, so it was arranged that he be buried at Montparnasse Cemetery. At his funeral on Saturday, 19 April, 50,000 Parisians descended onto boulevard du Montparnasse to accompany Sartre's cortege. The funeral started at "the hospital at 2:00 p.m., then filed through the fourteenth arrondissement, past all Sartre's haunts, and entered the cemetery through the gate on the Boulevard Edgar Quinet". Sartre was initially buried in a temporary grave to the left of the cemetery gate. Four days later the body was disinterred for cremation at Père-Lachaise Cemetery, and his ashes were reburied at the permanent site in Montparnasse Cemetery, to the right of the cemetery gate.
Sartre's primary idea is that people, as humans, are "condemned to be free".[full citation needed] This theory relies upon his position that there is no creator, and is illustrated using the example of the paper cutter. Sartre says that if one considered a paper cutter, one would assume that the creator would have had a plan for it: an essence. Sartre said that human beings have no essence before their existence because there is no Creator. Thus: "existence precedes essence". This forms the basis for his assertion that because one cannot explain one's own actions and behavior by referring to any specific human nature, they are necessarily fully responsible for those actions. "We are left alone, without excuse." "We can act without being determined by our past which is always separated from us."
Sartre maintained that the concepts of authenticity and individuality have to be earned but not learned. We need to experience "death consciousness" so as to wake up ourselves as to what is really important; the authentic in our lives which is life experience, not knowledge. Death draws the final point when we as beings cease to live for ourselves and permanently become objects that exist only for the outside world. In this way death emphasizes the burden of our free, individual existence.
As a junior lecturer at the Lycée du Havre in 1938, Sartre wrote the novel La Nausée (Nausea), which serves in some ways as a manifesto of existentialism and remains one of his most famous books. Taking a page from the German phenomenological movement, he believed that our ideas are the product of experiences of real-life situations, and that novels and plays can well describe such fundamental experiences, having equal value to discursive essays for the elaboration of philosophical theories such as existentialism. With such purpose, this novel concerns a dejected researcher (Roquentin) in a town similar to Le Havre who becomes starkly conscious of the fact that inanimate objects and situations remain absolutely indifferent to his existence. As such, they show themselves to be resistant to whatever significance human consciousness might perceive in them.
He also took inspiration from phenomenologist epistemology, explained by Franz Adler in this way: "Man chooses and makes himself by acting. Any action implies the judgment that he is right under the circumstances not only for the actor, but also for everybody else in similar circumstances."
This indifference of "things in themselves" (closely linked with the later notion of "being-in-itself" in his Being and Nothingness) has the effect of highlighting all the more the freedom Roquentin has to perceive and act in the world; everywhere he looks, he finds situations imbued with meanings which bear the stamp of his existence. Hence the "nausea" referred to in the title of the book; all that he encounters in his everyday life is suffused with a pervasive, even horrible, taste—specifically, his freedom. The book takes the term from Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra, where it is used in the context of the often nauseating quality of existence. No matter how much Roquentin longs for something else or something different, he cannot get away from this harrowing evidence of his engagement with the world.
The novel also acts as a terrifying realization of some of Immanuel Kant's fundamental ideas about freedom; Sartre uses the idea of the autonomy of the will (that morality is derived from our ability to choose in reality; the ability to choose being derived from human freedom; embodied in the famous saying "Condemned to be free") as a way to show the world's indifference to the individual. The freedom that Kant exposed is here a strong burden, for the freedom to act towards objects is ultimately useless, and the practical application of Kant's ideas proves to be bitterly rejected.
Also important is Sartre's analysis of psychological concepts, including his suggestion that consciousness exists as something other than itself, and that the conscious awareness of things is not limited to their knowledge: for Sartre intentionality applies to the emotions as well as to cognitions, to desires as well as to perceptions. "When an external object is perceived, consciousness is also conscious of itself, even if consciousness is not its own object: it is a non-positional consciousness of itself."
