پاریس بزرگترین شهر اقتصادی اروپا و پنجمین شهر اقتصادی جهان از نظر سطح تولید ناخالص داخلی است. این شهر به تنهایی نزدیک به ۵۳۳ میلیارد یورو یعنی نزدیک به ۲۵٪ تولید ناخالص داخلی فرانسه را در دست دارد. پاریسیها با دارا بودن ۴۲٬۷۰۰ دلار تولید ناخالص سرانه رتبه اول را از این نظر در قاره اروپا را دارا هستند. دفتر مرکزی ۳۶ شرکت از ۵۰۰ شرکت برتر جهان در پاریس قرار دارد که پس از توکیو از این نظر رتبه دوم جهان را در اختیار دارد. منطقه «لا دفانس» در شهر پاریس به عنوان مهمترین مرکز اقتصادی اروپا شناخته میشود. این شهر میزبان شماری از برجستهترین سازمانهای بینالمللی همچون یونسکو، سازمان همکاری اقتصادی و توسعه و اتاق بازرگانی بینالمللی است.
جمعیت شهر پاریس حدود ۲٬۱۶۴٬۹۹۴ تن است. جمعیت منطقه شهری پاریس بالغ بر ۹٫۹۳ میلیون نفر بوده و جمعیت این شهر همراه حومه آن به حدود ۱۲ میلیون نفر میرسد و یکی از پر جمعیتترین شهرهای اروپا به شمار میرود.
پاریس از شناختهترین مقصدهای گردشگران جهان است. سالانه حدود ۴۵ میلیون نفر توریست از پاریس دیدن میکنند. تعداد زیادی از آثار دیدنی، موسسات و پارکهای مشهور جهان در این شهر قرار دارند. پاریس همچنین با دارا بودن ۴۷۸٬۰۰۰ درخت سرسبزترین پایتخت اروپا شناخته شده است.
پاریس دارای القاب متعدد زیادی است، اما مهمترین نام آن «شهر نور» (به فرانسوی: La Ville lumière) است. این نام هم به مرکزیت این شهر در زمینه علم و تحصیلات و هم به پر نور بودن این شهر در شبها برمیگردد.[نیازمند منبع]
اولین آثار زندگی و تمدن دائمی در مکان فعلی پاریس و حاشیه آن به ۴۲۰۰ سال قبل از میلاد بر میگردد. از حدود ۲۵۰ سال قبل از میلاد مسیح پاریزیها که شاخهای از تیره سلتها بوده و عمدتاً به شغل قایقرانی و تجارت اشتغال داشتند ساکن این مکان شدند. رومیها در حدود سال ۵۲ قبل از میلاد پاریس را تصرف کردند.
در زمان رومیها نام این شهر به «لوتشیا» تغییر کرد. در این عصر عمارتهای زیادی نظیر: سالنها، کاخها، حمامها، معابد، تئاترها و یک آمفی تئاتر در پاریس ساخته شد. تعدادی از این آثار از جمله حمام رومی و آمفی تئاتر هنوز پا برجاست. پس از پایان سلطه رومیها در قرن سوم و چهارم میلادی پاریس به شهر کوچکی تبدیل شد، اما پس از مدت کوتاهی توانست جایگاه سابق خود را بدست آورد.[نیازمند منبع]
در حدود سال ۴۰۰ میلادی پاریس پایتخت حکومت کلوویس یکم (امپراتور فرانکها) شد. پس از مرگ کلوویس امپراتوری فرانکها به چند قسمت تبدیل شد. در این دوره پاریس پایتخت یکی از این کشورها بود. در قرن نهم میلادی کشور فرانسه مورد هجوم وایکینگها قرار گرفت اما تنها بخش سمت چپ رود سن پاریس آسیب دید. در سال ۱۱۹۰، شاه فیلیپ دوم پاریس را در هر دو سمت رودخانه گسترش داد و دانشگاه پاریس، کاخ لوور و کلیسای نوتردام را گشایش کرد. پاریس پس از جنگهای ۱۰۰ سالهٔ فرانسه و انگلستان دوباره به عنوان پایتخت فرانسه برگزیده شد.
در زمان جنگهای مذهبی فرانسه و کشتار سن بارتلمی در زمان شارل نهم پاریس به عنوان قطب مذهب کاتولیک در اروپا مطرح شد. پس از تغییر سلطنت از خانواده والوا به بوربون در فرانسه و روی کار آمدن لویی چهاردهم مرکز سیاست فرانسه به ورسای که شهری در نزدیکی پاریس بود، جابجا شد؛ اما پاریس کانون بودن خود را از نظر جمعیت، هنر، فرهنگ، علم و آموزش نگهداشت کرد. یک سده بعد، در روند انقلابهای فرانسه و فتح زندان باستیل در سال ۱۷۸۹ و تبدیل حکومت سلطنتی به سلطنت مشروطه، لویی شانزدهم پادشاه آنزمان فرانسه به درخواست انقلابیون به پاریس نقل مکان کرد و پاریس دوباره به عنوان پایتخت فرانسه برگزیده شد.
با انقلاب صنعتی و ظهور امپراتوری دوم در فرانسه، پاریس بیشترین رشد را در تاریخ خود شاهد بود. در سال ۱۸۴۰ راهآهن پاریس به کار افتاد. در زمان ناپلئون سوم و شهرداری بارون هاوسمن تغییرات فاحشی در پاریس رخ داد. خیابانهای باریک تخریب و به خیابانهای زیبا و عریض تبدیل شدند. این تغییرات باعث زیباتر و مدرنتر شدن پاریس شد. در طول قرن نوزدهم، پاریس چهار دوره میزبان نمایشگاه جهانی بود که در آن کشورهای صنعتی آخرین پیشرفتهای علمی، صنعتی و هنری خود را به نمایش میگذاشتند.
درسالهای ۱۸۳۲ و ۱۸۴۹ بیماری وبا باعث مرگ و میر فراوانی در پاریس شد. تنها در سال ۱۸۳۲ در اثر شیوع این بیماری ۲۰٬۰۰۰ نفر از جمعیت ۶۵۰٬۰۰۰ نفری شهر جان خود را از دست دادند. همچنین در طول محاصرهٔ پاریس که باعث پایان جنگهای بین فرانسه و پروس شد، این شهر صدمات زیادی را متقبل گشت. علاوه بر این، درگیریهای مابین مردم و گروههای آزادیخواه با نیروهای دولتی طی سقوط دولت ناپلئون سوم در سال ۱۸۷۱ باعث کشته شدن بیش از ۲۰٬۰۰۰ نفر و به آتش کشیده شدن بسیاری از آثار و اماکن تاریخی در پاریس شد. این دوره در تاریخ فرانسه به «هفته خونین» مشهور است.
در سال ۱۸۸۹ به مناسبت بزرگداشت صدمین سال انقلاب فرانسه و نمایشگاه جهانی صنعت و تکنولوژی، یک برج تمام فلزی توسط مهندس مشهور فرانسوی گوستاو ایفل در مرکز پاریس ساخته شد. این برج که به برج ایفل مشهور است، ابتدا به عنوان یک بنای موقت ساخته شد، اما پس از پایان نمایشگاه پابرجا ماند و نماد زیبای دیگری به پاریس افزود. برج ایفل تا سال ۱۹۳۰ بلندترین برج جهان بود. متروی پاریس نیز همزمان با افتتاح نمایشگاه جهانی در سال ۱۹۰۰ گشایش یافت. برگزاری این نمایشگاه نماد مهمی از جایگاه برتر پاریس به عنوان قطب فناوری، توریستی و تجارت در جهان آن روز به شمار میرفت.
جنگ جهانی اول[ویرایش]
در جنگ جهانی اول شهر پاریس متحمل خسارات بسیاری شد، با این حال به خاطر اجتماعات هنری و فرهنگی خود و زندگی شبانه شهره بود. پس از پیروزی فرانسویها و بریتانیاییها در جنگ و امضای پیمان صلح، فعالیتهای فرهنگی و هنری در شهر مجدداً رونق سابق خود را بازیافت و پاریس به مکانی جذاب برای زندگی بزرگان هنر در جهان تبدیل شد. در این دوره هنرمندان بزرگی نظیر ایگور استراوینسکی آهنگساز روس، پابلو پیکاسو نقاش شهیر اسپانیایی، سالوادور دالی هنرمند بزرگ اسپانیایی و ارنست همینگوی نویسندهٔ مشهور آمریکایی در این شهر اقامت داشتند.
جنگ جهانی دوم[ویرایش]
پاریس تنها پنج هفته پس از ورود فرانسه به جنگ جهانی دوم در ژوئن ۱۹۴۰ توسط ارتش آلمان نازی اشغال شد، و تا اوت ۱۹۴۴ تحت اشغال نازیها بود. با وجود فتح پاریس بدست آلمانیها بسیاری از آثار تاریخی و فرهنگی پاریس از آسیب و صدمات در امان ماندند. از دلایل این امر میتوان عدم مواجههٔ آلمانها با مقاومت زیاد و عدم وجود اهداف استراتژیک برای بمباران در مرکز شهر بر میگردد.
پس از جنگ جهانی دوم[ویرایش]
دوره بعد از جنگ بزرگترین دوران توسعهٔ پاریس پس از دوران حکومت جمهوری سوم (تا ۱۹۱۴) بود. در این دوران احداث تراموای شهری و اتوبانهای مدرن در دستور کار قرار گرفت. علاوه بر آن اتوبان کمربندی عظیمی نیز به دور پاریس کشیده شد. شروع احداث منطقه اقتصادی لا دفانس نیز در این دوره رخ داد.
در دهه هفتاد صنایع بطور کامل از درون شهر خارج شدند و موسسات از شکل سنتی خود به شکلی مدرن تبدیل گشتند. رونق اقتصادی پاریس را به یکی از گرانترین نقاط شهری دنیا تبدیل کرد و پاریسیها نیز یکی از بالاترین درآمدهای سرانه اروپا را بدست آوردند. به خاطر این رشد سریع و ایجاد فاصله طبقاتی بین پاریس و حومه آن در طول دهه ۱۹۸۰، در طی سالهای اخیر تظاهرات و درگیریهای فراوانی بین ساکنان حومه پاریس و نیروهای دولتی صورت گرفته است، که از این جمله میتوان به تظاهرات گسترده حاشیهنشینان و مهاجران در سال ۲۰۰۵ اشاره کرد.
پاریس در زمینی بسیار هموار و صاف قرار گرفتهاست. ارتفاع شهر پاریس از سطح دریادر حدود ۳۵ متر است. ارتفاع پستترین نقطه پاریس از سطح دریا در حدود ۲۴ متر از سطح دریا و بلندترین نقطه آن که مونتمارتر نام دارد دارای ارتفاع ۱۳۰ متر از سطح دریاست. مساحت هستهٔ اصلی پاریس حدود ۱۰۵ کیلومتر مربع است، اما منطقهٔ شهری پاریس و حومهٔ آن در حدود ۱۴۵۷ کیلومتر مربع مساحت دارد که ۱۳۸ برابر هستهٔ اصلی شهر است. منطقهٔ شهری پاریس و حومه شامل چند شهر و تعداد زیادی روستا بوده که با توسعهٔ پاریس در دهههای گذشته بصورت قسمتی از شهر درآمدهاند. وسعت هسته اصلی شهر پاریس به جز دو پارک وسیع به نامهای پارک بولونی و پارک ونسن در حدود ۸۷ کیلومتر مربع است.
