Antimony pentoxide (molecular formula: Sb2O5) is a chemical compound of antimony and oxygen. It always occurs in hydrated form, Sb2O5·nH2O. It contains antimony in the +5 oxidation state.
Antimony pentoxide has the same structure as the B form of niobium pentoxide and can be derived from the rutile structure, with antimony coordinated by six oxygen atoms in a distorted octahedral arrangement. The SbO6 octahedra are corner- and edge-sharing.
The hydrated oxide is prepared by hydrolysis of antimony pentachloride; or by acidification of potassium hexahydroxoantimonate(V). It may also be prepared by oxidation of antimony trioxide with nitric acid.
Antimony pentoxide finds use as a flame retardant in ABS and other plastics and as a flocculant in the production of titanium dioxide, and is sometimes used in the production of glass, paint and adhesives.
Properties and reactions
When heated to 700 °C (1,290 °F), the yellow hydrated pentoxide converts to an anhydrous white solid with the formula Sb6O13, containing both antimony(III) and antimony(V). Heating to 900 °C (1,650 °F) produces a white, insoluble powder of Sb2O4 in both α and β forms. The β form consists of antimony(V) in octahedral interstices and pyramidal SbIIIO4 units. In these compounds, the antimony(V) atom is octahedrally coordinated to six hydroxy groups.