ویلیام یک تابستان بهعنوان خبرنگار مبتدی برای نیویورک جورنال کار کرد ولی خود را شایستهٔ این کار مهیج نیافت و به شغل آرام تدریس زبانهای لاتینی و فرانسوی و انگلیسی و تدریس هندسه در ستنهال کالج در شهر ساوث اورینج واقع در نیوجرزی مشغول شد (۱۹۱۱–۱۹۰۷). در سال ۱۹۰۹ به مدرسهٔ دینی آنجا وارد شد ولی در سال ۱۹۱۱ به عللی که در کتاب انتقال شرح دادهاست از آنجا بیرون رفت. از این مدرسهٔ دینی به یک جهش، به حلقهٔ رادیکالترین طرفداران اصلاحات در نیویورک پیوست و در مدرسهٔ فرر مدرن مدیر و معلم و مگردید (۱۹۱۳–۱۹۱۱) و این آزمایشی بود در آموزش و پرورش مبتنی بر آزادی. در سال ۱۹۱۲، به خرج آلدن فریدمن، که با او دوست شده و توسعهٔ افق نظر او را به عهده گرفتهبود، اروپا را از کیلارنی ایرلند تا یالتا پیمود. در سال ۱۹۱۳ وارد دانشگاه کلمبیا شد و زیرنظر مورگن و کالکینس در زیستشناسی و زیر نظر وودبریج و دیوئی در فلسفه آموزش دید. در ۱۹۱۷ دکترایش را گرفت و یک سال به تدریس فلسفه در آن دانشگاه مشغول شد. در ۱۹۲۱ به مدرسهٔ لیبرتمپل سازمان داد و آن را به مرکز پیشرفتهٔ جوانان تبدیل کرد. با موفقیتِ کتاب تاریخ فلسفه، کار تدریس را رها کرد و در سال ۱۹۲۷ متقاعد شد تا تمام عمر خود را وقف نوشتن تاریخ تمدن کند.
آثار و فعالیتها[ویرایش]
مهمترین اثر او تاریخ تمدن، مجموعه کتابی ۱۱ جلدی است که با همکاری آریل دورانت، همسرش نوشتهاست. وی در این کتاب توانستهاست با استفاده از آثار مورخان دیگر (از هرودوت تا آرنولد توینبی)، که از ابتدای تاریخ مکتوب بشر تا کنون زیستهاند، مکتب نوینی از تاریخنگاری را به وجود آورَد.
برخلاف دیگر تاریخنگاران، که تنها تمرکزشان بر روی وقایع تاریخی و سیر تمدن بشری بود، وی در اثر خود به عوامل تمدنساز در طول تاریخ نیز توجه میکند. در این باره نقلقولی دارد که چنین است: «تمدن رودی است با دو ساحل»∗. این نقلقول بهطور ضمنی به این مسئله اشاره دارد که تاریخنگاران اغلب نهایت توجه و دقت خود را صرف رودخانهٔ در جریانِ تاریخ نمودهاند که معمولاً پرآشوب و پرهیاهوست و اجازهٔ برداشتها و تفاسیر صحیح را نمیدهد. در مقابل، او دیدگاه دیگری را مطرح میکند که در آن حواشی تاریخ و تمدن (ساحلها) میتوانند به اندازهٔ خودِ متن تاریخ مهم باشند. بهنظر او، همهٔ مردمانی که در طول تاریخ خانه و مجسمه ساختند و شعر سراییدهاند هم در شکلگیری تمدن نقش داشتند. ویل دورانت در کتاب درسهایی از تاریخ، که در سالهای آخر زندگی خود نوشت، میگوید که تاریخ ملتها را باید با توجه به پدیدههای علمی جدید نوشت.
ازجمله آثار شناختهشدهٔ وی در ایران میتوان به دو اثر دیگر، یعنی تاریخ فلسفه و لذات فلسفه، برگردان دکتر عباس زریاب خویی اشاره کرد. (کتاب تاریخ تمدن او در ایران در ۱۱ جلد از سوی انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی به چاپ رسیدهاست)
او با اینکه میخواست کشیش شود اما در دانشگاه بیشتر علوم، از زیستشناسی گرفته تا تعلیم و تربیت را تجربه کرد. اما بالاخره بعد از خواندن کتاب اخلاقِ اسپینوزا به سراغ فلسفه رفت، آن رشته را تا دکترا ادامه داد و استاد دانشگاه شد و کتابهای فلسفی زیادی تألیف کرد.
هنری توماس در کتاب بزرگان فلسفه یک فصل را به او اختصاص داده و نوشتهاست: «بزرگترین کار او در فلسفه این بود که افکار پیچیدهٔ فلسفی را به زبان ساده بیان کرد. او فلسفه را، که دور از دسترس مردم عادی بود، به خانههای آنها برد و آن را برای همه قابل فهم کرد.»
اما همهٔ اینها دورانت را راضی نکرد تا اینکه به قول خودش برای «ارضای حس کنجکاوی» سر از تاریخ درآورده و در زمان استادیِ دانشگاه کالیفرنیا کتاب تاریخ فلسفهاش را نوشت که فیلسوفان و منتقدان دانشگاه او و کتابش را تحسین کردند.