آب و هوا[ویرایش]
پاریس دارای آب و هوایی اقیانوسی است و تحت تأثیر جبهههای هوای اقیانوس اطلس شمالی قرار دارد.
متوسط دمای سالیانه پاریس ۱۵ درجه سانتیگراد است. بالاترین دمای ثبت شده در پاریس برابر ۴۰٫۴ درجه سانتیگراد بوده که در سال ۱۹۴۸ ثبت شده است. پایینترین دمای ثبت شده در این شهر نیز برابر ۲۳٫۹- درجه سانتیگراد بوده که در سال ۱۸۷۹ ثبت شده بوده است.
بارندگی در تمام طول سال در پاریس اتفاق میافتد. پاریس به خاطر بارانهای ناگهانیاش معروف است. متوسط میزان بارش سالانه در پاریس حدود ۶۴۱ میلیمتر است. بارش برف در این شهر به ندرت اتفاق میافتد، و در بیشتر موارد میزان بارش برف به حدی است که بیش از ۲۴ ساعت بر روی زمین باقی نمیماند.
پاریس مدرن امروزی حاصل تغییرات میانه سده ۱۹ میلادی است. برای قرنها پاریس دارای خیابانهای باریک و کم عرض بود، اما از سال ۱۸۵۲ با شروع عملیات بارون هاوسمن خیابانهای باریک به خیابانهای عریض تبدیل شدند. از این دوران تا به امروز ارتفاع ساختمانهای هر خیابان در پاریس با توجه به عرض آن خیابان انتخاب شدهاست. بسیاری از ساختمانهای قرن نوزدهم کماکان در پاریس پابرجا هستند و استفاده میشوند.
با توجه به وجود قوانین بسیار سخت برای ساخت و ساز و عدم اجازه برای ساخت ساختمانهای بلند بسیاری از موسسات نظیر موسسات تجاری، دانشگاهها، موسسات تحقیقاتی و وزارت خانهها به حاشیه شهر پاریس و بویژه منطقه لا دفانس انتقال یافتهاند.
بسیاری از ساختمانهای اداری پاریس که هنوز در محدوده مرکزی شهر قرار دارند قصد انتقال دفاتر خود را به حومه شهر و بویژه به منطقه لا دفانس دارند. منطقه اقتصادی دفنس میزبان دفاتر و مراکز مهم اداری، تجاری، اقتصادی و فرهنگی فرانسه و اروپا است. منطقه اقتصادی لا دفانس، دفاتر شرکتهای بزرگ تولید مواد غذایی درRungis، دانشگاههای مهمی چون دانشگاه پلی تکنیک پاریس، HEC, ESSEC, INSEAD و…، تعدادی از معروفترین آزمایشگاههای تحقیقاتی جهان (در منطقه سالکی و ایوری)، مجموعههای عظیم ورزشی نظیر استاد دو فرانس در سن دنی و بعضی از وزراتخانهها مانند وزارت حمل و نقل فرانسه در حومه پاریس قرار گرفتهاند. طبق اعلام مسئولین آرشیو ملی فرانسه نیز تا سال ۲۰۱۰ به حومه پاریس منتقل میشود.
نیاز به پاریسی بزرگتر از سوی دولتمردان فرانسوی نیز درک شده به طوری که این موضوع از سال ۲۰۰۷ در دستور کار قرار گرفته و نتیجه نهایی آن نیز در انتخابات بهار ۲۰۰۸ شورای شهر پاریس مشخص خواهد شد.
خیابانها، میدانها و محلات معروف پاریس[ویرایش]
بخش مرکزی شهر[ویرایش]
در طول انقلاب اول فرانسه و در دوره معروف به ترور، دستگاه گیوتین در این میدان نصب شده بود. سر بسیاری از مشاهیر آن دوره فرانسه نظیر لویی شانزدهم، ماری آنتوانت، ماکسیمیلیان ربسپیر و آنتوان لاوازیه در این میدان به زیر گیوتین رفتهاست.
در این میدان و در حاشیه خیابان رویال ساختمان وزارت بحریه فرانسه، هتل کریلیون و سفارت ایالات متحده آمریکا قرار دارد. در سوی دیگر میدان، باغ تویلری که به موزه لوور منتهی میشود، قرار گرفته است. یکی از اضلاع میدان کنکورد به میدان دیگری به نام وندوم متصل است در این میدان نیز هتلهای مجلل ریتز و وندوم و تعداد بسیار زیادی جواهر فروشی مجلل و معروف قرار دارد. علاوه بر این در این ۲ میدان سالنهای مد بسیاری از معروفترین طراحان لباس دنیا و شرکتهای مشهور مُد قرار دارند.
در مرکز این میدان ستون تاریخی ابلیسک قرار دارد. این ستون از سوی والی مصر، محمدعلی پاشا در زمان پادشاهی شارل دهم، به فرانسه هدیه شده است. قدمت این ستون ۳۳۰۰ سال بوده و به دوره رامسس دوم بازگشته و قدیمیترین اثر موجود در فضای شهری پاریس است.
عمارتها و بناهای مشهور و دیدنی پاریس[ویرایش]
معروفترین آثار شهر پاریس کلیسای قرن دوازدهمی نوتردام واقع در ایل دو لا سیته، برج ایفل و تاق نصرت پیروزی (تریومف) میباشند. برج ایفل ابتدا به صورت موقت جهت نمایشگاه جهانی سال ۱۸۸۹ توسط گوستاو ایفل بنا شد، اما با حفظ آن پس از این تاریخ امروزه در نزد جهانیان به عنوان نماد شهر پاریس شناخته میشود.
عمده بناهای مشهور پاریس در محدوده میدان شارل دوگل (میدان دلتوال سابق) واقع شدهاند. از جمله موزه لوور، باغ تویلری، خیابان شانز الیزه، تاق نصرت پیروزی (تریومف)، گراند پله، پتیت پله، میدان کنکورد و بسیاری آثار دیگر. بخش دیگری از این آثار که شامل بناهای مدرن و امروزی شهر پاریس میشوند در محدوده منطقه لا دفانس قرار گرفتهاند.
علاوه براین ۲ منطقه آثار متعدد فراوانی نیز در سرتاسر شهر پاریس وجود دارند. موزه انولید که مقبره بسیاری از سربازان و افتخارآفرینان فرانسه از جمله ناپلئون است، قلعه کونسیرژری که محل نگهداری لویی شانزدهم، ماری آنتوانت و خانواده سلطنتی فرانسه قبل از اعدام در جریان انقلاب بود، ۲ مجسمه ملقب به آزادی واقع در ایل دوسیژن و کاخ لوکزامبورگ که نمونه بزرگ آنها در سال ۱۸۸۶ از سوی ملت فرانسه به ملت آمریکا هدیه داده شد، بخش دیگری از این آثار دیدنی هستند.
اپرا گارنیه که درزمان امپراتوری دوم ساخته شده نیز از دیگر بناهای دیدنی شهر پاریس محسوب میشود. موزه لوور که امروزه یکی از مشهورترین موزههای جهان است نیز در بنای کاخ سابق لوور قرار دارد. دانشگاه سوربن نیز که بخش اصلی دانشگاه پاریس را تشکیل میدهد نیز در محله لاتین قرار گرفتهاست.
باغها ٫ پارکها و فضایسبز[ویرایش]
یکی از دو باغ قدیمی معروف پاریس باغ تویلری است که در قرن ۱۶ در حاشیه رود سن نزدیک کاخ لوور و در قسمت چپ باغ لوکزامبورگ ساخته شده است که برای کاخ خصوصی کاترین دو مدیچی ساخته شده است. دیگر باغ معروف پاریس باغ گیاهان است. این باغ به دستور دکتر گای دو لابروس پزشک مخصوص لویی سیزدهم برای پرورش گیاهان دارویی ساخته شد، و نخستین باغ عمومی پاریس است. قدمت دیگر باغهای بزرگ پاریس به دوران امپراتوری دوم بر میگردد. پارکهای بوت شامون، مونتسوری و مونسو که به وسیله ژان شارل آلفان، یکی از مهندسان ناپلئون سوم، ساخته شدهاند. دیگر پارکها به دستور بارون هاوسمن ساخته شدهاند که شامل پارک جنگلی بولوین و ونسن میشوند. از دیگر پارکهای بزرگ پاریس میتوان پارک دولاویل ساخته شده توسط آرشیتکت معروف برنارد شومی را نام برد. پاریس با دارا بودن ۴۷۵٬۰۰۰ درخت از ۱۲۰ گونه مختلف گیاهی سبزترین پایتخت اروپا است. در مجموع پاریس دارای بیش از ۴۰۰ پارک عمومی است.
ساخت گورستانهای امروزی پاریس به سال ۱۸۰۴ میلادی برمیگردد. تا قبل از این تاریخ هر یک از کلیساهای پاریس دارای یک گورستان اختصاصی بودند اما از اواخر قرن ۱۸ میلادی تصمیم به ساخت گورستانی واحد برای پاریس گرفتهشد. با توسعه شهر پاریس و پر شدن این گورستان، گورستانهای دیگری نیز جهت تدفین مردگان در حاشیه این شهر ساخته شد که از معروفترین آنها میتوان به گورستان مشهور پرلاشز، گورستان مون پارناس، گورستان مون مارتر و گورستان پاسی نام برد.
در قرن بیستم نیز بنا به توسعه این شهر گورستانهایی به آن افزوده شدند که میتوان به گورستان سن اوون، گورستان دیوری و گورستان باژنو نام برد.
تعدادی از گورستانهای پاریس ارزش تاریخی و فرهنگی بالایی دارند، از آن جمله میتوان از گورستان پرلاشز نام برد که آرامگاه بسیاری از مردان و زنان بزرگ جهان نظیر بالزاک، کلود برنارد، صادق هدایت، ادیت پیاف، غلامحسین ساعدی، اسکار وایلد، امیل زولا، مولیر و فردریک شوپن است نام برد. این گورستان به عنوان مشهورترین گورستان جهان شناخته میشود.
متروی پاریس در سال ۱۹۰۰ تأسیس شده و هماکنون دارای ۱۶ خط و ۳۰۳ ایستگاه میباشد. این مترو از قدیمیترین متروهای جهان محسوب میشود.
فرهنگ و هنر[ویرایش]
اپرا، تئاتر و موسیقی[ویرایش]
تئاتر به صورت سنتی جایگاه ویژهای در فرهنگ پاریسی دارد. گرچه امروزه بسیاری از بازیگران مشهور تئاتر، بازیگر تلویزیونهای فرانسوی نیز هستند. تعدادی از تئاترهای اصلی پاریس را میتوان به این ترتیب نامبرد:تئاتر اودئون، تئاتر بوبینو، تئاتر موگادور و تئاتر دولاگیته مون پارناس.