Career as public intellectual
While the broad focus of Sartre's life revolved around the notion of human freedom, he began a sustained intellectual participation in more public matters towards the end of the Second World War, around 1944-45. Before World War II, he was content with the role of an apolitical liberal intellectual: "Now teaching at a lycée in Laon ... Sartre made his headquarters the Dome café at the crossing of Montparnasse and Raspail boulevards. He attended plays, read novels, and dined [with] women. He wrote. And he was published." Sartre and his lifelong companion, de Beauvoir, existed, in her words, where "the world about us was a mere backdrop against which our private lives were played out".[full citation needed]
Sartre portrayed his own pre-war situation in the character Mathieu, chief protagonist in The Age of Reason, which was completed during Sartre's first year as a soldier in the Second World War. By forging Mathieu as an absolute rationalist, analyzing every situation, and functioning entirely on reason, he removed any strands of authentic content from his character and as a result, Mathieu could "recognize no allegiance except to [him]self",[full citation needed] though he realized that without "responsibility for my own existence, it would seem utterly absurd to go on existing".[full citation needed] Mathieu's commitment was only to himself, never to the outside world. Mathieu was restrained from action each time because he had no reasons for acting. Sartre then, for these reasons, was not compelled to participate in the Spanish Civil War, and it took the invasion of his own country to motivate him into action and to provide a crystallization of these ideas. It was the war that gave him a purpose beyond himself, and the atrocities of the war can be seen as the turning point in his public stance.
The war opened Sartre's eyes to a political reality he had not yet understood until forced into continual engagement with it: "the world itself destroyed Sartre's illusions about isolated self-determining individuals and made clear his own personal stake in the events of the time." Returning to Paris in 1941 he formed the "Socialisme et Liberté" resistance group. In 1943, after the group disbanded, Sartre joined a writers' Resistance group, in which he remained an active participant until the end of the war. He continued to write ferociously, and it was due to this "crucial experience of war and captivity that Sartre began to try to build up a positive moral system and to express it through literature".
The symbolic initiation of this new phase in Sartre's work is packaged in the introduction he wrote for a new journal, Les Temps modernes, in October 1945. Here he aligned the journal, and thus himself, with the Left and called for writers to express their political commitment. Yet, this alignment was indefinite, directed more to the concept of the Left than a specific party of the Left.
Sartre's philosophy lent itself to his being a public intellectual. He envisaged culture as a very fluid concept; neither pre-determined, nor definitely finished; instead, in true existential fashion, "culture was always conceived as a process of continual invention and re-invention." This marks Sartre, the intellectual, as a pragmatist, willing to move and shift stance along with events. He did not dogmatically follow a cause other than the belief in human freedom, preferring to retain a pacifist's objectivity. It is this overarching theme of freedom that means his work "subverts the bases for distinctions among the disciplines". Therefore, he was able to hold knowledge across a vast array of subjects: "the international world order, the political and economic organisation of contemporary society, especially France, the institutional and legal frameworks that regulate the lives of ordinary citizens, the educational system, the media networks that control and disseminate information. Sartre systematically refused to keep quiet about what he saw as inequalities and injustices in the world."
Sartre always sympathized with the Left, and supported the French Communist Party (PCF) until the 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary. Following the Liberation the PCF were infuriated by Sartre's philosophy, which appeared to lure young French men and women away from the ideology of communism and into Sartre's own existentialism. From 1956 onwards Sartre rejected the claims of the PCF to represent the French working classes, objecting to its "authoritarian tendencies". In the late 1960s Sartre supported the Maoists, a movement that rejected the authority of established communist parties. However, despite aligning with the Maoists, Sartre said after the May events: "If one rereads all my books, one will realize that I have not changed profoundly, and that I have always remained an anarchist." He would later explicitly allow himself to be called an anarchist.