بعد از آن بود که دورانت تصمیم به نوشتن تاریخ تمدن جهان گرفت. همسرش آریل (که قبلاً یکی از شاگردانش بود) با همراهی کردنش در سفرها، به او در نوشتن این کتاب کمک کرد.
او برای نوشتن هر فصل از کتاب به گوشهای از دنیا سفر میکرد؛ از مصر و ایران تا سیبری و ژاپن. مقصد او برای نوشتن جلد اول کتاب تاریخ تمدن با عنوان «مشرقزمین، گهوارهٔ تمدن» بود. بعد چاپ جلد اول، سفرهای دور دنیایش شروع شد که ۵۰ سال ادامه یافت. در نهایت، در ۱۹۷۵، نوشتن تمامی ۳۰ جلد کتابش و همچنین سفرهایش به اتمام رسید ه است.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
William James "Will" Durant (//; November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher. He became best known for his work The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes written in collaboration with his wife, Ariel Durant, and published between 1935 and 1975. He was earlier noted for The Story of Philosophy (1926), described as "a groundbreaking work that helped to popularize philosophy".
He conceived of philosophy as total perspective or seeing things sub specie totius (a phrase inspired by Spinoza's sub specie aeternitatis, which roughly means "from the perspective of the eternal"). He sought to unify and humanize the great body of historical knowledge, which had grown voluminous and become fragmented into esoteric specialties, and to vitalize it for contemporary application.
In 1900, Durant was educated by the Jesuits in St. Peter's Preparatory School and, later, Saint Peter's College in Jersey City, New Jersey. Historian Joan Rubin writes of that period, "Despite some adolescent flirtations, he began preparing for the vocation that promised to realize his mother's fondest hopes for him: the priesthood. In that way, one might argue, he embarked on a course that, while distant from Yale's or Columbia's apprenticeships in gentility, offered equivalent cultural authority within his own milieu."
In 1905, he began experimenting with socialist philosophy, but, after World War I, he began recognizing that a "lust for power" underlay all forms of political behavior. However, even before the war, "other aspects of his sensibility had competed with his radical leanings," notes Rubin. She adds that "the most concrete of those was a persistent penchant for philosophy. With his energy invested in Baruch Spinoza, he made little room for the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. From then on, writes Rubin, "his retention of a model of selfhood predicated on discipline made him unsympathetic to anarchist injunctions to 'be yourself.'... To be one's 'deliberate self,' he explained, meant to 'rise above' the impulse to 'become the slaves of our passions' and instead to act with 'courageous devotion' to a moral cause."
Durant graduated in 1907. He worked as a reporter for Arthur Brisbane's New York Evening Journal for 10 dollars a week. At the Evening Journal, he wrote several articles on sexual criminals. In 1907, he began teaching Latin, French, English and geometry at Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey. He was also made librarian there.
In 1911, he left Seton Hall and became the principal of Ferrer Modern School, an advanced school intended to educate the working classes; he also taught there. Alden Freeman, a supporter of the Ferrer Modern School, sponsored him for a tour of Europe. At the Modern School, he fell in love with and married a 15-year-old pupil, Chaya (Ida) Kaufman, whom he later nicknamed "Ariel". The Durants had one daughter, Ethel, and a "foster" son, Louis, whose mother was Flora -- Ariel's sister.
By 1914, he began to reject "intimations of human evil", notes Rubin, and to "retreat from radical social change." She summarizes the changes in his overall philosophy:
In 1913, he resigned his post as teacher. To support themselves, he began lecturing in a Presbyterian church for $5 and $10; the material for the lectures became the starting point for The Story of Civilization.
In 1917, while working on a doctorate in philosophy at Columbia University, he wrote his first book, Philosophy and the Social Problem. He discussed the idea that philosophy had not grown because it avoided the actual problems of society. He received his doctorate that same year from Columbia. He was also an instructor at the university.
The Story of Philosophy
The Story of Philosophy originated as a series of Little Blue Books (educational pamphlets aimed at workers) and was so popular it was republished in 1926 by Simon & Schuster as a hardcover book and became a bestseller, giving the Durants the financial independence that would allow them to travel the world several times and spend four decades writing The Story of Civilization. Will left teaching and began work on the 11-volume Story of Civilization.
The Story of Civilization
The Durants strove throughout The Story of Civilization to create what they called "integral history." They opposed it to the "specialization" of history, an anticipatory rejection of what some have called the "cult of the expert." Their goal was to write a "biography" of a civilization, in this case, the West, including not just the usual wars, politics and biography of greatness and villainy but also the culture, art, philosophy, religion, and the rise of mass communication. Much of The Story considers the living conditions of everyday people throughout the 2500 year period that their "story" of the West covers. They also bring an unabashedly moral framework to their accounts, constantly stressing the "dominance of strong over the weak, the clever over the simple." The Story of Civilization is the most successful historiographical series in history. It has been said that the series "put Simon & Schuster on the map" as a publishing house. In the 1990s, an unabridged audiobook production of all 11 volumes was produced by Books On Tape read by Alexander Adams (Grover Gardner).