به طور کل در حدود ۱۴۳ سالن تئاتر در شهر پاریس وجود دارد.
بعضی از سالنهای تئاتر در پاریس، همزمان به عنوان سالن کنسرت نیز مورد بهرهبرداری قرار میگیرند. بسیاری از خوانندگان مشهور فرانسوی نظیر ادیت پیاف، موریس شوالیه، جورج براسون و شارل آزناوور شهرت خود را از اجرا در این سالنها کسب کردهاند.
سالن الیزه مون مارتر نیز امروزه به عنوان سالن کنسرت مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد. کلوب نیومورنینگ نیز یکی از ندرتاً کلوبهایی است که هنوز کنسرت جاز در آنها اجرا میشود.
سالن زنیت در پاریس، محله لاویه و استادیوم پارکومنی اسپورت در محله برسی نیز به عنوان محل اجرای کنسرتهای عظیم سبک راک مورد استفاده قرار میگیرند.
کافهها، رستورانها و کابارهها[ویرایش]
کافههای پاریس از دیرباز شهرت جهانی داشتهاند. این کافهها با فضای کوچک داخلی و صندلیهای چیده شده در کنار خیابان و قهوههای خوشطعم و کیکهای خوشمزه نظر هر رهگذری را به سمت خود جلب میکند. از کافههای معروف پاریس میتوان از کافه دولاپه، کافه دوماگوت و کافه فلور نام برد.
فرانسه به عقیده اکثر مردم جهان خوشمزهترین غذاهای دنیا را داراست، پس در نتیجه رستورانهای پاریسی نیز باید نمونه و نمودار کاملی از یک رستوران فرانسوی با غذاهای خوشطعم باشند. به همین خاطر است که پاریس رستورانهای درجهیک و عالی فراوانی دارد. به طور کل در حدود ۵۰۰۰ رستوران در پاریس به تهیه و طبخ غذا میپردازند.
تعدادی از رستورانهای معروف پاریس شهرت بینالمللی دارند که میتوان به تعدادی از آنها اشاره کرد: رستوران لالزاس، رستوران ماکسیم، رستوران پییر گاگز، رستوران لزامباسادور، رستوران لاتراس و رستوران ویکند.
به انتخاب «مجله رستوران» از ۵۰ رستوران برتر جهان در سال ۲۰۰۷ نه تا از این رستورانها در پاریس قراردارند.
کابارههای پاریس نیز در نزد جهانیان شهرت فراوانی دارند. در میان این کابارهها میتوان از کاباره قرن نوزدهمی «مولن روژ» نام برد. این کاباره بارها محل اجرای کنسرتهای بزرگانی همچون الویس پریسلی، فرانک سیناترا و لاتویا جکسون بوده است. این کاباره در محله مونتمارتر قرار دارد.
نایت کلابها و کابارههای مشهور دیگری نیز در پاریس واقع هستند که میتوان از: کاباره پاریس اولمپیا، فولی برگر، بوبینو، کریزی هورس، کلوب رکس، بودابار و کلوب جرج نام برد.
با توجه به تعداد بسیار زیاد توریستی که سالیانه به پاریس وارد میشوند پاریس نیز دارای تعداد زیادی هتل میباشد. بعضی از هتلهای پاریس شهرت جهانی دارند. این هتلها تاکنون میزبان مشاهیر و ثروتمندترین افراد جهان بودهاند.
هتل ریتز که در اواخر سده نوزدهم میلادی افتتاح شده است تاکنون میزبان مشاهیری چون ارنست همینگوی، ادوارد فیتزجرالد، مارسل پروست، ادوارد هفتم پادشاه انگلستان، مرلین دتریش، التون جان، رودولف والنتینو، چارلی چاپلین، ژان پل سارتر و گرتا گاربو بوده است.
هتل کریلیون نیز که در میدان کنکورد قرار دارد به عنوان یکی از معروفترین هتلهای لوکس جهان شناخته میشود. این هتل که دارای ۱۰۳ اتاق و ۴۴ سوئیت است در قرن هجدهم ساخته شده است. این هتل نیز محل اقامت مشاهیری چون وودرو ویلسون، تئودور روزولت، هربرت هوور و ریچارد نیکسون رئیسجمهوران آمریکا، جرج پنجم پادشاه انگلستان، حسن دوم پادشاه مراکش، امپراتور هیروهیتو امپراتور ژاپن، ژاکلین کندی، چارلی چاپلین، ارسن ولز، الیزابت تیلور، تیرون پاور، اکسل روز، آرنولد شوارتزنگر، ماریا کری و مادونا بوده است.
از دیگر هتلهای پاریس میتوان از هتل ۱۰۰۰ اتاقه کنکورد لافایت، هتل جرج پنجم، هتل کلونی، هتل کونتیننتال، هتل بریستول، هتل پلازا آتن، هتل لوتشیا و هتل رویال مونسو نامبرد.
با توجه به اینکه فرانسه دارای دومین صنعت سینما در جهان میباشد، توجه مردم این کشور به سینما امری طبیعی است. در سرتاسر فرانسه در حدود ۴۵۰۰ سالن سینما وجود دارد که ۳۷۵ عدد از این سینماها در پاریس واقعشده است.
بزرگترین سالن سینمای پاریس گراند رکس نام داشته که ۲۸۰۰ نفر ظرفیت دارد. امروزه مجموعههای عظیمی با تعداد زیادی سالن نمایش (در حدود ۱۰ تا ۲۰ سالن) در پاریس ساخته شده است.
جستار وابسته: فهرست موزههای پاریس
پاریس در گذشته نیز همیشه مقصدی برای تجار، دانشجویان و زائران مذهبی بوده است. اما صنعت توریسم در مقیاس بزرگ امروزی با ظهور راهآهن در سال ۱۸۴۸ در پاریس آغاز شد. اولین باری که پاریس به عنوان مقصد موردتوجه توریستها مورد نظر قرار گرفت به برگزاری نمایشگاه جهانی در سال ۱۸۵۵ بازمیگردد. برگزاری نمایشگاههای جهانی در پاریس عامل مؤثری در جذب توریست و توسعه در پاریس قرن نوزدهم بوده است. برج ایفل نیز حاصل نمایشگاه جهانی ۱۸۸۹ پاریس است. همچنین تلاشهای صورت گرفته در زمان امپراتوری دوم در پاریس و توسعه آن نقش بسزایی در توسعه توریسم در پاریس داشته است.
موزه لوور در پاریس سالیانه هشت میلیون توریست را به خود جذب میکند که به همین دلیل به عنوان پر بینندهترین موزه جهان شناخته میشود. کلیسای نوتردام با ۱۳ میلیون و کلیسای سکره کر با ۱۲ میلیون بازدید سالیانه توسط توریستها از دیگر قطبهای جذب توریست در پاریس هستند. برج ایفل نیز به عنوان مشهورترین اثر شهری پاریس سالانه به طور متوسط ۶٫۵ میلیون بازدید کننده دارد. این برج از زمان شروع به کار تاکنون بیش از ۲۳۰ میلیون بازدیدکننده را به خود جذب کرده است. دیزنیلند پاریس که پربینندهترین اثر توریستی قاره اروپا محسوب میشود نیز در پاریس قرار داشته و سالانه بیش از ۱۴٫۵ میلیون بازدیدکننده دارد.
پاریس با دارا بودن بیش از ۱۵۰ موزه سالانه میلیونها توریست خارجی را به سمت این موزهها جذب میکند. در این میان موزه لوور که به عنوان مشهورترین و بزرگترین موزه جهان شناخته میشود میزبان تعدادی از مشهورترین آثار تاریخی و هنری چهان است. از این جمله میتوان به تابلو مونالیزا یا لبخند ژوکوند اثر لئوناردو داوینچی، مجسمه مشهور ونوس اثر مشهور دوره یونان باستان مربوط به ۱۳۰ سال پیش از میلاد مسیح و آثار تمدنهای بزرگ بینالنهرین، ایران باستان و مصر باستان اشاره کرد. آثار پابلو پیکاسو در موزه پیکاسو و آثار آگوست رودین در موزه رودین در پاریس نگهداری میشود. مرکز ملی هنر و فرهنگ ژرژ پمپیدو نیز میزبان موزه ملی هنر مدرن است. انجمن هنری مون پارناس نیز دارای موزهای به نام موزه مون پارناس است. آثار هنری مربوط به دوره رونسانس و آثار هنری سبک امپرسیونیسم نیز در موزههای کلونی و اورسی نگهداری میشوند.
علاوه بر موزهها و ساختمانهای مشهور، مکانهایی همچون کابارهها، رستورانها، هتلها، پارکها، باغها و کاخهای مشهور پاریسی نیز از جمله نقاط توریستی پاریس محسوب میشوند و سالانه میلیونها توریست را از سراسر جهان به سمت خود جلب میکنند.
پاریس میزبان تیم فوتبال پاریس سن ژرمن (Paris Saint-Germain FC)، تیم بسکتبال پاریس بسکت ریسینگ (Paris Basket Racing) و تیم راگبی استات فرانسه (Stade Français) است.
ورزشگاه ۸۰٫۰۰۰ نفری و ۵ ستاره استاد دوفرانس نیز در پاریس قرار دارد. فینال مسابقات جام جهانی فوتبال ۱۹۹۸ و فینال مسابقات جام جهانی راگبی در سال ۲۰۰۷ در این ورزشگاه برگزار شده است. این ورزشگاه جهت انجام مسابقات فوتبال، راگبی و دو و میدانی مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد. این ورزشگاه سالانه میزبان بازیهای خانگی تیم ملی فوتبال و راگبی فرانسه و همچنین بازیهای باشگاهی این دو رشته است. همچنین فینال جام قهرمانان باشگاههای اروپا در سال ۲۰۰۶ نیز میان دو تیم بارسلونا و آرسنال در ورزشگاه استاد دو فرانس برگزار شد.
پاریس میزبان بازیهای المپیک تابستانی سالهای ۱۹۰۰ و ۱۹۲۴ و جامهای جهانی فوتبال ۱۹۳۸ و ۱۹۹۸ بوده است. همچنین مکان آغاز و پایان بزرگترین مسابقات دوچرخهسواری جهان یعنی تور دو فرانس در این شهر میباشد. همچنین سالانه مسابقات تنیس آزاد فرانسه (رولند گاروس) که یکی از ۴ گرانداسلم بزرگ تنیس در جهان است نیز در پاریس برگزار میشود. علاوه بر این مسابقات همچنین میتوان از مسابقات بینالمللی دو ماراتون پاریس، مسابقات تنیس مسترز پاریس، مسابقات اسبدوانی رپوبلیک و جام اسبدوانی گراند پریکس لارک تریومف نام برد.
