پرچم اریتره

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
پرچم اریتره

پرچم اریتره با تناسب ۱:۲ در ۵ دسامبر ۱۹۹۵ پذیرفته شد. این پرچم که ترکیبی است از پرچم جبههٔ آزادی‌بخش خلق اریتره و پرچم آن کشور در دههٔ ۱۹۵۰ از ۱۹۹۳ مورد استفاده قرار گرفته بود.[۱] طراحی این پرچم شامل یک مثلث متساوی‌الساقین قرمزرنگ است که قاعدهٔ آن در بخش اهتزاز پرچم و رأس آن در قسمت پرواز پرچم واقع شده است و پرچم را در سمت راست به دو مثلث سبزرنگ در بالا و آبی‌رنگ در پایین تقسیم می‌کند.[۲] یک حلقهٔ گل طلایی‌رنگ نیز که به دور شاخه‌ای زیتون طلایی حلقه زده است در مرکز بخش اهتزاز مثلث قرمزرنگ قرار دارد.[۲]

نمادشناسی[ویرایش]

در پرچم اریتره رنگ سبز نشانهٔ اقتصاد مبتنی بر کشاورزی[۲][۱] و دامداری[۱] آن کشور، قرمز نماد خون‌هایی که در جنگ برای رسیدن به آزادی[۲] و استقلال[۱] ریخته شده است و آبی نشانهٔ بخشندگی دریا[۲] و ثروت دریایی[۱] است. رنگ طلایی در نماد حلقهٔ گل و شاخهٔ زیتون که به نماد پرچم سال ۱۹۵۲ اریتره شبیه است بیانگر ثروت خفته در معادن آن کشور می‌باشد.[۱] دربارهٔ خود این نماد توضیحی وجود ندارد و ممکن است بیانگر صلح باشد.[۱] همچنین شاخهٔ زیتون درون حلقه را نماد سازمان ملل و نقش آن در کمک به استقلال اریتره دانسته‌اند.[۱]

مثلث قرمزرنگ نیز از نظر شکلی شباهت بسیاری به شکل نقشهٔ خود کشور اریتره دارد.[۲]

پرچم‌های دیگر[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ ۱٫۳ ۱٫۴ ۱٫۵ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۷ «Eritrea». Flags Of The World. دریافت‌شده در ۳ ژوئن ۲۰۱۱.
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ ۲٫۲ ۲٫۳ ۲٫۴ ۲٫۵ «Eritrea - Flag Description». CIA. دریافت‌شده در ۳ ژوئن ۲۰۱۱.
Eritrea
Flag of Eritrea.svg
UseNational flag and ensign
Proportion1:2
Designa red isosceles triangle based on the hoist-side pointed toward the fly-side and then divided into two right triangles: the upper triangle is green and the lower triangle is blue with an Emblem (1952-1962) in gold (a vertical olive branch encircled by an olive wreath) centered on the hoist side of the triangle

The national flag of Eritrea, ሃገራዊት ባንዴራ ኤርትራ as adopted on December 5, 1995,[1] bears a resemblance to the official flag of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front. The wreath with the upright olive-branch symbol derived from the 1952 flag, which had a light blue background to honour the United Nations.[2] The green color in the flag stands for the agriculture and livestock of the country, the blue represents for the sea, and the red for the blood lost in the fight for freedom.

The flag has proportions of 1:2.

History and symbolism

Eritrea and Ethiopia were both occupied by the Italians between 1935-1941. Before the Second World War, Eritrea was more developed and prosperous than Ethiopia.[citation needed] After Italy's defeat in the war, Ethiopia reverted to its pre-Italian feudal monarchy while Eritrea was given over to modern British rule under a mandate by the United Nations in 1949. The advent of Arab nationalism in the 1940s saw the Muslim part of Eritrea demand independence from British rule. Meanwhile, Ethiopia tried to claim the Eritrean state as its own by calling it a "lost province". Several officers proposed that Eritrea be separated into two parts: the Christian area to be merged to Ethiopia; the Muslim area to Sudan. After international debate and the intervention of the Allied Powers, the United States passed a resolution with the agreement of Britain formulating the creation of an autonomous Eritrea in federation with Ethiopia in 1950.[3]

On September 15, 1952, Eritrea became independent from British rule[4] and was made an autonomous part of Ethiopia. Since the United Nations had helped the country obtain independence from British rule, the 1952 Eritrean flag was designed with a light blue background to honour the organisation's assistance. The flag at that time had an olive wreath in the centre, symbolising peace. The wreath encircled a six-leafed plant which represented the six administrative divisions of Eritrea.[5]

After civil war broke out in Eritrea in 1961,[6] Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie banned the Eritrean flag, coat of arms, and all other government seals from public places. He annexed Eritrea in 1962 with the approval of the United Nations.[3]

The Eritrean People's Liberation Front fought for the country's independence, and in January 1977, the party adopted its own official flag. The current flag of Eritrea bears resemblance to the party's official flag.[2] The flag had three triangles: red, blue, and green. The yellow star in the red triangle symbolised the country's rich mineral resources, with the five points representing unity, liberation, justice, democracy, and progress.[7] After Eritrea was proclaimed an independent nation, the flag was modified and its first official hoisting was performed on May 24, 1993.[2] In the red triangle, a gold wreath symbol with 14 leaves on each side, derived from the 1952 flag, replaced the gold star of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front's flag. In 1995 the number of leaves in the wreath were standardised. The 30 leaves symbolise the number of years spent in civil war before achieving independence. The flag's length to breadth ratio was changed from 2:3 to 1:2.[2]

The official currency of Eritrea's Nakfa coins issued in 1997 featured six native animals; on the reverse the coins showed a group of Eritrean People's Liberation Front's fighters raising the national flag and the slogan "Liberty, Equality and Justice" in English language.[8]

Description

The flag of Eritrea is dominated by a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist-side pointed toward the fly-side and then divided into two right triangles. The upper triangle is green and the lower triangle is blue with an Emblem (1952-1962) in gold (a vertical olive branch encircled by an olive wreath) centered on the hoist side of the triangle. The CIA World Factbook 2012 points out that the shape of the red triangle mimics the shape of the country.[9] Green stands for the agriculture and livestock of the country, blue for the sea (Red Sea), and red for the blood lost in the fight for freedom.[2]

Historical flags

References

  1. ^ "National Flag of Eritrea". Worldflags. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e Smith, Whitney (20 June 2014). "Flag of Eritrea". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  3. ^ a b Minahan 2013, p. 80.
  4. ^ Murtaza 1998, p. 73.
  5. ^ Connell & Killion 2010, p. 258.
  6. ^ The Diagram Group (2013). Encyclopedia of African Peoples. Routledge. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-135-96334-7.
  7. ^ Crampton, William (1989). The Complete Guide to Flags (p.132). Kingfisher Books. ISBN 0 86272 466 X
  8. ^ Connell & Killion 2010, p. 389.
  9. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2011). The CIA World Factbook 2012. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 1013. ISBN 978-1-61608-332-8.

Sources

External links