In the aftermath of a war that had for the first time properly engaged Sartre in political matters, he set forth a body of work which "reflected on virtually every important theme of his early thought and began to explore alternative solutions to the problems posed there". The greatest difficulties that he and all public intellectuals of the time faced were the increasing technological aspects of the world that were outdating the printed word as a form of expression. In Sartre's opinion, the "traditional bourgeois literary forms remain innately superior", but there is "a recognition that the new technological 'mass media' forms must be embraced" if Sartre's ethical and political goals as an authentic, committed intellectual are to be achieved: the demystification of bourgeois political practices and the raising of the consciousness, both political and cultural, of the working class.
The struggle for Sartre was against the monopolising moguls who were beginning to take over the media and destroy the role of the intellectual. His attempts to reach a public were mediated by these powers, and it was often these powers he had to campaign against. He was skilled enough, however, to circumvent some of these issues by his interactive approach to the various forms of media, advertising his radio interviews in a newspaper column for example, and vice versa.
The role of a public intellectual can lead to the individual placing himself in danger as he engages with disputed topics. In Sartre's case, this was witnessed in June 1961, when a plastic bomb exploded in the entrance of his apartment building. His public support of Algerian self-determination at the time had led Sartre to become a target of the campaign of terror that mounted as the colonists' position deteriorated. A similar occurrence took place the next year and he had begun to receive threatening letters from Oran, Algeria.
Sartre wrote successfully in a number of literary modes and made major contributions to literary criticism and literary biography. His plays are richly symbolic and serve as a means of conveying his philosophy. The best-known, Huis-clos (No Exit), contains the famous line "L'enfer, c'est les autres", usually translated as "Hell is other people." Aside from the impact of Nausea, Sartre's major work of fiction was The Roads to Freedom trilogy which charts the progression of how World War II affected Sartre's ideas. In this way, Roads to Freedom presents a less theoretical and more practical approach to existentialism.
John Huston got Sartre to script his film Freud: The Secret Passion.[full citation needed] However it was too long and Sartre withdrew his name from the film's credits. Nevertheless, many key elements from Sartre's script survive in the finished film.
Despite their similarities as polemicists, novelists, adapters, and playwrights, Sartre's literary work has been counterposed, often pejoratively, to that of Camus in the popular imagination. In 1948 the Roman Catholic Church placed Sartre's oeuvre on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books).
Some philosophers argue that Sartre's thought is contradictory. Specifically, they believe that Sartre makes metaphysical arguments despite his claim that his philosophical views ignore metaphysics. Herbert Marcuse criticized Being and Nothingness for projecting anxiety and meaninglessness onto the nature of existence itself: "Insofar as Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine, it remains an idealistic doctrine: it hypostatizes specific historical conditions of human existence into ontological and metaphysical characteristics. Existentialism thus becomes part of the very ideology which it attacks, and its radicalism is illusory." In Letter on Humanism, Heidegger criticized Sartre's existentialism:
The philosophers Richard Wollheim and Thomas Baldwin have argued that Sartre's attempt to show that Sigmund Freud's theory of the unconscious is mistaken was based on a misinterpretation of Freud. Richard Webster considers Sartre one of many modern thinkers who have reconstructed Judaeo-Christian orthodoxies in secular form.
Intellectuals associated with the political right allege that Sartre's politics are indicative of authoritarianism. Brian C. Anderson denounced Sartre as an apologist for tyranny and terror and a supporter of Stalinism, Maoism, and Castro's regime in Cuba. The historian Paul Johnson asserted that Sartre's ideas had inspired the Khmer Rouge leadership: "The events in Cambodia in the 1970s, in which between one-fifth and one-third of the nation was starved to death or murdered, were entirely the work of a group of intellectuals, who were for the most part pupils and admirers of Jean-Paul Sartre – 'Sartre's Children' as I call them."
Sartre, who stated in his preface to Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth that, "To shoot down a European is to kill two birds with one stone, to destroy an oppressor and the man he oppresses at the same time: there remains a dead man and a free man", has been criticized by Anderson and Michael Walzer for supporting the killing of European civilians by the FLN during the Algerian War. Walzer suggests that Sartre, a European, was a hypocrite for not volunteering to be killed.