مردم پاریس نیز به ورزش بسیار علاقهمند بوده و از امکانات ورزشی این شهر بهره میبرند در پاریس هزاران مجموعه کوچک و بزرگ عمومی و خصوصی ورزشی وجود دارد که از آن جمله میتوان به ۱۳۹ مجموعه ورزشی عمومی، ۳۷ استادیوم ورزشی، ۴۶ مجموعه زمینهای تنیس و ۳۷ مجموعه استخر اشاره کرد. علاوه بر این ۲۰٫۰۰۰ دوچرخه نیز در ۱٫۴۵۱ ایستگاه در اختیار مردم قرار دارد. در مجموع در پاریس بیش از ۳۷۰ کیلومتر مسیر اختصاصی دوچرخه موجود است.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
منابع و توضیحات[ویرایش]
Paris (locally [pɑʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and a population of 2,229,621 in 2015 within its administrative limits. The city is both a commune and department and forms the centre and headquarters of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an area of 12,012 square kilometres (4,638 square miles) and a population in 2016 of 12,142,802, comprising roughly 18 percent of the population of France. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion (US $687 billion) in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France.
Around its historical heart, the small Île de la Cité, the City of Paris stretches on both sides of the Seine River, which divides it into two parts: the Rive Gauche (Left Bank, south) and Rive Droite (Right Bank, north). The city proper is but the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. Commonly referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine (a measure of urban area), the agglomeration has a 2013 population of 10,601,122, which makes it the largest in the European Union. City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de Paris (a measure of metropolitan area), that had a 2013 population of 12,405,426, a number one-fifth the population of France, and one that makes it, after London, the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union. Although joined in a single urban tissue, Paris' lack of administrative and economic cohesion with its suburbs has been a long-standing problem, but a 'Metropole of Grand Paris' initiative for municipal co-operation covering an 814 square kilometres (314 square miles) area and a population of 7 million, exists since 2016.
The city is also a major rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport in Europe after London Heathrow Airport with 63.8 million passengers in 2014) and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.
Paris has many important cultural institutions: its Louvre museum is the most visited in the world; its Musée d'Orsay is noted for its collection of French Impressionist art, and its Pompidou-center Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. In 2017, the European Commission ranked it as the most "Culturally Vibrant City" in the EU. The central area of the city along the Seine River is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site and includes many notable monuments, including Notre Dame Cathedral and Sainte-Chapelle on Île de la Cité, the Grand Palais, Petit Palais and Eiffel Tower (remnants of Universal Expositions held in Paris) and the Louvre and the adjacent Tuileries Garden. Other notable monuments include the Arc de Triomphe just to the west of the centre and the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur in Montmartre. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the world's top tourist destinations.
The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics. The 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, and the 1960, 1984, and 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held in the city, and every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes in the city.
Paris is often referred to as "The City of Light" (La Ville Lumière), both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment, and more literally because Paris was one of the first European cities to adopt gas street lighting. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam(e) (pronounced [panam]) in French slang.
The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; this meeting place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town and an important trading centre. The Parisii traded with many river towns as far away as the Iberian Peninsula, and minted their own coins for that purpose.
The Romans conquered the Paris Basin in 52 BC and, after making the island a garrison camp, began extending their settlement in a more permanent way to Paris's Left Bank. The Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia (more fully, Lutetia Parisiorum, "Lutetia of the Parisii"). It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre.
By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would later become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum (Latin "Hill of Martyrs"), later "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city; the place where he fell and was buried became an important religious shrine, the Basilica of Saint-Denis, and many French Kings are buried there.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. A gradual immigration by the Franks also occurred in Paris in the beginning of the Frankish domination of Gaul which created the Parisian Francien dialects. Fortification of the Île-de-France failed to prevent sacking by Vikings in 845 but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86). In 987 Hugh Capet, Count of Paris (comte de Paris), Duke of the Franks (duc des Francs) was elected King of the Franks (roi des Francs). Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.
Middle Ages to Louis XIV
By the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France. The Palais de la Cité, the royal residence, was located at the western end of the Île de la Cité. In 1163, during the reign of Louis VII, Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris, undertook the construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral at its eastern extremity.
Paris' cultural centre had begun to move to the right bank, after the draining of its former swampland made the land habitable and fit for crops. In 1137, a new city marketplace (where Les Halles is today) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la Cité and Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville). The latter location housed the headquarters of Paris' river trade corporation, an organisation that later became, unofficially (although formally in later years), Paris' first municipal government.
In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between 1190 and 1215, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares. In 1190, he transformed Paris' former cathedral school into a student-teacher corporation that would become the University of Paris and would draw students from all of Europe.
During the Hundred Years' War, Paris was occupied by England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry V of England entered the French capital in 1420; in spite of a 1429 effort by Joan of Arc to liberate the city, it would remain under English occupation until 1436.
In the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, Paris was a Catholic League stronghold, the organisers of the 24 August 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre that killed thousands of French Protestants. The conflicts ended when crown-pretendant Henry IV, after converting to Catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 to claim the crown of France. This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris' first uncovered, sidewalk-doted bridge, the Pont Neuf, built a Louvre extension that connected it the Tuileries Palace, and created the first Paris residential square, the Place Royale, now Place des Vosges. The king would end his life in the capital, assassinated in a narrow street by Les Halles marketplace in 1610.
During the 17th century, Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of Louis XIII, was determined to make Paris the most beautiful city in Europe. He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII. After Richelieu's death in 1642, it was the renamed as the Palais-Royal.
Due to the Parisian uprisings during the Fronde civil war, Louis XIV moved his court to a new palace, Versailles, in 1682. Although no longer the capital of France, arts and sciences in the city flourished with the Comédie-Française, the Academy of Painting, and the French Academy of Sciences. To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands Boulevards of today. Other marks of his reign were the Collège des Quatre-Nations, the Place Vendôme, the Place des Victoires, and Les Invalides.
18th and 19th centuries
Paris grew in population from about 400,000 in 1640 to 650,000 in 1780. A new boulevard, the Champs-Élysées, extended the city west to Étoile, while the working-class neighbourhood of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine on the eastern site of the city grew more and more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of France.
Paris was the centre of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment. Diderot and d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie in 1751–52, and the Montgolfier Brothers launched the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la Muette. Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing, fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.
In the summer of 1789, Paris became the centre stage of the French Revolution. On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides, acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority.
Louis XVI and the royal family were brought to Paris and made prisoners within the Tuileries Palace. In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined, along with more than 16,000 others (throughout France), during the Reign of Terror. The property of the aristocracy and the church was nationalised, and the city's churches were closed, sold or demolished. A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris until 9 November 1799 (coup d'état du 18 brumaire), when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul.
The population of Paris had dropped by 100,000 during the Revolution, but between 1799 and 1815, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000. Napoleon Bonaparte replaced the elected government of Paris with a prefect reporting only to him. He began erecting monuments to military glory, including the Arc de Triomphe, and improved the neglected infrastructure of the city with new fountains, the Canal de l'Ourcq, Père Lachaise Cemetery and the city's first metal bridge, the Pont des Arts.
During the Restoration, the bridges and squares of Paris were returned to their pre-Revolution names, but the July Revolution of 1830 in Paris, (commemorated by the July Column on Place de la Bastille), brought a constitutional monarch, Louis Philippe I, to power. The first railway line to Paris opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city.
Louis-Philippe was overthrown by a popular uprising in the streets of Paris in 1848. His successor, Napoleon III, and the newly appointed prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, launched a gigantic public works project to build wide new boulevards, a new opera house, a central market, new aqueducts, sewers, and parks, including the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. In 1860, Napoleon III also annexed the surrounding towns and created eight new arrondissements, expanding Paris to its current limits.
During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Paris was besieged by the Prussian army. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January 1871. On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the Paris Commune seized power in Paris. The Commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody Week" at the end of May 1871.
Late in the 19th century, Paris hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition, was held to mark the centennial of the French Revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which gave Paris the Pont Alexandre III, the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais and the first Paris Métro line. Paris became the laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) and Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire and Paul Verlaine), and of Impressionism in art (Courbet, Manet, Monet, Renoir).
20th and 21st centuries
By 1901, the population of Paris had grown to 2,715,000. At the beginning of the century, artists from around the world, including Picasso, Modigliani, and Matisse made Paris their home. It was the birthplace of Fauvism, Cubism and abstract art, and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches to literature.
During the First World War, Paris sometimes found itself on the front line; 600 to 1,000 Paris taxis played a small but highly important symbolic role in transporting 6,000 soldiers to the front line at the First Battle of the Marne. The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns. In the years after the war, known as Les Années Folles, Paris continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the world, including Ernest Hemingway, Igor Stravinsky, James Joyce, Josephine Baker, Sidney Bechet and the surrealist Salvador Dalí.
In the years after the peace conference, the city was also home to growing numbers of students and activists from French colonies and other Asian and African countries, who later became leaders of their countries, such as Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai and Léopold Sédar Senghor.
On 14 June 1940, the German army marched into Paris, which had been declared an "open city". On 16–17 July 1942, following German orders, the French police and gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews, including 4,115 children, and confined them during five days at the Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver), from which they were transported by train to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. None of the children came back. On 25 August 1944, the city was liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division and the 4th Infantry Division of the United States Army. General Charles de Gaulle led a huge and emotional crowd down the Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris, and made a rousing speech from the Hôtel de Ville.
In the 1950s and the 1960s, Paris became one front of the Algerian War for independence; in August 1961, the pro-independence FLN targeted and killed 11 Paris policemen, leading to the imposition of a curfew on Muslims of Algeria (who, at that time, were French citizens). On 17 October 1961, an unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine. The anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS), for their part, carried out a series of bombings in Paris throughout 1961 and 1962.
In May 1968, protesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter. Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority. The May 1968 events in France resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 independent campuses.
In 1975, the National Assembly changed the status of Paris to that of other French cities and, on 25 March 1977, Jacques Chirac became the first elected mayor of Paris since 1793. The Tour Maine-Montparnasse, the tallest building in the city at 57 storeys and 210 metres (689 feet) high, was built between 1969 and 1973. It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high.
The population of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 in 1954 to 2,152,000 in 1990, as middle-class families moved to the suburbs. A suburban railway network, the RER (Réseau Express Régional), was built to complement the Métro, and the Périphérique expressway encircling the city, was completed in 1973.
Most of the postwar's presidents of the Fifth Republic wanted to leave their own monuments in Paris; President Georges Pompidou started the Centre Georges Pompidou (1977), Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began the Musée d'Orsay (1986); President François Mitterrand, in power for 14 years, built the Opéra Bastille (1985–1989), the Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996), the Arche de la Défense (1985–1989), and the Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989); Jacques Chirac (2006), the Musée du quai Branly.
In the early 21st century, the population of Paris began to increase slowly again, as more young people moved into the city. It reached 2.25 million in 2011. In March 2001, Bertrand Delanoë became the first socialist mayor of Paris. In 2007, in an effort to reduce car traffic in the city, he introduced the Vélib', a system which rents bicycles for the use of local residents and visitors. Bertrand Delanoë also transformed a section of the highway along the left bank of the Seine into an urban promenade and park, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine, which he inaugurated in June 2013.