For Rousseau and Revolution (1967), the 10th volume of The Story of Civilization, the Durants were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for literature. In 1977, it was followed by one of the two highest awards granted by the United States government to civilians, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, awarded by Gerald Ford.
The first volume of The Story of Civilization series, called Our Oriental Heritage (1935), is divided into an introduction and three books. The introduction takes the reader through the different aspects of civilization (economical, political, moral and mental). Book One is dedicated to the civilizations of the Near East (Sumeria, Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Judea and Persia). Book two is "India and Her Neighbors." Book three moves deeper into the east, where the Chinese Civilization flourishes and Japan starts to find its place in the world's political map.
On April 8, 1944, Durant was approached by two leaders of the Jewish and Christian faiths, Meyer David and Christian Richard about starting "a movement, to raise moral standards." He suggested instead that they start a movement against racial intolerance and outlined his ideas for a "Declaration of Interdependence". The movement for the declaration, Declaration of INTERdependence, Inc., was launched at a gala dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on March 22, 1945, attended by over 400 people including Thomas Mann and Bette Davis. The Declaration was read into the Congressional Record on October 1, 1945, by Ellis E. Patterson.[a]
Throughout his career, Durant made several speeches, including "Persia in the History of Civilization", which was presented as an address before the Iran-America Society in Tehran, Iran, on April 21, 1948 and had been intended for inclusion in the Bulletin of the Asia Institute (formerly, Bulletin of the American Institute for Persian, then Iranian, Art and Archaeology), Vol. VII, no. 2, which never saw publication.
Rousseau and Revolution was followed by a slender volume of observations called The Lessons of History, which was both a synopsis of the series as well as analysis.
Though Ariel and Will had intended to carry the work on The Story of Civilisation into the 20th century, at their now very advanced age they expected the 10th volume to be their last. However, they went on to publish a final volume, their 11th, The Age of Napoleon in 1975. They also left behind notes for a 12th volume, The Age of Darwin, and an outline for a 13th, The Age of Einstein, which would have taken The Story of Civilization to 1945.
Three posthumous works by Durant have been published in recent years, The Greatest Minds and Ideas of All Time (2002), Heroes of History: A Brief History of Civilization from Ancient Times to the Dawn of the Modern Age (2001), and Fallen Leaves (2014).
The Durants also shared an intense love for one another as explained in their Dual Autobiography. After Will entered the hospital, Ariel stopped eating, and died on October 25, 1981. Though their daughter, Ethel, and grandchildren strove to keep Ariel's death from the ailing Will, he learned of it on the evening news, and died two weeks later, at the age of 96, on November 7, 1981. Will was buried beside Ariel in Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery, in Los Angeles.
Writing about Russia
In 1933, he published Tragedy of Russia: Impressions from a Brief Visit and soon afterward The Lesson of Russia. A few years after the books were published, social commentator Will Rogers had read them and described a symposium he had attended that included Durant as one of the contributors. He later wrote of Durant, "He is just about our best writer on Russia. He is the most fearless writer that has been there. He tells you just what it's like. He makes a mighty fine talk. One of the most interesting lecturers we have, and a fine fellow."
Writing about India
In 1930, he published The Case for India while he was on a visit to India as part of collecting data for The Story of Civilization. He was so taken aback by the devastating poverty and starvation he saw as result of British imperial policy in India that he took time off from his stated goal and instead concentrated on his polemic fiercely advocating Indian independence. He wrote about medieval India, "The Islamic conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precious good, whose delicate complex of order and freedom, culture and peace, can at any moment be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within."
Durant fought for equal wages, women's suffrage and fairer working conditions for the American labor force. Durant not only wrote on many topics but also put his ideas into effect. Durant, it has been said widely, attempted to bring philosophy to the common man.
He was trying to improve understanding of viewpoints of human beings and to have others forgive foibles and human waywardness. He chided the comfortable insularity of what is now known as Eurocentrism by pointing out in Our Oriental Heritage that Europe was only "a jagged promontory of Asia". He complained of "the provincialism of our traditional histories which began with Greece and summed up Asia in a line" and said they showed "a possibly fatal error of perspective and intelligence".
On decline and rebuilding of civilizations
Much like Oswald Spengler, he saw the decline of a civilization as a culmination of strife between religion and secular intellectualism, thus toppling the precarious institutions of convention and morality:
More than twenty years after his death, a quote from Durant, "A great civilization is not conquered from without until it has destroyed itself within" appeared as the opening graphic of Mel Gibson's 2006 film Apocalypto. Durant also served as the history consultant for Anthony Mann's 1964 film The Fall of the Roman Empire. The narration at the beginning and the end of the film is taken almost directly from Durant's work Caesar and Christ.
On religion and evolution
In an article in 1927, he wrote his thoughts about reconciling religion and Darwinism:
On history and Bible
In Our Oriental Heritage, Durant wrote:
See a full bibliography at Will Durant Online