In 2007, President Nicolas Sarkozy launched the Grand Paris project, to integrate Paris more closely with the towns in the region around it. After many modifications, the new area, named the Metropolis of Grand Paris, with a population of 6.7 million, was created on 1 January 2016.
In 2011, the City of Paris and the national government approved the plans for the Grand Paris Express, totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines to connect Paris, the innermost three departments around Paris, airports and high-speed rail (TGV) stations, at an estimated cost of €35 billion. The system is scheduled to be completed by 2030.
On 7 January 2015, two French Muslim extremists attacked the Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo and killed thirteen people, in an attack claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and on 9 January, a third terrorist, who claimed he was part of ISIS (also called ISIL or 'Daesh'), killed four hostages during an attack at a Jewish grocery store at Porte de Vincennes. On 11 January an estimated 1.5 million people marched in Paris–along with international political leaders–to show solidarity against terrorism and in defence of freedom of speech. Ten months later, 13 November 2015, came a series of coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis claimed by the 'Islamic state' organisation ISIL ('Daesh', ISIS); 130 people were killed by gunfire and bombs, and more than 350 were injured.
On 3 February 2017, an attacker tried to stab soldiers guarding the Louvre after he was refused admission with the two bags he was carrying, reportedly saying 'Allahu Akbar', and was shot. Later searches found no explosives in the bags (see Louvre machete attack). On 18 March 2017, a man held up patrons of a bar in Vitry-sur-Seine, then held a gun to the head of a French soldier at Orly Airport, the second-largest airport in the Paris metro area, shouting "I am here to die in the name of Allah", and was shot dead by the soldier's comrades (see March 2017 Île-de-France attacks). On 20 April 2017, a man shot dead French police officer Xavier Jugelé on the Champs-Élysées, and was later shot dead himself (see April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack). On June 19, 2017, a man rammed his car into a police van on the Champs-Élysées, with a car containing weapons and explosives powerful enough to blow up the car.
Paris is located in northern central France. By road, it is 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London, 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais, 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels, 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille, 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes, and 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of Rouen. Paris is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine and includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city.
The river's mouth on the English Channel (La Manche) is about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from the city. The city is spread widely on both banks of the river. Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest point is 35 m (115 ft) above sea level. Paris has several prominent hills, the highest of which is Montmartre at 130 m (427 ft). Montmartre gained its name from the martyrdom of Saint Denis, first bishop of Paris, atop the Mons Martyrum, "Martyr's mound", in 250.
Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, Paris covers an oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) in area, enclosed by the 35 km (22 mi) ring road, the Boulevard Périphérique. The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also created the 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to about 105 km2 (41 sq mi). The metropolitan area of the city is 2,300 km2 (890 sq mi).
Paris has a typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb ) which is affected by the North Atlantic Current. The overall climate throughout the year is mild and moderately wet. Summer days are usually warm and pleasant with average temperatures between 15 and 25 °C (59 and 77 °F), and a fair amount of sunshine. Each year, however, there are a few days when the temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F). Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur, such as the heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) for weeks, reached 40 °C (104 °F) on some days and seldom cooled down at night.
Spring and autumn have, on average, mild days and fresh nights but are changing and unstable. Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently in both seasons. In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are cool, nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F). Light night frosts are however quite common, but the temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) for only a few days a year. Snow falls every year, but rarely stays on the ground. The city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulation.
Paris has an average annual precipitation of 652 mm (25.7 in), and experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout the year. However the city is known for intermittent abrupt heavy showers. The highest recorded temperature is 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) on 28 July 1947, and the lowest is −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) on 10 December 1879.
For almost all of its long history, except for a few brief periods, Paris was governed directly by representatives of the king, emperor, or president of France. The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until 1974. The first modern elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac, elected 20 March 1977, becoming the city's first mayor since 1793. The current mayor is Anne Hidalgo, a socialist, elected 5 April 2014.
The mayor of Paris is elected indirectly by Paris voters; the voters of each arrondissement elect the Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris), composed of 163 members. Each arrondissement has a number of members depending upon its population, from 10 members for each of the least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) to 36 members for the most populated (the 15th). The elected council members select the mayor. Sometimes the candidate who receives the most votes citywide is not selected if the other candidate has won the support of the majority of council members. Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014) was elected by only a minority of city voters, but a majority of council members.
Once elected, the council plays a largely passive role in the city government; it meets only once a month. The current council is divided between a coalition of the left of 91 members, including the socialists, communists, greens, and extreme left; and 71 members for the centre right, plus a few members from smaller parties.
Each of Paris's 20 arrondissements has its own town hall and a directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement), which, in turn, elects an arrondissement mayor. The council of each arrondissement is composed of members of the Conseil de Paris and also members who serve only on the council of the arrondissement. The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population. There are a total of 20 arrondissement mayors and 120 deputy mayors.
The budget of the city for 2013 was €7.6 billion, of which €5.4 billion went for city administration, while €2.2 billion went for investment. The largest part of the budget (38 percent) went for public housing and urbanism projects; 15 percent for roads and transport; 8 percent for schools (which are mostly financed by the state budget); 5 percent for parks and gardens; and 4 percent for culture. The main source of income for the city is direct taxes (35 percent), supplemented by a 13-percent real estate tax; 19 percent of the budget comes in a transfer from the national government.
The number of city employees, or agents, grew from 40,000 in 2000 to 73,000 in 2013. The city debt grew from €1.6 billion in 2000 to 3.1 billion in 2012, with a debt of €3.65 billion expected for 2014. As a result of the growing debt, the bond rating of the city was lowered from AAA to AA+ in both 2012 and 2013. In September 2014, Mayor Hidalgo announced that the city would have budget shortfall of €400 million, largely because of a cut in support from the national government.
Métropole du Grand Paris
The Métropole du Grand Paris, or simply Grand Paris, formally came into existence on 1 January 2016. It is an administrative structure for co-operation between the City of Paris and its nearest suburbs. It includes the City of Paris, plus the communes or towns of the three departments of the inner suburbs ( Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne), plus seven communes in the outer suburbs, including Argenteuil in Val d'Oise and Paray-Vieille-Poste in Essonne, which were added to include the major airports of Paris. The Metropole covers 814 square kilometres (314 square miles) and has a population of 6.945 million persons.
The new structure is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210 members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the member Communes. By 2020 its basic competencies will include urban planning, housing and protection of the environment. The first president of the metropolitan council, Patrick Ollier, a Republican and the mayor of the town of Rueil-Malmaison, was elected on 22 January 2016. Though the Metropole has a population of nearly seven million persons and accounts for 25 percent of the GDP of France, it has a very small budget; just 65 million Euros, compared with eight billion Euros for the City of Paris.
The Region of Île de France, including Paris and its surrounding communities, is governed by the Regional Council, which has its headquarters in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is composed of 209 members representing the different communes within the region. On December 15, 2015, a list of candidates of the Union of the Right, a coalition of centrist and right-wing parties, led by Valérie Pécresse, narrowly won the regional election, defeating a coalition of Socialists and ecologists. The Socialists had governed the region for seventeen years. The regional council has 121 members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme right National Front.
As the capital of France, Paris is the seat of France's national government. For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. The President of the French Republic resides at the Élysée Palace in the 8th arrondissement, while the Prime Minister's seat is at the Hôtel Matignon in the 7th arrondissement. Government ministries are located in various parts of the city; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near the Matignon.
The two houses of the French Parliament are located on the Left Bank. The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. The President of the Senate, the second-highest public official in France (the President of the Republic being the sole superior), resides in the "Petit Luxembourg", a smaller palace annexe to the Palais du Luxembourg.
France's highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation, the highest court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité, while the Conseil d'État, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement. The Constitutional Council, an advisory body with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government decrees, also meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal.
Paris and its region host the headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris Club, the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau, and the International Federation for Human Rights.
Following the motto "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris"; the only sister city of Paris is Rome, although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around the world.
The security of Paris is mainly the responsibility of the Prefecture of Police of Paris, a subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior of France. It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the Paris Fire Brigade. Its headquarters is on Place Louis Lépine on the Île de la Cité.
There are 30,200 officers under the prefecture, and a fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles, including police cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters. In addition to traditional police duties, the local police monitors the number of discount sales held by large stores (no more than two a year are allowed) and verify that, during summer holidays, at least one bakery is open in every neighbourhood. The national police has its own special unit for riot control and crowd control and security of public buildings, called the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS), a unit formed in 1944 right after the liberation of France. Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events.
The police are supported by the National Gendarmerie, a branch of the French Armed Forces, though their police operations now are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. The traditional kepis of the gendarmes were replaced in 2002 with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions.
Crime in Paris is similar to that in most large cities. Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris and other French cities simultaneously. These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence.
Urbanism and architecture
Most French rulers since the Middle Ages made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war. In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map. At its origin, before the Middle Ages, the city was composed around several islands and sandbanks in a bend of the Seine; of those, two remain today: the île Saint-Louis, the île de la Cité; a third one is the 1827 artificially created île aux Cygnes.
Modern Paris owes much to its late 19th century Second Empire remodelling by the Baron Haussmann: many of modern Paris's busiest streets, avenues and boulevards today are a result of that city renovation. Paris also owes its style to its aligned street-fronts, distinctive cream-grey "Paris stone" building ornamentation, aligned top-floor balconies, and tree-lined boulevards. The high residential population of its city centre makes it much different from most other western global cities.
Paris's urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned. In recent developments, a 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised to 50 m (160 ft) in central areas and 180 metres (590 ft) in some of Paris's peripheral quarters, yet for some of the city's more central quarters, even older building-height laws still remain in effect. The 210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris and France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held by the La Défense quarter Tour First tower in Courbevoie since its 2011 construction.
A new project for La Défense, called Hermitage Plaza, launched in 2009, proposes to build two towers, 85 and 86 stories or 320 metres (1,050 feet) high, which would be the tallest buildings in the European Union, just slightly shorter than the Eiffel Tower. They were scheduled for completion in 2019 or 2020, but as of January 2015 construction had not yet begun, and there were questions in the press about the future of the project.
Parisian examples of European architecture date back more than a millennium; including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163); the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144), the Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345), the Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248), the Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) and Les Invalides (1670–1708). The 19th century produced the neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842); the Palais Garnier Opera House (1875); the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919), and the exuberant Belle Époque modernism of the Eiffel Tower (1889). Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano (1977), and the Louvre Pyramid by I.M. Pei (1989). Contemporary architecture includes the Musée du Quai Branly by Jean Nouvel (2006) and the new contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation by Frank Gehry (2014).
Paris is the fifth most expensive city in the world for luxury housing: €18,499 per square metre (€1,720/sq ft) in 2014. According to a 2012 study for the La Tribune newspaper, the most expensive street is the quai des Orfèvres in the 1st arrondissement, with an average price of €20,665 per square metre (€1,920/sq ft), against €3,900 per square metre (€360/sq ft) for rue Pajol in the 18th arrondissement.
The total number of residences in the city of Paris in 2011 was 1,356,074, up from a former high of 1,334,815 in 2006. Among these, 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences, 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent in 2006).
Paris urban tissue began to fill and overflow its 1860 limits from around the 1920s, and because of its density, it has seen few modern constructions since then. Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 and before, 20 percent were built between 1949 and 1974, and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.
Two-thirds of the city's 1.3 million residences are studio and two-room apartments. Paris averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent for the entire Île-de-France): the major part of the city's population is a rent-paying one.
Social housing represents a little more than 17 percent of the city's total residences, but these are rather unevenly distributed throughout the capital: the vast majority of these are concentrated in a crescent formed by Paris's south-western to northern periphery arrondissements.
In 2012 the Paris agglomeration (urban area) counted 28,800 people without a fixed residence, an increase of 84 percent since 2001; it represents 43 percent of the homeless in all of France. Forty-one percent were women, and 29 percent were accompanied by children. Fifty-six percent of the homeless were born outside France, the largest number coming from Africa and Eastern Europe. The city of Paris has sixty homeless shelters, called Centres d'hébergement et de réinsertion sociale or CHRS, which are funded by the city and operated by private charities and associations.
Paris and its suburbs
Aside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes and Paris heliport, Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860. The Seine département had been governing Paris and its suburbs since its creation in 1790, but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to govern as a unique entity. This problem was 'resolved' when its parent "District de la région parisienne" (Paris region) was reorganised into several new departments from 1968: Paris became a department in itself, and the administration of its suburbs was divided between the three departments surrounding it. The Paris region was renamed "Île-de-France" in 1977, but the "Paris region" name is still commonly used today. Long-intended measures to unite Paris with its suburbs began on January 1, 2016, when the Métropole du Grand Paris came into existence.
Paris's disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth. Paul Delouvrier promised to resolve the Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of the Paris region in 1961: two of his most ambitious projects for the Region were the construction of five suburban villes nouvelles ("new cities") and the RER commuter train network. Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a rapidly expanding population: these districts were socially mixed at first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible to the middle classes only from the 1970s). Their poor construction quality and their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities.
These areas, quartiers sensibles ("sensitive quarters"), are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d'Or and Belleville neighbourhoods. To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d'Oise department. Other difficult areas are located in the Seine valley, in Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne), in Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines), and scattered among social housing districts created by Delouvrier's 1961 "ville nouvelle" political initiative.
The Paris agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. The remaining areas are mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due to reasons of historical importance, namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés to the east and Enghien-les-Bains to the north of Paris.
The population of Paris in its administrative city limits was 2,241,346 in January 2014. This makes Paris the fifth largest municipality in the European Union, following London, Berlin, Madrid and Rome. Eurostat, the statistical agency of the EU, places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) and ahead of Berlin (3.5 million), based on the 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls "urban audit core cities". The Paris Urban Area, or "unité urbaine", is a statistical area created by the French statistical agency INSEE to measure the population of built-up areas around the city. It is slightly smaller than the Paris Region. According to INSEE, the Paris Urban Area had a population of 10,550,350 at the January 2012 census, the most populous in the European Union, and third most populous in Europe, behind Istanbul and Moscow. The Paris Metropolitan Area is the second most populous in the European Union after London with a population of 12,341,418 at the Jan. 2012 census.
The population of Paris today is lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921. The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city's population loss came to an end in the 21st century; the population estimate of July 2004 showed a population increase for the first time since 1954, and the population reached 2,234,000 by 2009.
According to Eurostat, the EU statistical agency, in 2012 the Commune of Paris was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21,616 people per square kilometre within the city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area), ahead of Inner London West, which had 10,374 people per square kilometre. According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, had population densities of over ten thousand people per square kilometre, ranking among the ten most densely populated areas of the EU.
According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City of Paris, or 26.2 percent, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France), or 23.4 percent, were born outside of Metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% at the 2007 census).
26,700 of these in the City of Paris and 210,159 in the Paris Region were people born in Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom in the French West Indies) and are therefore not counted as immigrants since there are legally French citizens at birth.
A further 103,648 in the City of Paris and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth. This concerns in particular the many Christians and Jews from North Africa who moved to France and Paris after the times of independence and are not counted as immigrants due to their being born French citizens.
The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law. According to the 2012 census, 135,853 residents of the city of Paris were immigrants from Europe, 112,369 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 5,059 from Turkey, 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey), 38,858 from the Americas, and 1,365 from the South Pacific. Note that the immigrants from the Americas and the South Pacific in Paris are vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in these regions of the world.
In the Paris Region, 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe, 627,078 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 69,338 from Turkey, 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey), 113,363 from the Americas, and 2,261 from the South Pacific. These last two groups of immigrants are again vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in the Americas and the South Pacific.
In 2012, there were 8,810 British citizens and 10,019 US citizens living in the City of Paris (Ville de Paris), and 20,466 British citizens and 16,408 US citizens living in the entire Paris Region (Île-de-France).
According to a 2011 survey by IFOP, a French public opinion research organisation, 61 percent of residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves as Roman Catholic, though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics, while 46 percent were non-practicing. In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, two percent as Jewish, and 25 percent as without religion.
According to INSEE, the French government statistical office, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominately Muslim country, particularly Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. An IFOP survey in 2008 reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion.
In 2012, Dalil Boubakeur, the Rector of the Grand Mosque of Paris and former President of the French Council of the Muslim Faith, estimated that there were 500,000 Muslims in the city of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de-France region, and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France.
The Jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in 2014 to be 282,000, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel and the United States.
The economy of the City of Paris is today is based largely on services and commerce; of the 390,480 enterprises in the city, 80.6 percent are engaged in commerce, transportation, and diverse services, 6.5 percent in construction, and just 3.8 percent in industry. The story is similar in the Paris Region, or Île-de-France. 76.7 percent of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percent in industry.
At the 2012 census, 59.5% of jobs in the Paris Region were in market services (12.0% in wholesale and retail trade, 9.7% in professional, scientific, and technical services, 6.5% in information and communication, 6.5% in transportation and warehousing, 5.9% in finance and insurance, 5.8% in administrative and support services, 4.6% in accommodation and food services, and 8.5% in various other market services), 26.9% in non-market services (10.4% in human health and social work activities, 9.6% in public administration and defence, and 6.9% in education), 8.2% in manufacturing and utilities (6.6% in manufacturing and 1.5% in utilities), 5.2% in construction, and 0.2% in agriculture.
The Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees in 2010, of whom 2.2 million were concentrated in 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts. The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires; it is in the western part of the City of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements. In 2010, it was the workplace of 500,000 salaried employees, about thirty percent of the salaried employees in Paris and ten percent of those in the Île-de-France. The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance (16 percent of employees in the district) and business services (15 percent). The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries.
The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense, just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. In 2010, it was the workplace of 144,600 employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services. Two other important districts, Neuilly-sur-Seine and Levallois-Perret, are extensions of the Paris business district and of La Défense. Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology.
The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2015 all have their headquarters in the Paris Region; six in the central business district of the City of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de-Seine Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt. Some companies, like Société Générale, have offices in both Paris and La Défense.
The Paris Region is France's leading region for economic activity, with a 2014 GDP of €650 billion (US$865 billion). In 2011, its GDP ranked second among the regions of Europe and its per-capita GDP was the 4th highest in Europe. While the Paris region's population accounted for 18.8 percent of metropolitan France in 2011, the Paris region's GDP accounted for 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDP. In 2015, it hosts the world headquarters of 29 of the 31 Fortune Global 500 companies located in France.
The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries (finance, IT services, etc.) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc.). The Paris region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de-Seine department and suburban La Défense business district places Paris's economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine. While the Paris economy is dominated by services, and employment in manufacturing sector has declined sharply, the region remains an important manufacturing centre, particularly for aeronautics, automobiles, and "eco" industries.
In a 2015 worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit, Paris ranked as the world's second most expensive city. In the survey, it is joined among the most expensive European cities by Oslo, Zürich, Geneva and Copenhagen. The ranking compares more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, and is designed to calculate cost-of-living allowances and build compensation packages for expatriates and business travellers.
According to 2012 INSEE figures, 68 percent of employees in the City of Paris work in commerce, transportation, and services; 24.4 percent in public administration, health and social services; 4.4 percent in industry, and 0.1 percent in agriculture.
The majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements. Paris's financial service companies are concentrated in the central-western 8th and 9th arrondissement banking and insurance district. Paris's department store district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ 10 percent of mostly female Paris workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail trade. Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals. Nineteen percent of Paris employees work for the State in either in administration or education. The majority of Paris's healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements. Outside Paris, the western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising in finance, insurance and scientific research district, employs 144,600, and the north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms and 10 major film studios.
Paris's manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades. Paris region manufacturing specialises in transportation, mainly automobiles, aircraft and trains, but this is in a sharp decline: Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped by 64 percent between 1990 and 2010, and the Paris region lost 48 percent during the same period. Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. The Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000. Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers: many of these are centred in the Yvelines department around the Renault and PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but the industry as a whole suffered a major loss with the 2014 closing of a major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plant.
The southern Essonne department specialises in science and technology, and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne, with its wholesale Rungis food market, specialises in food processing and beverages. The Paris region's manufacturing decline is quickly being replaced by eco-industries: these employ about 100,000 workers. In 2011, while only 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, in an activity centred largely around the Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378) and Hauts-de-Seine (37,303) departments and the new business-park centres appearing there.
The average net household income (after social, pension and health insurance contributions) in Paris was €36,085 for 2011. It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissement to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement. The median taxable income for 2011 was around €25,000 in Paris and €22,200 for Île-de-France. Generally speaking, incomes are higher in the Western part of the city and in the western suburbs than in the northern and eastern parts of the urban area. Unemployment was estimated at 8.2 percent in the city of Paris and 8.8 percent in the Île-de-France region in the first trimester of 2015. It ranged from 7.6 percent in the wealthy Essonne department to 13.1 percent in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, where many recent immigrants live.
While Paris has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city. In 2012, 14 percent of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th. In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement.
Tourism in Paris continued to suffer in 2016, after two terrorist attacks in Paris in 2015 and an attack in Nice in 2016. The number of foreign visitors in Grand Paris (Paris plus the three surrounding departments) dropped by ten percent in 2016. The largest drops were in tourists from Japan (46.9 percent), Russia (35.5 percent), Italy (31.9 percent), and China (17.9 percent). The drops were particularly noticeable in the city's museums, especially the Louvre, where 70 percent of the visitors are from abroad. Attendance at the Louvre dropped by 15 percent in 2016: 61 percent fewer Japanese visitors, 47 percent fewer Brazilian visitors, and 31 percent fewer Chinese visitors. Similar drops were reported at the Musee d'Orsay (visitors down by 13 percent from 2015) and the Palace of Versailles (down by 15 percent).
Grand Paris received 22.2 million visitors in 2015 measured by hotel stays. The largest numbers of foreign tourists in 2015, measured by airport arrivals, came from the United States (1.8 million), the UK (1.08 million), Germany (725,000), Italy (622,000), and Spain (609,000). Arrivals from Russia numbered 211,000, while arrivals from the rest of Europe numbered 1 million. 746,000 visitors came from China, while 481,000 came from Japan. Arrivals from the Near and Middle East numbered 535,000. Arrivals from the Americas outside the US numbered 910,000, 395,000 arrived from Africa, and 1,065,000 arrived from Asia and Oceania excluding China and Japan.
In 2016, measured by the MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the third busiest airline destination in the world, with 18.03 million visitors, behind Bangkok (21.47 million) and London (19.88 million). According to the Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Grand Paris, or 12.4 percent of the total workforce, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transport, and leisure.
Monuments and attractions
The city's top tourist attraction was the Notre Dame Cathedral, which welcomed 13.6 million visitors in 2015. The Louvre museum had 7.3 million visitors in 2016, making it the most visited art museum in the world. The other top cultural attractions in Paris in 2015 were the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur (10 million visitors), the Eiffel Tower (6.917,000 visitors), the Centre Pompidou (3,060,000 visitors), and Musée d'Orsay (3,439,000 visitors). In the Paris region, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of the centre of Paris, was the most visited tourist attraction in France, with 13.4 million visitors in fiscal year 2016, though this was a drop of ten percent from visitors in fiscal year 2015.
The centre of Paris contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre as well as the Sainte-Chapelle; Les Invalides, where the tomb of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre. The banks of the Seine from the Pont de Sully to the Pont d'Iéna have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991. Other landmarks are laid out east to west along the historical axis of Paris, which runs from the Louvre through the Tuileries Garden, the Luxor Column in the Place de la Concorde, and the Arc de Triomphe, to the Grande Arche of La Défense.
Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis, in Seine-Saint-Denis, is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens. The Paris region hosts three other UNESCO Heritage sites: the Palace of Versailles in the west, the Palace of Fontainebleau in the south, and the medieval fairs site of Provins in the east.
As of 2013[update] the City of Paris had 1,570 hotels with 70,034 rooms, of which 55 were rated five-star, mostly belonging to international chains and mostly located close to the centre and the Champs-Élysées. Paris has long been famous for its grand hotels. The Hotel Meurice, opened for British travellers in 1817, was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris. The arrival of the railways and the Paris Exposition of 1855 brought the first flood of tourists and the first modern grand hotels; the Hôtel du Louvre (now an antiques marketplace) in 1855; the Grand Hotel (now the Intercontinental LeGrand) in 1862; and the Hôtel Continental in 1878. The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde in 1909; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1925; and the Hotel George V in 1928.
Painting and sculpture
For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art". Italian artists were a profound influence on the development of art in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in sculpture and reliefs. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque and Classicism era. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this period. In 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) was established to accommodate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. This served as France's top art school until 1793.
Paris was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when it had a colony of artists established in the city and in art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times: Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others. The French Revolution and political and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Gericault. Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism and Art Deco movements all evolved in Paris. In the late 19th century, many artists in the French provinces and worldwide flocked to Paris to exhibit their works in the numerous salons and expositions and make a name for themselves. Artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani and many others became associated with Paris. Picasso, living in Montmartre, painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 and 1907. Montmartre and Montparnasse became centres for artistic production.
The most prestigious names of French and foreign sculptors, who made their reputation in Paris in the modern era, are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty - Liberty Enlightening the World), Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel, Antoine Bourdelle, Paul Landowski (statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro) and Aristide Maillol. The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars.
The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris in 1825, and then developed the process with Louis Daguerre. The work of Étienne-Jules Marey in the 1880s contributed considerably to the development of modern photography. Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard. Numerous photographers achieved renown for their photography of Paris, including Eugène Atget, noted for his depictions of street scenes, Robert Doisneau, noted for his playful pictures of people and market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of the romantic vision of Paris), Marcel Bovis, noted for his night scenes, and others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Cartier-Bresson. Poster art also became an important art form in Paris in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Gavarni, and Alphonse Mucha.
The Louvre was the world's second-most visited art museum in 2016, with 7.3 million visitors. Its treasures include the Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and the Venus de Milo statue. With 3.44 million visitors, the Musée d'Orsay, in the former Orsay railway station, was the second-most visited museum in the city in 2016 with 3 million visitors. It displays French art of the 19th century, including major collections of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. The original building – a railway station – was constructed for the Universal Exhibition of 1900. Starkly apparent with its service-pipe exterior, the Centre Georges Pompidou, the third-most visited art museum in Paris, attracted 3.3 million visitors in 2016. Also known as Beaubourg, it houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. The Musée national du Moyen Âge, or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval art, including the famous tapestry cycle of The Lady and the Unicorn. The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. There are also notable museums devoted to individual artists, including the Picasso Museum the Rodin Museum, and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix.
Paris hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie at La Villette, attracted 2 million visitors in 2015, making it the fourth most popular national museum in the city. The National Museum of Natural History, on the Left Bank, attracted 1.88 million visitors in 2015, making it the fifth most popular Parisian national museum. It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections, and its Gallery of Evolution. The military history of France, from the Middle Ages to World War II, is vividly presented by displays at the Musée de l'Armée at Les Invalides, near the tomb of Napoleon. In addition to the national museums, run by the French Ministry of Culture, the City of Paris operates 14 museums, including the Carnavalet Museum on the history of Paris; Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; Palais de Tokyo; the House of Victor Hugo and House of Balzac, and the Catacombs of Paris. There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne.
The largest opera houses of Paris are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) and modern Opéra Bastille; the former tends toward the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern. In middle of the 19th century, there were three other active and competing opera houses: the Opéra-Comique (which still exists), Théâtre-Italien, and Théâtre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville). Philharmonie de Paris, the modern symphonic concert hall of Paris, opened in January 2015. Another musical landmark is the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, where the first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place in 1913.
Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. The oldest and most famous Paris theatre is the Comédie-Française, founded in 1680. Run by the French government, it performs mostly French classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal at 2 rue de Richelieu, next to the Louvre. of Other famous theatres include the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe, next to the Luxembourg Gardens, also a state institution and theatrical landmark; the Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse.
The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris institutions. The Moulin Rouge was opened in 1889. It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan. It helped make famous the singers Mistinguett and Édith Piaf and the painter Toulouse-Lautrec, who made posters for the venue. In 1911, the dance hall Olympia Paris invented the grand staircase as a settling for its shows, competing with its great rival, the Folies Bergère. Its stars in the 1920s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Later, Olympia Paris presented Edith Piaf, Marlene Dietrich, Miles Davis, Judy Garland, and the Grateful Dead. The Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers, including Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier, and Tino Rossi. Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946; and the Crazy Horse Saloon, featuring strip-tease, dance and magic, opened in 1951. A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly visitors to the city.
The first book printed in France, Epistolae ("Letters"), by Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza), was published in Paris in 1470 by the press established by Johann Heynlin. Since then, Paris has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature. Almost all the books published in Paris in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than French. Paris did not become the acknowledged capital of French literature until the 17th century, with authors such as Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Molière, Racine, several coming from the provinces, and the foundation of the Académie française. In the 18th century, the literary life of Paris revolved around the cafés and salons, and was dominated by Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pierre de Marivaux, and Beaumarchais.
During the 19th century, Paris was the home and subject for some of France's greatest writers, including Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Mérimée, Alfred de Musset, Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Alexandre Dumas, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant and Honoré de Balzac. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired the renovation of its setting, the Notre-Dame de Paris. Another of Victor Hugo's works, Les Misérables, written while he was in exile outside France during the Second Empire, described the social change and political turmoil in Paris in the early 1830s. One of the most popular of all French writers, Jules Verne, worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library.[citation not found]
In the 20th century, the Paris literary community was dominated by Colette, André Gide, François Mauriac, André Malraux, Albert Camus, and, after World War II, by Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre; Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, and, in the 1970s, Milan Kundera. The winner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature, Patrick Modiano–who lives in Paris–, based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II and the 1960s–1970s.
Paris is a city of books and bookstores. In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas. It is also a city of small bookstores; There are about 150 bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another 250 book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price.
In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Among the Trouvères of northern France, a group of Parisian aristocrats became known for their poetry and songs. Troubadours, from the south of France, were also popular. During the reign of François I, in the Renaissance era, the lute became popular in the French court. The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established. In the Baroque-era, noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and François Couperin. The Conservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded in 1795. By 1870, Paris had become an important centre for symphony, ballet and operatic music. Romantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique), Charles Gounod (Faust), Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah), Léo Delibes (Lakmé) and Jules Massenet (Thaïs), among others. Georges Bizet's Carmen premiered 3 March 1875. Carmen has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon. Among the Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in particular, Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque, and its well-known third movement, Clair de lune, La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande), Erik Satie (Gymnopédies, "Je te veux", Gnossiennes, Parade) and Maurice Ravel (Miroirs, Boléro, La valse, L'heure espagnole). Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin (Poland), Franz Liszt (Hungary), Jacques Offenbach (Germany), Niccolò Paganini (Italy), and Igor Stravinsky (Russia), established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works and their influence in Paris.
Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city. Patrons danced the bourrée to the accompaniment of the cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called a "musette") and often the vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) in the cafés and bars of the city. Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement, and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city. Paris became a major centre for jazz and still attracts jazz musicians from all around the world to its clubs and cafés.
Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city. Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having moved to the 18th arrondissement in a caravan as a young boy, and performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette du Hot Club de France in the 1930s and 1940s.
Immediately after the War The Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou. They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, and Henri Salvador. Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll.
Some of the finest manouche musicians in the world are found here playing the cafés of the city at night. Some of the more notable jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord. Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, including the Paris Jazz Festival(fr) and the rock festival Rock en Seine. The Orchestre de Paris was established in 1967.
On December 19, 2015, Paris and other worldwide fans commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf—a French cabaret singer, songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France's national chanteuse, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars. Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, and Charles Trenet.
Paris has a big hip hop scene. This music became popular during the 1980s. The presence of a large African and Caribbean community helped to its development, it gave a voice, a political and social status for many minorities.
The movie industry was born in Paris when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the first motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895. Many of Paris's concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris's largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex theatre with 2,700 seats.
Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (réalisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, Jean-Luc Godard, and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris.
Restaurants and cuisine
Since the late 18th century, Paris has been famous for its restaurants and haute cuisine, food meticulously prepared and artfully presented. A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris restaurants. The restaurant Le Grand Véfour in the Palais-Royal dates from the same period. The famous Paris restaurants of the 19th century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were mostly located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola. Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris today appeared during the Belle Epoque, including Maxim's on Rue Royale, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, and the Tour d'Argent on the Quai de la Tournelle.
Today, thanks to Paris's cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants. The Michelin Guide has been a standard guide to French restaurants since 1900, awarding its highest award, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. In 2015, of the 29 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, nine are located in Paris. These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance, which combines French and Asian cuisines. Several of France's most famous chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire, Alain Ducasse, Yannick Alléno and Alain Passard, have three-star restaurants in Paris.
In addition to the classical restaurants, Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places. The café arrived in Paris in the 17th century, when the beverage was first brought from Turkey, and by the 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of the city's political and cultural life. The Café Procope on the Left Bank dates from this period. In the 20th century, the cafés of the Left Bank, especially Café de la Rotonde and Le Dôme Café in Montparnasse and Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots on Boulevard Saint Germain, all still in business, were important meeting places for painters, writers and philosophers. A bistro is a type of eating place loosely defined as a neighbourhood restaurant with a modest decor and prices and a regular clientele and a congenial atmosphere. Its name is said to have come in 1814 from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian, and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment. Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners. A brasserie originally was a tavern located next to a brewery, which served beer and food at any hour. Beginning with the Paris Exposition of 1867; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer. Now brasseries, like cafés, serve food and drinks throughout the day.
Paris has been an international capital of high fashion since the 19th century, particularly in the domain of haute couture, clothing hand-made to order for private clients. It is home of some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel, and of many well-known fashion designers, including Karl Lagerfeld, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Christophe Josse, and Christian Lacroix. Paris Fashion Week, held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre and other city locations, is among the top four events of the international fashion calendar, along with the fashion weeks in Milan, London and New York. Paris is also the home of the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oréal, and three of the five top global makers of luxury fashion accessories; Louis Vuitton, Hermés, and Cartier.
Holidays and festivals
Bastille Day, a celebration of the storming of the Bastille in 1789, the biggest festival in the city, is a military parade taking place every year on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées, from the Arc de Triomphe to Place de la Concorde. It includes a flypast over the Champs Élysées by the Patrouille de France, a parade of military units and equipment, and a display of fireworks in the evening, the most spectacular being the one at the Eiffel Tower.
Other yearly festivals are Paris-Plages, a festive event that lasts from mid-July to mid-August when the Right Bank of the Seine is converted into a temporary beach with sand, deck chairs and palm trees; Journées du Patrimoine, Fête de la Musique, Techno Parade, Nuit Blanche, Cinéma au clair de lune, Printemps des rues, Festival d'automne and Fête des jardins. Carnaval de Paris, one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages.
Paris is the département with the highest proportion of highly educated people. In 2009, around 40 percent of Parisians held a licence-level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France, while 13 percent have no diploma, the third lowest percentage in France.
Education in Paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions.
The University of Paris, founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the student demonstrations in 1968. Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs.[citation not found]
The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of the grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside the public university structure. The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands établissements. Most of the grandes écoles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crowded city of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure has remained on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement. There are a high number of engineering schools, led by the Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such as École Polytechnique, École des Mines, AgroParisTech, Télécom Paris, Arts et Métiers, and École des Ponts et Chaussées. There are also many business schools, including HEC, INSEAD, ESSEC, and ESCP Europe. The administrative school such as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg, the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris's 7th arrondissement and the most prestigious university of economics and finance, Paris-Dauphine, is located in Paris's 16th. The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Paris is also home to several of France's most famous high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri-IV, Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Condorcet. The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes.
The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library. There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. The Forney Library, in the Marais district, is dedicated to the decorative arts; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building, and has a large collection on French literature; and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, also in Le Marais, contains the Paris historical research service. The Sainte-Geneviève Library is in 5th arrondissement; designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the mid-1800s, it contains a rare book and manuscript division. Bibliothèque Mazarine, in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections related to music. The François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) in the 13th arrondissement was completed in 1994 to a design of Dominique Perrault and contains four glass towers.
There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. In addition to the Sorbonne location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques. Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library.
Like the rest of France, Paris has been predominantly Roman Catholic since the early Middle Ages, though religious attendance is now low. A majority of Parisians are still nominally Roman Catholic. According to 2011 statistics, there are 106 parishes and curates in the city, plus separate parishes for Spanish, Polish and Portuguese Catholics. There are an additional 10 Eastern Orthodox parishes, and bishops for the Armenian and Ukrainian Orthodox Churches. In addition there are eighty male religious orders and 140 female religious orders in the city, as well as 110 Catholic schools with 75,000 students.
The principal Roman Catholic church in Paris is the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, the seat of the Archbishop of Paris. There are two officially recognised pilgrimage sites in Paris: the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur de Montmartre and the Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal. Cardinal André Vingt-Trois became the Archbishop of Paris in March 2005.
Almost all Protestant denominations are represented in Paris, with 74 evangelical churches from various denominations, including 21 parishes of the United Protestant Church of France and two parishes of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints. There are several important churches for the English-speaking community: the American Church in Paris, founded in 1814, was the first American church outside the United States; the current church was finished in 1931. The Saint George's Anglican Church in the 16th arrondissement is the principal Anglican church in the city.
The Grand Mosque of Paris, the oldest mosque in Paris, was dedicated in 1926. It was funded by the French government and built to honour the 38,000 soldiers from Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco who died fighting for France in the First World War.
In 2011 there were nineteen large mosques within the city limits of Paris, all except the Grand Mosque located in the outer arrondissements of the city, as well as hundreds of small prayer rooms. The number of mosques doubled between 1991 and 2011.
During the Middle Ages, Paris was a centre of Jewish learning with famous Talmudic scholars, such as Yechiel of Paris who took part in the Disputation of Paris between Christian and Jewish intellectuals. The Parisian Jewish community was victim of persecution, alternating expulsions and returns, until France became the first country in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population during the French Revolution. Although 75% of the Jewish population in France survived the Holocaust during World War II, half the city's Jewish population perished in Nazi concentration camps, while some others fled abroad. A large migration of North Africa Sephardic Jews settled Paris in the 1960s, and represent most of the Paris Jewish community today. There are currently 83 synagogues in the city; The Marais-quarter Agoudas Hakehilos Synagogue, built in 1913 by architect Hector Guimard, is a Paris landmark.
Buddhism and Hinduism
The Pagode de Vincennes Buddhist temple, near Lake Daumesnil in the Bois de Vincennes, is the former Cameroon pavilion from the 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition. It hosts several different schools of Buddhism, and does not have a single leader. It shelters the biggest Buddha statue in Europe, more than nine metres (30 feet) high. There are two other small temples located in the Asian community in the 13th arrondissement. A Hindu temple, dedicated to Ganesh, on Rue Pajol in the 18th arrondissement, opened in 1985.
Paris's most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C. and the rugby union club Stade Français. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis. It is used for football, rugby union and track and field athletics. It hosts the French national football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, annually hosts the French national rugby team's home matches of the Six Nations Championship, and hosts several important matches of the Stade Français rugby team. In addition to Paris Saint-Germain FC, the city has a number of other professional and amateur football clubs: Paris FC, Red Star, RCF Paris and Stade Français Paris.
The city also hosted the finals of the 1938 FIFA World Cup (at the Stade Olympique de Colombes), as well as the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup Final (both at the Stade de France). Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have also been played in the Stade de France: the 2000 and 2006 editions. Paris has most recently been the host for UEFA Euro 2016 at the Parc des Princes.
Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre, is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour. The 17,000-seat Bercy Arena (officially named AccorHotels Arena and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy) is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports. The Bercy Arena also hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship, together with Cologne, Germany. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1999 were also played at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy.
Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. The Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF), formerly Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP), oversees the transit network in the region. The syndicate coordinates public transport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 347 bus lines, the Métro, eight tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF (operating suburban rails, one tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus lines.
A central hub of the national rail network, Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, Gare Montparnasse, Gare Saint-Lazare) and a minor one (Gare de Bercy) are connected to three networks: the TGV serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails (Transilien).
Métro, RER and tramway
Since the inauguration of its first line in 1900, Paris's Métro subway network has grown to become the city's most widely used local transport system; today it carries about 5.23 million passengers daily through 16 lines, 303 stations (385 stops) and 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails. Superimposed on this is a 'regional express network', the RER, whose five lines (A, B, C, D, and E), 257 stops and 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris to more distant parts of the urban area.
In addition, the Paris region is served by a light rail network of nine lines, the tramway: Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons to Porte de Versailles, line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes to Porte de la Chapelle, line T5 runs from Saint-Denis to Garges-Sarcelles, line T6 runs from Châtillon to Viroflay, line T7 runs from Villejuif to Athis-Mons, line T8 runs from Saint-Denis to Épinay-sur-Seine and Villetaneuse, all of which are operated by the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens, and line T4 runs from Bondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF. Five new light rail lines are currently in various stages of development.
Paris is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world. The city is served by three commercial international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Paris-Orly and Beauvais-Tillé. Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers in 2014. There is also one general aviation airport, Paris-Le Bourget, historically the oldest Parisian airport and closest to the city centre, which is now used only for private business flights and air shows.
Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris from the 1950s to the 1980s. Charles de Gaulle Airport, located on the edge of the northern suburbs of Paris, opened to commercial traffic in 1974 and became the busiest Parisian airport in 1993. Today it is the 4th busiest airport in the world by international traffic and is the hub for the nation's flag carrier Air France. Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris's city centre, is used by charter airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair.
In 2014 the main domestic and international destinations served by the three commercial airports of Paris were the following:
Domestically, air travel between Paris and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon, Marseille, or Strasbourg has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from the 1980s. For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014. After the LGV Est opened in 2007, air traffic between Paris and Strasbourg declined from 1,006,327 passengers in 2006 to 157,207 passengers in 2014.
Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris and the Gulf airports, the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China, whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the British Isles, Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.
The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways: the Périphérique, which follows the approximate path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inner suburbs, and finally the Francilienne motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris has an extensive road network with over 2,000 km (1,243 mi) of highways and motorways.
The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris. The Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt rivers can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq.
There are 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths and routes in Paris. These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb) and bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road). Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cyclists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles. Cyclists have also been given the right to ride in both directions on certain one-way streets. Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips.
Paris is provided in electricity through a 'periphery' grid fed by multiple sources.As of 2012[update], around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region; other energy sources include the Nogent nuclear power plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh). A quarter of Paris's district heating is to come from a plant in Saint-Ouen, burning a 50/50-mix of coal and 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from USA per year.
Water and sanitation
Paris in its early history had only the Seine and Bièvre rivers for water. From 1809, the Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital. From 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand, under Napoleon III, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation. From then on, the new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris's streets. This system is still a major part of Paris's modern water-supply network. Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated to the evacuation of Paris's liquid wastes.
In 1982, Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets. The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which dog owners can be fined up to €500 for not removing their dog faeces. The air pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate matter (PM10), is the highest in France with 38 µg/m³.
Parks and gardens
Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3,000 hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees. Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden, created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace, and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672, and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the French Senate. The Jardin des Plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants.
Between 1853 and 1870, the Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris and the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters. Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the Parc de la Villette (1987), Parc André Citroën (1992), and Parc de Bercy (1997). One of the newest parks, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013), built on a former highway on the Left Bank of the Seine between the Pont de l'Alma and the Musée d'Orsay, has floating gardens and gives a view of the city's landmarks.
In Paris's Roman era, its main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the Left Bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholicism, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, les Innocents, were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement. The process of moving bones from Cimetière des Innocents to the catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814; part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the catacombs.
After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits. Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and later Passy; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: The largest of these are the Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known as Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny), the Cimetière parisien d'Ivry, and the Cimetière parisien de Bagneux. Some of the most famous people in the world are buried in Parisian cemeteries.